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A Comparative Timeline

Timeline created by Vicky and Jing in History
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Battle of new orleans small square The War of 1812 Ends with the Treaty of Ghent (Eastern Canada) Neither the British Empire nor the United States lost any territory, for everything was returned to how it was before the war began. The treaty was significant because it proved that decisions between Canada and America could be made via peaceful agreement. Disputes could be handled with negotiations instead of involving warfare. The war also distilled patriotism into the people of Upper Canada. UC emerged victorious, as unifed as ever. As a result, the U.S. came to be seen as an enemy.
Pp4p1 small square Formation of the Family Compact (Eastern Canada) A group of elite, upper-class officials came into power in Upper Canada after the War of 1812 came to an end. They called themselves the Family Compact, and they were in charge of all the political, religious, and business-related affairs of the colony. Many colonists were very unhappy with the Family Compact and its unjust, undemocratic policies. Their grievances eventually materialized into a major rebellion, one that ultimately led to the installation of responsible government in Canada.
Photo k20f small square The Battle of Seven Oaks Breaks Out (The Prairies) A violent clash takes place between the HBC and the HWC in the Red River Colony. Subsequently, more settlers came to the RR Colony, expanding the area into what would become Winnipeg, Manitoba. Moreover, the battle marked the birth of the Métis Nation. The people began to view themselves as separate from both the French and the other Natives.
Rush bagot terrace small square The U.S. Senate Ratifies the Rush-Bagot Treaty (Eastern Canada) Naval armaments in the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain were limited. The treaty was important because it laid the basis for a demilitarized boundary between the United States and British North America. It also resolved the conflict between the two jurisdictions as to who owned the Oregon Territory - America and Britain agreed to joint control over the area.
Img 5736 small square Anglo-American Convention of 1818 is Signed (British Columbia) The 49th parallel is established as the boundary between the US and BNA, resolving long-standing border issues between the two populations. What's more, the treaty allowed for joint settlement in the Columbia District (which extends into BC), and is remembered as the start of improved relations between the British Empire and its former colonies. The provisions of the document paved the way for more positive relations between the US and Canada, too. The US were becoming more of an ally.
57728f605346aaac6da60227b9f208b5 1m.png small square The Hudson’s Bay Company and the Northwest Company Become One (The Prairies) The 1816 Battle of Seven Oaks eventually led to the merging of the two huge fur trade companies; the new HBC went on to control nearly all trade operations in the Pacific Northwest – including all of Rupert’s Land and the land west of the Rocky Mountains. The merger was important because it resolved the conflict over the Red River Settlement in the prairie area. Moreover, the unison set the pattern for the HBC’s continued growth. The HBC is still a prominent commercial cooperation today.
Old welland canal lock 2 small square Construction of the First Welland Canal Begins in Allanburg, Ontario (Eastern Canada) After its completion in 1829, the canal became a very important waterway in Eastern Canada. It had the ability to move ships full of cargo up and down the Niagara Escarpment, which was a major obstacle between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario; this contributed greatly to the economic growth and development of both Canada and the United States. The canal also provided a consistent source of water for the area’s local mills, benefiting the agricultural markets.
Fort vancouver looking out of gate 2004 small square Fort Vancouver Established (British Columbia) (Date is approximated). The newly created outpost served as the HBC’s headquarters in its Columbia District. By 1830, the fort became the most important community on the Pacific Coast. Business was robust, especially in the agricultural sector. Fort Vancouver played a central role in the history of Northwestern agriculture as the site of the first large-scale farming and ranching operations.
4081532 lower fort garry manitoba ca 2008 lower fort garry small square Lower Fort Garry Construction Begins (The Prairies) After the 1826 flood destroyed almost all of the Selkirk settlement, Lower Fort Garry was built by the HBC. Meant to be the administrative centre for Rupert’s Land, the fort is presently the oldest intact stone fur trading post in North America. Over the years, the fort was the site of the signing of the numerous treaties and it later served as a penitentiary and insane asylum. The North-West Mounted Police were trained there as well.
A025486 small square Joseph Howe Libel Trial (Eastern Canada - Maritimes) Impatient with the slow pace of reform in his province, J. Howe took it to his newspaper, the Novascotian, to criticize politicians/public policies. However, Howe’s actions so displeased the government that he was sent to jail and charged with seditious libel. At his trial, the man gave such an impassioned defence of free press that he was finally acquitted by the jury. His acquittal was a landmark event in the slow evolution of press freedom in Canada, one of the many rights we enjoy today!
Coal mining 3518 small square First Coal Mine in the West (British Columbia) (No exact month/date given). The first coal mine in Western Canada was opened on Vancouver Island, bringing intensive economic development to the area. The coal helped supply fuel for coastal steamboats, etc. By the 1900s, Vancouver Island coal mines were known for their high-quality coal. Many people came to work in the mines, despite the dangerous working conditions. Coal is still an important industry in BC today.
Magexcrailwaykelly small square The Champlain and Saint Lawrence Railroad Debuts (Eastern Canada) Cheers filled the air as Canada’s first public railway opens to the public, connecting La Prairie to St. Jean in Quebec. “And thus began our nation’s longstanding love affair with ribbons of steel,” says one editor (Nelle Oosterom from Canada’s History). The Champlain and Saint Lawrence Railroad is significant because it began the creation of the CPR, which would eventually reach from sea to sea and open up vast regions to settlement.
Montgomerys tavern small square The Upper Canada Rebellions Begin (Eastern Canada) Led by W.L. Mackenzie, reformers in UC decide to rebel against the corrupt government. Their plan was to take the governor prisoner and set up a whole new system. Unfortunately, the rebels were completed defeated and many were punished severely for their traitorous acts. The rebellions are noteworthy because they led to Lord Durham’s arrival in the Canadas. Durham created the Durham Report, an important document recommending that UC/LC be joined together and given responsible government.
Bna map adj small square The Act of Union is Enacted (Eastern Canada) Upper/ Lower Canada are united into the Province of Canada. Montreal served as the capital of the new colony, and all government documents were written in English. This was a significant event because the political makeup of the Canadas was altered considerably as a result of the enactment. Many French people were incredibly upset by the new union. They knew that the English wanted to assimilate them into British culture. Unfortunately, the Act only created an even bigger ethnic division.
1846 boundarytreaty small square The Oregon Treaty is Signed (British Columbia) Finally, the 49th parallel is established all the way to the Pacific Ocean, giving the land that would become BC to the British Empire. The treaty resolved the Oregon boundary dispute, which had coined American beliefs like Manifest Destiny. (MD was one of the reasons why Canadians considered Confederation in order to protect themselves against their neighbour). Furthermore, the Oregon Treaty assured Canadians that they could peacefully settle into the western territories.
93 small square The British House of Lords Repeals the Corn Laws (Eastern Canada) Before, Canadian grain could go into Britain with lower tariffs than grain from other countries, but now, British colonies no longer received preferential treatment. The end of the Corn Laws drove Canada into an economic depression. The colonies were now considering a federal union as a way to mend their economies, something unachievable w/o responsible gov. The Repeal is worth remembering because if it never happened, Canada could have stayed dependent on Britain for much, much longer.
Otd.98.04.25.a.lg small square Lord Elgin Signs the Rebellion Losses Bill (Eastern Canada) The Rebellion Losses Bill was an extremely unpopular bill proposed by the Legislative Assembly which promised compensation to citizens who suffered property damage during the Rebellions of 1837. These ‘victims of property damage’ could have very well been traitors! Despite being against the bill himself, Lord Elgin signed it in order to uphold the values of responsible government. Responsible government had passed its first test, and the colonies were now on their way to Confederation.
Elt200902111231383126004 small square Sayer Trial (The Prairies) The Metis were forbidden to trade independently in the Red River Valley due to the HBC’s trade monopoly over the settlement. Pierre Guillaume Sayer was brought to trial after he and three other Metis were charged with illegal trafficking in furs. The man was finally freed without penalty, with over 300 armed Metis cheering around the courthouse. Sayer’s acquittal signalled the end of HBC’s monopoly in North America; free trade became a fact of life in the RR Valley.
Con035206 123471310 small square The Queen Chooses Ottawa as Canada’s Capital (Eastern Canada) The united colony of Canada needed an administrative centre, and Queen Victoria chose Ottawa for a number of reasons. Not only did the city allow for easy transportation, it was midway between Toronto and Quebec City and safer from possible mob attacks. The Queen’s decision brought much political and economic progress to Ottawa. Significance: Today, the city still serves as the capital of Canada!
Gold rushes0 small square The Fraser River Gold Rush Begins (British Columbia) 30,000+ gold seekers flood the banks of the Fraser River in hopes of securing some of the valuable mineral. As 1000’s of foreigner prospectors entered the area, many natives were unhappy that their former fur trade territory was being settled on so freely. Hostility brewed between the two peoples. However, thanks to the massive influx of new colonists, Britain had to establish the colony of BC (then known as New Caledonia); our province owes its existence to the gold rush!
3391153796 45c5dbae44 z small square Cayley-Galt Tariff Enforced (Eastern Canada) (Date is approximated). The Cayley-Galt Tariff was the first protective tariff in Canadian history. Alexander Galt was the main architect of the proposal. The Bill put a tariff on all incoming goods in Canada – including those from the mother country, Great Britain! Obviously, GB was not impressed. However, Galt persisted over the protests of GB. The CGT represented a test of the concept of responsible government (control over the colony's internal affairs as recommended by Durham).
Plaq0856 small square First Edition of the Nor’Wester Newspaper Published (The Prairies) The Nor’Wester was the first newspaper in western Canada, created by William Coldwell and William Buckingham in the Red River Colony. Attacks on the policies/actions of the Council of Assiniboia were regular features of the paper’s editorials. The paper brought anti-Metis sentiments to the RRC and forced the Metis, to some extent, to start the Red River Resistance. Although columns incited much debate from readers, the Nor’Wester helped pave the way for Manitoba’s eventual union with Canada.
12 small square Cariboo Wagon Road (British Columbia) The construction of the Cariboo Wagon Road was very essential to the development of British Columbia. The government hoped to collect taxes after the construction of the road, to pay the costs of the building. However, the Cariboo Gold Rush came to an end when the building process did as well. This led to the huge debts of BC, and eventually led to the union of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, due to the loss in population, and the great debts the two colonies were both in.
4 small square Beginning of the Cariboo Gold Rush (British Columbia) The Cariboo Gold Rush was one of the very significant events in BC. The gold rush spurred the development of roads and services, and the economy of British Columbia was very satisfying, despite the fact that the government spent millions of dollars building roads for the people coming for the gold rush. This created not only a large increase of population in British Columbia, but also created a huge increase of wealth in BC.
8 small square Great Coalition Formed (Eastern Canada) The Great Coalition was the union of Brown, Macdonald, and Cartier. It was important because it overcame legislative deadlock, and was the first significant step toward Confederation. The Great Coalition created a united government, and the three leaders attended meetings and conferences such as the Charlottetown Conference, persuading colonies to join Confederation. Three years later, the new Dominion of Canada was proclaimed.
1 small square Charlottetown Conference (Eastern Canada) Members of the combined legislature requested for permission to attend the meeting to raise the larger subject of British North America union. This was the first conference of the many that followed. It was greatly significant since it affected the development of Confederation in the Maritimes, and a constitution for a federal union was drafted, resulting in the British North America Act later in Quebec.
7 small square U.S. ends Reciprocity The end of Reciprocity between the U.S. and what is know known as Canada resulted as a consequence for the British supporting the South while they was at war with the United States. This was an important event in Canadian history because Canada had to look for new trading partners, and more protection from the U.S., therefore, many colonies of British North America decided to pursue Confederation.
13 small square London Conference (Eastern Canada) The London Conference was extremely important to the development of Canada. The conference was for drafting the British North America Act, which was significant since the BNA Act serves as the basis for the country's constitution, and created the self-governing dominion of Canada. The BNA Act that the London Conference drafted out soon became the solution to political inertia, financial difficulties, and the expected loss of American markets.
2 small square The British North America Act was passed (Eastern Canada) The BNA led to the Dominion of Canada. It was a base document for the Canadian constitution, so it was renamed as the Constitution Acts in 1982. The BNA Act established a British style parliament, with a H.O.C. and Senate. It also set out the division of powers between the federal and provincial governments. The significance of this Act was, that it served as the basis for our country’s constitution, and it helped unite Canada.
2 small square Canada purchased Rupert's Land (Prairies) The selling of Rupert's Land of the HBC to Canada was important since it created a variety of other events which followed. The Red River Rebellion, the Northwest Rebellion, and the establishment of Manitoba. The Metis who were living their felt that they had to fight and protect their culture. Under the lead of Louis Riel, a sequence of events occured that secured the First Nations People's rights and identities.
1 small square End of the Red River Rebellion (Prairies) The Red River Rebellion was caused by the Metis who were discontent of Canada invading their territory, Rupert's Land. However, they did manage to established their goal of having a say in the government after the land became known as Manitoba, and joined confederation. They were able to preserve their culture and traditions. The ending of the rebellion not only created a new province which joined Canada, but also protected the rights of the First Nations People.
6 small square Treaty of Washington (British Columbia) This treaty was between the United States and Great Britain to settle their Alaba claims. It disputed access to Canadian fisheries, and the ownership of the San Juan Island of British Columbia. The main result of the treaty was that it peacefully sloved the difficulty between the two great nations, and it removed the risk of war that Britain knew they could not win. By the end of 1871, all the British forces left Canada, and it started an era of peace for the Canadians.
Bc flag small square British Columbia joins Confederation (British Columbia) The joining of British Columbia gave the fledgling nation access to the vast Pacific Ocean, and even vaster trade advantages. It allowed goods to be sold at different places all over Canada because of the promise of an intercontinental railway. The people living near the boarder of the U.S. were protected from attacks. The CPR was built as the intercontinental railway, and it solved the economic depression caused by the end of the gold rush.
11 small square Dominion Lands Act (The Prairies) The Dominion Land Act of 1872 mainly had a purpose of encouraging settlement in Western Canada, mostly the Prairies. It intended to use Western natural resources and lands to promote Western settlement and railway construction. As a result, there were large amounts of immigrations to the prairies; settlers were to perform specified settlement duties, including building a habitable residence and cultivating a certain area annually. The lands were effectively used for railways and settlements.
3 small square Birth of Nellie McClung (born in Eastern Canada, died in British Columbia) Nellie McClung was a significant leading figure of Canada. She was a suffragist, a lecturer, and a social reformer. Under the lead of Nellie McClung, women started to gain their rights, including the right to vote, the right to become a member of the Senate of Canada, or even participate and have a say in the government. Women enjoy the privileges and rights they do today thanks to her. We owe a great deal to Nellie McClung, who was a passionate and brave woman, to challenge Canadian history.
14 small square Treaty no. 7 (The Prairies) This treaty between the First Nations and the Crown was significant because it established a reserve for the tribes, and preserved the First Nations' hunting and fishing rights. However, the First Nations were to give up parts of their land for the constructions of the transcontinental railway. This treaty was important, because without the negotiations between the Crown and the Blackfoot First Nations, the railway may not be successful at all.
Ballot box small square Secret ballot employed The new electoral law was important to the development of Canada's government system because it made the country a lot more democratic, meaning citizens were able to vote privately without the influence of others, and intimidation was eliminated at the polling stations. People would vote for who they want as their representative to run the country. Not who they received a bribe from. Even till today, the secret ballot is remains as the voting system that Canada uses at elections.
3 small square Macdonald defeated Mackenzie (Eastern Canada) Under the lead of Mackenzie, Canada went through a lot of economic woes. His railways didn’t go anywhere, nobody serviced in between, and linkages were even established with existing railways in the U.S. Canadians had had enough of restraint and turned to Macdonald, who promised to introduce National Policy. It called for high tariffs on imported manufactured items to protect the manufacturing industry. It broadened the base of the Canadian economy, and restored the confidence of Canadians.
9 small square National Policy Takes Effect (Eastern Canada) The National Policy was a Canadian economic program introduced by John A. Macdonald. It called for high tariffs on imported manufactured items to protect the manufacturing industry. It intended to broaden the base of the Canadian economy and restore the confidence of Canadians. Interprovincial trading would benefit Canada’s economy and readjustment of the tariff can lead to an increase in the amounts of industries to produce goods. The nation became more secure and less reliant on the U.S.
15 small square George Brown shot by a disgruntled employee (Eastern Canada) George Brown's death was important to Canada, especially since the contributions he made were great. He recognized the CLear Grit Party in 1957. He was extremely important because he proposed the Great Coalition, and he played a major role at the Charlottetown and Quebec Conferences. These events were all significant, because they eventually led to the Confederation, and this man was remembered for his contributions to Canada after his disappointing death.
17 small square Louis Riel and the Metis battle the NWMP at Duck Lake (The Prairies) This event marked the beginning of the Northwest Rebellion. The rebellion was really important to the development of Metis and First Nations people's rights, and of Canada. This resulted in the destruction of numerous Metis and Aboriginal forces, and Riel was hanged. This also led to tensions between French and English Canadians. The CPR used to transport troops increased the political support, and the legislature authorized funds to complete the nation's first transcontinental railway.
5 small square Last Spike driven for CPR (British Columbia) The railways were instrumental in the settlement and development of western Canada. It was able to move huge amounts of freight with fewer diesels than trucks, and transport military equipments for national defense. It also moved coal, food, building supplies, etc. The CPR also provided jobs for people, and it traversed the previously impassable Canadian Rockies. The main significance of the completion of the railroad was the convenience in tranporting goods from the east of Canada to the West.
7 small square Louis Riel hanged (Prairies) Throughout Canadian history, Louis Riel was considered as a hero, and as a traitor. He was the leader who spoke the voices of the Metis people, and helped the First Nations People set up a list of rights in order for them to enter Canadian Confederation. He tried his best to establish the most rights for the Metis, and was greatly responsible for the entrance of Manitoba. However, this saviour of the First Nations people was hanged, and accused of treason.
4 small square First Workmen's Compensation Act was passed in Ontario (Eastern Canada) It provided wage replacement and medical benefits to employees injured in the course of employment. The employee has a right to sue his or her employer for the tort of negligence. This helped protect the massive amounts of workers and employees of Canada. The Act also led to the development of life insurances. When the workers died during employment, compensation for economic loss was allowed, and payment of medical services became legal as well.
19 small square John Robson becomes premier of British Columbia (British Columbia) Robson was important to the development of Canada due to his numerous significant contributions. He disliked the tariff policy, which resulted in the entire commerce of BC to pass through Victoria. He demanded for improved navigation on the lower Fraser River, construction of roads, removal of tonnage duties on goods taken upriver, and designation of New Westminister as a terminus of ocean transportation. He also supported the immigrations to BC by improving transportation.
18 small square Manitoba Schools Act (Eastern Canada) The Act passed in 1890 cut off money for Roman Catholic Schools in Manitoba, and made English the only language of instruction. This event was significant because it caused conflict between French and English-speaking Manitobians. However, Laurier compromised, and Manitoba would not have to support Catholic seperate schools. Also, a French-speaking teacher was promised if ten or more students spoke French. Even until today, French instruction is still mandatory in primary schools.
20 small square John Sparrow David Thompson becomes PM (Eastern Canada) John Sparrow David's main contribution was the Canadian Criminal Code of 1892. This Criminal Code was a major event in Canadian legal history. It copied much of the English 1878 bill, such as the elimination of the death penalty and of abortion offenses, and the creation of drunk-driving offences. This code was also important, because a person could not be convicted for an offence, unless it has been specifically provided for in a statute. This created more fairness and justice in Canada.
21 small square The National Council of Women meets for the first time The women who joined this organization looked beyond the charitable societies and saw the need for social reform. The women wanted better education and women's suffrage. The creation of this Council served as an united voice for women. This organization mainly worked on improving the status and rights of women. This was important to the development of Canada, because many of the privileges women enjoy today would not exist if it wasn't for organizations like these and strong, brave individuals.
22 small square Gold Is Discovered In The Klondike (Eastern Canada) Just like the Cariboo Gold Rush, The Klondike Gold Rush brought a wealthy amount of people to Canada. Some of them settled there, and the gold rush produced millions of dollars. Due to the decrease in economy in the United States, many who were unemployed came looking for gold. A lot men from other countries came as well. Many were professionals, such as teachers, and doctors, bringing knowledge to Canada. The Gold Rush significantly contributed to the economic development of Canada and Alaska.
24 small square Treaty No. 8 (The Prairies and British Columbia) The negotiations between the First Nations and the Canadian government finally recognized that the "aboriginal title" of Indians and Metis are co-existent. This not only affected the First Nations in the 19th century, but it's still in affect in Canada today. The treaty provides the basis for continuing relations between Natives of the Athabasca and the rest of Canada.
Silver leaf mine   cobalt  ont small square Silver is discovered in Cobalt, Ontario The Cobalt Silver Rush left an incredible mark in Canadian history. The mine was the largest in the world known by everyone in North America who read a newspaper. This was significant because it led to further exploration, mining, and settlement in northern Ontario and Quebec. Although it benefited Canada’s economy, it created a lot of mine waste. Little of this was ever recovered, and most of it still remains today, affecting the environment and human health of people in Ontario and Quebec.
Maison ukraine small square Alberta and Saskatchewan join Canada (The Prairies) The joining of Alberta and Saskatchewan created a Canada that stretched “from Sea to Sea”. The reason for this was the fear of American expansion and annexation, and more independence from the United Kingdom. They also became an independent province, apart from the Northwest Territories. This benefited Canada and the two provinces, because they were able to further their economic ability, gain money, and access to the transcontinental railway.
Tumblr lmvs7iuk7x1qztf57o1 1280 small square Anti-Asian riot attacks Vancouver's Chinatown (British Columbia) A serious riot against Asian businesses exploded in downtown Vancouver. Around 9000 unemployed Whites felt that Asians were taking jobs away from them, so they decided to smash the windows and destroy the signs on Oriental businesses. Finally, $26000 was given to Chinese businesses in compensation.
The riot was significant because it showed that racism was still prevalent in the new century; progress was needed to fix the cultural division that would otherwise prevent societal progress.
23 small square Tobacco Sales to Young Persons Act was passed (Eastern Canada) The Tobacco Sales to Young Persons Act was an important event regarding the health of Canadians . The Act made it illegal to sell tobacco products to anyone under the age of 18. This was because tobacco was finally recognized as a health hazard. It removed tobacco vending machines; prohibited passengers to smoke on aircrafts, ships, and trains. It also required cigarette packages to carry health warnings. This act reduced the number of under-age smokers, and warned them about the health hazards.
A029755 small square Laurier Creates the Naval Service Bill (Eastern Canada) Laurier’s Naval Service Bill provided Canada with a separate naval force. Maritime dependence on the British Royal Navy was no longer necessary. Both French-Canadian nationalists and British-Canadian imperialists opposed the bill. The French thought that war was on the horizon, while the British thought Canada wasn’t being loyal enough to the mother country. This contributed to the fall of Laurier’s government, among other factors.
Construction chemin de fer small square The National Transcontinental Railway is completed (Eastern Canada) The third transcontinental railway in Canada, the NTR’s importance lied in the fact that it provided Western Canada with direct rail connection to Canadian Atlantic ports, and in that it opened up and developed the northern frontiers of Ontario and Quebec. The construction process also contributed to the downfall of Laurier’s Liberals in 1911, since the cost of building the railway was becoming an issue of public protest.
Timespan Dates: Timespan Title: Timespan Description:

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1814 - 1819

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1820 - 1829

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1830 - 1839

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1840 - 1849

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1850 - 1859

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1860 - 1869

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1870 - 1879

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1880 - 1889

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1890 - 1899

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1900 - 1909

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1910 - 1914