Weh 2009 2 2

Modern Europe: 1800-1900

Timeline created by scruffles in History
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Logo bank of england The Bank of England The Bank of England was established on July 27, 1694.
Spinningshuttlekay The Invention of the Flying Shuttle One of the key industries transformed by the Industrial Revolution was the textile industry, Raw wool would first be spun into thread, and then handloom weavers woulf weave the thread into cloth. James Kay invented the flying shuttle in 1733 and greatly increased the capacity of handloom weavers to produce cloth. Although it put pressure on the spinners who made thread from raw wool or cotton.
Images England's "First" Industrial Revolution England's "first" Industrial Revolution began in the 1750's & progressed rapidly during the French Revolution & the Napoleonic Wars. This transformed Great Britain into the "workshop of the world."
Choosingtheweddingmulready The Marriage Act The Marriage Act of 1753 was passed in an attempt to end irregular unions by making legal marriages easier. Still, it was quite common in rural areas for couples to evade formal weddings. For people who chose not to get married, elopement was fairly common. Although living together was considered bigamous, colonies like South Africa and Australia didn't enforce England's marriage laws.
Spining jenny The Invention of the Spinning Jenny The spinning jenny was invented in 1764 by James Hargreaves and the introduction of water power to factories and spinning mills.
Modern power loom marsden The Invention of the Power Loom In 1779, Samuel Compton invented the power loom. The productivity of the spinning mills was increased with the application of steam power in place of water. Although, these innovations created pressure on the weaving process. The mechanization of spinning introduced factory labour and increased employment for handloom weavers working under the old domestic system.
Cotton plant Cotton from the United States By the 1790's, cotton mainly came from slave plantations in the United States, where, before, it came from India and Egypt.
Malthus0 Thomas Malthus' "Essay on Population" Thomas Malthus (1766-1834) studied the growth of population and increases in poverty in rural England. In his "Essay on Population", he concluded that population grows quicker than food supply. Even if the living conditions improved, the poor would just have more children & breed themselves into poverty.
0199110069.01. sclzzzzzzz Lyrical Ballads by William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge William Wordsworth & Samuel Taylor Coleridge's anthology, Lyrical Ballads, is considered to the definitive collection of romantic poetry.
2007twopoundgoldproofabolitionoftheslavetraderev400 British Abolish the Slave Trade Wars, gave the abolitionists new practial & moral arguments, which led Britain to abolish the slave trade in 1807.
Goya francisco may 3 1808 1814 Francisco de Goya's The Third of May Goya's most powerful indictment is his painting, The Third of May. It depicts a firing squad executing a group of Spanish citizens in retaliation for a shooting incident. This painting has become an icon of the horor & brutality of war.
450px chopin 2c by wodzinska Frederic Chopin was born.
African american slaves unloading rice barges in south carolina 1800 Slaves From 1811 until the end of the slave trade (1870), almost 2 million Africans were brought to the Americas as slaves.
Const2 The Spanish Constitution of 1812 This was proclaimed during Napoleon's invasion & included the radical principle of univeral male sufferage, but the Bourbon restoration abolished this democratic measure.
82498441 The First Treaty of Paris Concluded The terms of the First Treaty of Paris, finished in May 1814, realistically recognized France's continued status as one of the great powers.
30011286 p copy Allied Powers reconvened in Vienna as the Congress of Vienna As host, the Austrian emperor had to provide accommodation, banquets, & entertainment for 14 000 visitors. The real work of the Congress of Vienna was done by the private meetings of representatives of the principle powers (Austria, Russia, Prussia, Great Britain, France).
Waterloo5 Napoleon's Defeat at Waterloo Napoleon's defeat at Waterloo took place in 1815. By this time, early industrial initiatives in textile, coal mining, and iron production began in northern France and what is now Belgium. These initiatives copied British techniques and inventions.
British flag 640 Revolutionary Changes Began In Britsh Society These changes then spread to the Continent. As monarchs gathered to determine the shape of Europe after Napoleon, the ascendant forces appeared to be those of reaction. The old social order of the landed nobility & its dependent peasantry still dominated the social landscape of Europe.
Nationalism 20100901083816 The First Stirrings of Nationalism After the 1815 settlement brought on by the Congress of Vienna created conditions for a fusion of the more limited demands of liberalism with the start of nationalism.
O david ricardo David Ricardo's "The Principles of Political Economy" In "The Principles of Political Economy", David Ricardo linked Adam Smith's ideas about the free pursuit of individual self-interest with Malthus's theory of population. He concluded that population growth & diminishing levels of profit created an ironclad law limiting the level of wages. So, there wasn't much that could be done to raise living standards.
Metternich cropped.jpg Metternich and the Carlsbad Decrees Metternich, the Austrian foreign secretary, persuaded the leading German states to issues the Carlsbad Decrees. This curtailed political meetings, censored the press & universities, & further limited the powers of legislative assemblies. This intervention was a setback for the development of liberalism in German states because it spread polive surveillance as established in Austria & strengthened the aristocratic authority of the Prussian state.
1151670 Political Disruptions during the English Depression On this date, 60 000 gathered at St. Peter's Field, near Manchester, to hear Orator Hunt, when member of a local mounted militia charged into the crowd, killing 11 & wounding over 400. To mock Wellington's victory at Waterloo, the radicals named this episode the Peterloo Massacre. It became a symbol of the government's tyranny over popular rights.
Jsmill John Stuart Mill Began His Campaign Against Wife Beating During the 1820's John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) began his campaign against wife beating & the failure of the courts to take appropriate action.
41270178 091a95a458 The Troppau Protocol was Signed In view of the Spanish & Italian uprising, Austria, Prussia, & Russia signed the Tropau Protocol, agreeing to intervene against any sign of revolutionary upheaval.
Web 15 Restoration of the constitution of 1812 In 1820 some of the middle class, led by army officers, overthrew the monarchy & restored the constitution of 1812.
France flag France Restored the Monarchy In 1823, France, with its allies, used 100 000 troops to restore the monarchy & absolutism.
Louis xviii The Death of Louis XVIII After his death, Charles X, his brother, came to the throne. He favoured his aristocratic friends &, eventually, his extreme measures alienated influential members of the bourgeoisie who had originally supported him.
Navarino Defeating the Turks European powers joined the Turk's naval forces & defeated the Turks at the Greek port of Navarino in 1827.
France flag The Industrial Revolution In France In the 1830's, the industrial revolution began to have a noticeable influence on France.
Krup industrial revolution "industrial revolution" The term "industrial revolution" began in England in the 1830's to express how much society had changed.
Middleton colliery georgewalker Britain's Introduction of Steam Locomotion In the 1830's Britain was introduced to the Steam Locomotive. Before this there was a boom in the continental Industrial Revolution with the construction of railroads.
Childlabor Child Labour In the early 1830's, at the height of the abolitionist movement against West Indian slavery, industrial reformer and moralist Richard Oastler led an effective capaign against "Yorkshire slavrey." He argued that child labour in woollen textile mills was just as bad as to the chattle slavery of Africans on the plantations in the Americas.
Greek flag Greek Independece The Greek's independece from the Ottoman Turks was recognized in 1830.
France flag Revolutionary Crises in France Political struggles and a growing population created tension, which led to a revolutionary crises in France.
Charlesx A Popular Uprising in France Students, workers, & liberal politicians called for a popular uprising. On the streets of Paris, revolutionary barricades 15m tall appeared. The troops proved ineffective during the 3 days of riots & demonstrations. Charles X fled the country.
Images 3 William Knibb Misionary minister William Knibb tried to warn the African slaves: "I learn that some wicked persons have persuaded you that the king has made you free. Hear me, O love your souls-I would not tell you a lie for the world. What you have been told is false-false as Hell can make it. I entreat you not to believe it, but to go to your work is usual."
Bentham Jeremy Bentham Died He was an influential philosopher who believed that all human responses were pleasurable or painful. He thought the the impact of legislation could be calculated by a formula, the "principle of utility." It states that laws should be designed to create "the greatest happiness of the greatest number." If conflicts arose, the government could create an artificial measure of societal utility. After his death influence created itself through his followers. Who helped in the new social legislation.
Inside cottom mill 1833 The Factory Act The Factory Act of 1833 legislated that workers were entitled to certain holidays throughout the year. Employers were reluctant to comply.
Inspectr The Factory Act of 1833 This law prohibited the employment of children under 9 & placed limits on the working hours of those between 9 & 18. It was effective because it adopted the Benthamite principle of a central authority with an inspectorate.
800px flag of germany  state  svg The Zollverein Was Formed By German States Political division, especially in Germany, hindered trade. The Zollverein, a customs union led by Prussia and formed by numerous German states in 1834, facilitated the flow of goods, which opened up the Rhine River as a major transporation artery. Although, transporation over land remained difficult.
Body poster The New Poor Law Amendment Act of 1834 The main idea was to make the conditions of relief "less eligible" than the lowest-paid & least-attractive jobs on the market, in an effort to push the rural poor into the free-market factory system. This new law also introduced the idea of a central board overseeing local administration. It was unsuited to industrial areas subject to mass unemployment. So there were protests against the new law. Although, the it remained the basic provision of social welfare until 1909.
Louisphilippe1 The Turning Point of the July Monarchy The aftermath of a failed attempt to assassinate Louis Philippe. Fearing a widespread conspiracy, the government passed the September Laws, restricting radical political organizations & censored the press. The radicals looked to revolution as the means out of this political impasse.
Slavery 1 Slavery Brought to an End! Slavery was completely abolished in the British Empire on this date.
Proudhon d Pierre-Joseph Proudhon's Pamphlet on Socialist Ideas This Pamphlet asked the question, what is property? His answer was, "All property is theft." He thought society should get rid of private property & create conditions of social equality, Having removed the source of opression, the state was no longer needed.
Coal The Mines Act of 1842 In mining communities, children were stunted in growth & reached puberty at an older age. Women, who hauled coal wagons to the surface even while pregnant, suffered miscarriages & internal injuries. This law prohibited the employment of women, & children under 10, in underground mines.
400000000000000110663 s4 Friedrich Engels Wrote "The Condition of the Working Class in England" Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) was one of the fathers if communism. He was sent to live in Manchester by his father, a German textile manufacturer. It was there where Engels wrote his classic, The Condition of the Working Class in England. Engels had a vision of the new industrial future and had a profound influence on Karl Marx (1818-1883) and other socialist thinkers.
Tmp3a94.tmp tcm20 136404 Parliamentary Report on the Housing Condition in Leeds James Smith (1779-1849) wrote a report on the Housing Conditions in Leeds: The most unhealthy houses of Leeds are close squares of houses, or yards that have been built for the accomodation of working people. They are one mass of damp and filth. The ashes, garbage, and filth are thrown from the doors and windows of the houses upon the surface of the streets and courts. There are few toilets for the number of inhabitants. Ill halth prevails. The combined influence causes much premature death.
Liberalism obama president taxes democrats fail failure soci demotivational poster 1232777802 Libralism Challenged the Authority of Absolute Monarchy Until 1848, libralism challenged the authority of absolute monarchy while rejecting the claims of popular democracy. The re-invigorated conservatism rejected the claims of liberalism & radical democracy.
Constitution quill pen Constitutional Charter In France, the king still claimed rule by divine right, but a Constitutional Charter, which remained in effect until 1848, placed limits on royal powers, securing some of the reforms effected by the revolution. The Charter provided equality before the law (the right to due process).
Person 01 Louis Philippe Gave up His Thrown Due to riots & barricades in the streets of Paris, Louis Philippe had some trouble finding order. So he gave up his thrown in 1848.
8scs000z France After the February Revolution (1848), a 2nd republic proclaimed in France. By June, 120 000 workers enrolled in national workshops, but, with the help of rural & middle class property owners, the government decided to take these away. So the working class took to fighting on the streets of Paris once again. The December elections of this year saw Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, Napoleon's nephew, was a victory.
Revolution1024x768 Effects of the Revolutions of 1848 Absolutism was coming to an end. Serfdom was destroyed in the Austrian Empire. Monarchs with absolutist pretensions survived in Prussia, Austria, & Russia, but having faced revolution, these states had redefined the basis of authority.
Karl marx Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto With the help of Engels, Marx prouced one of the most influential pamphlets, "The Communist Manifesto".
France flag Revolutionary Crises in France Political struggles and a growing population created tension, which led to a revolutionary crises in France.
Napoleon3 Louis Napoleon Using His Uncle's Fame In his campaign, Louis Napoleon linked the memory of his uncle ot the principle of popular sovereignity & to his own leadership. He announced, "The name of Napoleon is in itself a whole program. It means order, authority, religion, popular welfare at home, national dignity abroad."
Rm rm 1997 130 29 1 071 i 00 000 Working Conditions of the 1850's They were appalling. The debate is over the wage-dependent, labouring population, which, in Britain, constituted over 2/3 of the population. After 1850, the Industrial Revolution in Britain created great material abundance for all social ranks in the long term.
Slave kidnap poster 1851 boston The Fugitive Slave Act To end the escape of fugitive slaves, southern politicians had Congress pass the Fugitive Slave Act. It made it illegal to protect fugitive slaves anywhere in the United States & in effect extended the authority of the slave states into the free states of the North.
Size1 Planning Paris in the Second Empire The most visible sign of planning in the 2nd Empire was the transformation of Paris. Baron Georges Haussmann, prefect of the Seine region, directed the work of redesigning the centre of Paris. He removed crowded tenements & widened narrow streets into broad boulevards.
Lniiifl8 Napoleo III Emulating His Uncle He challenged Russia's claim that it was the protector of all Christians in the Ottoman Empire. The ensuing Crimean War of 1854-1856 was fought to resist Russian expansion. None of the major armies (French, British, Russian) distinguished itself in battles.
30011286 p copy The Peace Congress The Peace Congress held in Paris in 1856 accepted the Russian concessions & restored Paris as the diplomatic centre of Europe.
British flag 640 British Law Passed A British law was passed that allowed Hindu widows to remarry- an unheard of practice up to that time.
John ely   mary lane.jpg The Marriage Act of 1753 Was Revised Until the Marriage Act was revised, only the wealthy could afford to pursue a legal parliamentary divorce. Lower class divorces took pace illegally. A beaten or deserted woman would often "return the ring" in front of witnesses, finishing the marriage. Most poor couples didn't bother with the ceremony. If the marriage was breaking apart, they just moved apart and, sometimes, remarried in the future.
Napoleoniii Trouble in France Financial scandals, dissent over foreign policy, & discontent with a censored press reawakened political criticism. Napoleon III responded with a seried of liberalizing reforms that relaxed controls on the press, allowed freer debates in legislative assembly, made ministers more responsible to elected representatives, reduced the influence of the church on education, made schools more accessible to females, & legalized trade unions & the right to strike. Napoleon III remained popular.
Images 1 Emancipation of Serfs in Russia 22.5 million serfs were emancipated in 1861.
Abraham lincoln seated  feb 9  1864 Beginning of the Civil War In the beginning, President Abraham Lincoln & the northern forces claimed to be fighting to restore the Union & not to end slavery
Ts The New Kingdom of Italy The new Kingdom of Italy came into being with Victor Emmanuel II as its constitutional monach. Italy was still incomplete. Venice remained in Austrian hands, & Pope Pius IX still held the remaining papal states & the city of Rome.
Emancipationproclamationdec Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln issued his Emancipation Proclamation. This freed slaves, authorized the creation of Balck military units, & changed the war into a struggle against slavery.
Sh Denmark Resurrected its Claim to Schleswig & Holstein Denmark resurrected its claim to Schleswig & Holstein, 2 neighbouring principalities with German-speaking populations. Furious by this claim, German nationalists called for action.
Prague districts The Peace of Prague The Peace of Prague brought an end to the tussle between Austria & Prussia within German confederation.
Battle of koniggratz by georg bleibtreu Austro-Prussian War is Over The Austro-Prussian war was over. Prussia defeated Austria in the field & Bismarck reformed the German confederation.
Young disraeli Benjamin Disraeli Prime minister Benjamin Disraeli & the Conservatives passed a Second Reform Act, which granted the vote to male urban working-class householders, thereby adding another 2 million voters to the list.
7294fee0 333b 422a 9540 0a77ea41fac2 img100 John Stuart Mill's "The Subjection of Women" John Stuart Mill published his powerful & influential book, "The Subjection of Women". He argued beyond the need to bring an end to the physical abuse of women, insisting that women & men required freedom to achieve happiness.
Flag pins italy spain The Industrial Revolution in Italy & Spain The Industrial Revolution began to make a noticeable influence on Italy and Spain in the 1870's.
Prussia Prussia's Victory Over France Prussia's victory over France brought Napoleon III (Louis Napoleon) & his Second Empire to an end. It would ultimately mark the ascendancy of modern Germany as the dominant power in Central Europe.
Napoleon iii horseback Napoleon III Pulled French Soldiers out of Rome Napoleon III, facing war with Prussia, pulled French soldiers out of Rome. Italian troops occupied the city, the Pope retreated to the Vatican, & Rome became the capital of a fully united Italy in 1871.
200px napoleon3.png Napoleo III's Victory in a Plebisicite Napoleon III had a victory in a plebiscite, Bismarck, percieving danger in inactivity, prepared for confrontation in France.
Map 18 03 p768 Napoleon III Declares War Napoleon III declared war against Prussia.
Flag pins germany italy The Modernization of Germany & Italy The consolidation & unification fuelled by political leaders created modern Germany & Italy. This alterd the balance of power in Europe.
Paris commune po1 1 The Paris Commune Due to the newly opposed government, they created the Paris Commune under the leadership of radical democrats, with the backing of the socialists.
Treaty of frankfurt  1871 .gif The Treaty of Frankfurt It imposed harsh terms: The provinces of Alsace & Lorraine were ceded to Germant; France had to pay 5 billion francs & endure German occupation for the 3 years it would take to complete the payment.
350px emblem of the sdp of finland.svg Social Democratic Party (SDP) It was formed out of a union of Marxists & followers of the German economist Ferdinand Lassalle, who argued for political action to secure political & social reforms.
Bismarck Bismarck Bismarck shifted course by abandoning the policy of Kulturkampf & turned his attention to his new enemies, the socialists.
Fuerst otto von bismarck Socialism: The Enemy of the State Bismarck passed an anti-socialist law that declared socialism to be an enemy of the state. It also restricted newspapers, meetings, & other activities of the social democrats & their allies, the trade unionists.
Africach Colonization in Arfica From this point on, European powers engaged in a frantic competition for colonies in Africa.
Alexander ii  russia Terrorist's Bomb Kills Alexander II A terrorist's bomb assisnated Alexander II. His death didn't spark a general uprising, but introduced a new & prolonged period of repression under the new czar Alexander III.
Manifesto of  indian national congress The Indian National Congress (INC) was Established This was one of the earliest colonial nationalist political parties. They seeked larger role for Indians within the councils & administrative structureof the British Raj (dominion) but not seeking full political independece.
Alfred dreyfus 236x300 Captain Alfred Dreyfus Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer on the French General Staff, was courtmartialed for allegedly passing secrets to Germany.
Overpopulation scales Europe's Population at a Rise In 1800 Europe had 22 cities of more than 100 000 people and by 1895 there were 120 cities of more than 100 000 and their residents comprised 10% of the population. Until the late 1860's, cities didn't grow by natural increase but were dependent on migration from the countryside. There was no urban planning, so disease took over. The death rate was higher than the birth rate.
Child jail The Father Lost Some Control Over His Children Before 1896 children under the age of 26 in France couldn't marry without parental consent. When children were disobedient the father could request that the child be arrested & held in a state prison. Until the age of 16, children could be held in prison for up to 1 month. Those between 16 and the age of majority could be held for 6 months. When the sentence was over, the father could refuse to take back the child, so the child could be held in prison until they reached the age of majority.
Images 2 The Control of the Tropics, By Benjamin Kidd He stressed that Europe was under an obligation to develop the tropics as "a trust for civilization."
Us expansion 1848 U.S. Drove the Spanish Out The United States, having driven the Spanish out, exerted greater control in the Americas, annexing Puerto Rico, Hawaii, & half of Mexico. It also annexed the Philippines.
Spain flag The Spanish Spain faced nationalist uprising in the last stronghold of its empire.
China flag.jpg China A secret martial arts society (Society of Harmonious Fists or Boxers) conducted a campaign of murder & assult against Westerners in China.
Russiaflag The Industrial Revolution in Russia The Industrial Revolution started to make a noticeable impact after the 1900's.
Hobson John A. Hobson Hobson was a liberal British economist & critic of imperialism. In The Psychology of Jingoism (1901), he commented that aggressive nationalism became "an inverted patriotism whereby the love of one's own nation is transformed into the hatred of another nation and fierce craving to destroy the individual members of that other nation,"
Lenin Lenin One of the leading militants, Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov (Lenin), published a pamphlet called "What is to be Done?" He argued that it wasn't sufficient to wait for a spontaneous insurrection of the masses.
Kznatal Natal In Natal, Zulus rose in insurrection against efforts to compel them into wage-labour mining.
37376.jpg The Code Napoleon Was Revised, Changing the Norm of Men and Women Before Code Napoleon was revidsed in 1907, Napoleon's laws granted the husband ultimate superiority in the family. Wives and mothers were stripped of all legal capacity.
David lloyd george The People's Budget The People's Budget, proposed by Chancellor of the Exchequer David Lloyd George, introduced taxes on inherited wealth.
Zaf1 clip image001 The Union of South Africa In the negotiations for the Union of South Africa, the rights & interests of Africans were largely ignored, despite the British claims to the contrary.
553px african language families ensvg Africans African frustrated by the denial of their rights in the constitution of the Union of South Africa, formed the South African Natives National Congress, the forerunner of the African National Congress (ANC)
Gavel big The Lands Act The Lands Act allocated only 13% of land for African homelands. Africans were also restricted in their freedom to settle in the cities, & laws required them to carry passe for travel outside of designated areas.
Ist2 696967 old 1800 s political europe map high res. A Dominant Power Rose in Europe The Napoleonic Wars resulted in the fact that no power could be allowed to dominate the Continent. Until 1914, no power became dominant & there was no European war.
Europe map2 Europe Europe & it's possessions accounted for 84% of the world's land mass.
Archduke francis ferdinand Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand A Serbian nationalist assassinated the Austrian archduke Francis Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, & his wife at Sarajevo. Within weeks there was a full blown European & world war.
Habsburg15251635 The Purpose of Hapsburg Rule It was to preserve that territorial inheretance & to extend its boundaries.
Stagedoor Married Women Became Legal Persons Married women became legal persons able to possess property in 1938.
Timespan Dates: Timespan Title: Timespan Description:

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British Foreign Trade on the Rise British foreign trade grew steadily and expanded over 70% between 1700 and 1750.

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The First Industrial Revolution: England The first Industrial Revolution was an example of "spontaneous combustion". Between 1800 and 1850, the national income rose by 125%, while the shaer of national income derived from industrial production rose by 230%. This was due to many preconditions peculiar to Britain.

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British Foreign Trade a Larger Rise British foreign trade underwent an upsurge at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, increasing 80%. This economic vitality meant that England had the best-fed and best-housed population in Europe. A high proportion of the population, about 30%, was no longer directly dependent on agriculture to live. England also had a large "middling sort" (middle-class bankers, merchants, professionals, traders, shopkeepers, & self employed artisians). This group constituted 40% of the population.

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Urban Growth in the Industrial Areas of the Britsh Isles In this period, the most examples of urban growth were in the industrial areas of the British Isles. Signs of this urban growth were evident in Belgium and France from the 1830's, but the pace of the urbanization intensified there and in the German states after the 1840's. 17% of the British population lived in towns of more than 20 000 people; by 1851, about 35%; and by 1891 more than 50%.

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The Social Unrest of the Early years of the Revolution The early years of the Revolution came with social unrest. Although, the pace of the impact of new industries shouldn't be exaggerated. Ex) new industrial conditions like factory labour were still exceptional rather than typical. The new demands of industry stimulated new forms of employment and traditional handicraft production. Conservative moralists were shocked by the conditions in new social relationships between employers and their workers.

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The European Population Grew The population in Europe grew from 188 million in 1800 to 266 million in 1850.

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Campaign of Machine Wrecking in England In these years, a campaign of machine wrecking occured in the textile areas in the English North. The machine wreckers claimed to be followers of General Ned Lud, a mythical folk hero (like Robinhood). The Luddites (term used to describe those who resist technology) attempted to protect jobs & wages being cut by new machinery.

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Depression in England After ending the war with France in 1815, England experienced a long depression until 1821. During this time there was intense social conflict. 2 new classes, middle class & a working class, came into being. Economic stress provoked protests & government represssion in turn confirmed the need for reform.

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Liberal & Nationalist Upheaval In this time, Metternich faced liberal & nationalist upheavals in numerous Italian states (not under Austrian domination). He used the Austrian army in a intervention to quell the revolts.

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The Greek Struggle for Independence from the Ottoman Empire In this timespan, the Greek were struggling for independece from the Ottoman Empire. From the biased perspective of Europe, the Ottoman Turks represented the exotic culture of the Islamic Orent. The struggle took place in the mountainous terrain & Agean islands ma. The Greek struggle aroused leading writers of the Western romantic movement.

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Transporation of the Industrial Revolution Canals served as a transportation network at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, but then the new railroads began replacing canals in the 1830's and 1840's. This was evidence of a thriving economy.

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The Impact of Coal Mining, Iron Production, and Machine Design The impact of coal mining, iron production, and machine design became most visible in the 1830's and 1840's with the introduction of steam locomotion and railroad contruction.

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Passing the Reform Bill This is the time frame it took Parliament to pass the reform bill introduced by Lord John Russell. The bill proposed a redistribution of seats & reformed the franchise. The years it was being passed were full of economic downturn. After, industrial areas had a voice in Parliament.

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The Opium Wars Through the Opium Wars the Britsh succeeded in securing their demands for trade & took control of the important trading centre of Hong Kong in the treaty of Nanking of 1842.

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The Industrial Revolution in Germany In the 1840's to 1850's the Industrial Revolution had a noticeable influence on Germany.

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Railway Construction in Germany Railways that were essential for the transport of raw materials and finished goods were built in Germany. Railway construction acted as a "multiplier" because it required increased production of coal, iron, steam locomotives, railway carriages, and a host of related machines and mechanical devices. The railway boom laid the foundations for continental heavy industries, and railroads created whole new categories of industrial employment.

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The Potato Blight Poor harvests & the potato blight in this time frame created a sudden increase in the price of food. In some rural areas of Germany, Central Europe, & Italy, peasants struggled to eat. 1846 was also the start of the famine in Ireland. A failed potato crop was the reason for 1000's of deaths.

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Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Ruled as President During this time span, Napoleon's nephew ruled France as a President.

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Unification of Italy The unification of Italy involved idealistic nationalism seeking liberation through popular insurrection, & an exercise in realpolitik- politics based on realities & material needs rather than ideals & morals.

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Male Sufferage Between this time, most countried implemented a broad franchise, if not universal male sufferage.

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Louis Napoleon's Attempt to Solidify His Power In an attempt to solidify his power beyond that of a regular president, the army occuupied Paris & the police arrested 78 National Assembly deputies. Parisians heard that the president dissolved the National Assembly & restored universal male sufferage.

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Louis Napoleon Bonaparte Ruled as Emporer During this time span Napoleon's nephew ruled France as Emporer. In these years France propspered. Paris was restored as the diplomatic & cultural capital of Europe.

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The Berlin Conference The key political event for colonization in Africa was the Berlin Conference. Bismarck called representatives of 15 nations to deal with rival colonial claims in Africa, especially with the creation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium.

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The Boer War In this period, the Boer War took place. The discovery of diamond & gold in South Africa made that region important, the ongoing conflict between the British & the Boers (descendants of the Dutch settlers in South Africa) led to the Boer War.

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The Defeat of Russia The defeat of Russian naval & military forces by Japan created a political crises. This crises escalated into revolution when troops killed several hundred peacful demonstrators who sought to petition the czar at the Winter Palace to grant political reforms & economic relief.