History of Mathematics Education
Timeline created by maedsp09Event Date:  Event Title:  Event Description:  

200  The Beginning of Math  Math initally came from the need to measure time and to count. These two activities along with locating, designing, playing, and explaining are theorized by (A. J. Bishop 88) to be responsible for a culture's development of math. Archaeologists have discovered notched bones and patterns on walls of Ice Age caves. (Matt Jameson) 

200  Egyptian Pyramids  As early as 2000 BC construction of Pyramids demonstrate knowledge of surveying and geometry. (Matt Jameson) 

250  The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art  The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, written around 250 BCE, is one of the most influential of all Chinese math books and it is composed of some 246 problems. (Carla Irvin)  
250  Diophantus of Alexandria  Greek philosopher Diophantus of Alexandria, who invented notations for powers of a number and for multiplication and division of simple quantities, is thought to have made the first attempts at algebra. http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Diophantus.html (Leah Cottrell) 

287  The Father of Mathermatics  Archimedes is generally considered to be the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time.[2][3] He used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, and gave a remarkably accurate approximation of Pi.[4] He also defined the spiral bearing his name, formulas for the volumes of surfaces of revolution and an ingenious system for expressing very large numbers. (Ashley)  
287  Archimedes' argument for Pi  The first theoretical calculation seems to have been carried out by Archimedes of Syracuse (287212 BC). He obtained the approximation 223/71 < < 22/7. Before giving an indication of his proof, notice that very considerable sophistication involved in the use of inequalities here. Archimedes knew, what so many people to this day do not, that does not equal 22/7, and made no claim to have discovered the exact value. (Emma Greve) 

300  The Salamis Tablet  The oldest surviving counting board is the Salamis tablet (originally thought to be a gaming board), used by the Babylonians circa 300 B.C., discovered in 1846 on the island of Salamis. It is a slab of white marble measuring 149cm in length, 75cm in width and 4.5cm thick, on which are 5 groups of markings. (Emma Greve) 

325  Euclid of Alexandria  Euclid was a Greek mathematician best known for his treatise on geometry: The Elements . This influenced the development of Western mathematics for more than 2000 years.is the most prominent mathematician of antiquity best known for his treatise on mathematics The Elements. The long lasting nature of The Elements must make Euclid the leading mathematics teacher of all time. http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Euclid.html (Ashley) 

500  Pythagoras was an influential Greek mathematician and philosopher, best known for the theory to which he gave his name.  Very little is known about Pythagoras's life. He is thought to have been born on the Greek island of Samos, and travelled widely in his youth, visiting Egypt and Persia. He settled in the city of Crotone in southern Italy. There he began teaching and soon had a clutch of students who lived a structured life of study and exercise, inspired by a philosophy based around mathematics. This circle came to be known as the Pythagoreans. (Courtney Day)  
1st Jan, 0750  The Spread of Greek Knowledge  Islamic mathematicians were interested in pure knowledge and practical questions, translating classical works such as Euclid's geometry into Arabic, along with building Madrasa, which are religious schools designed to teach the connection of mathematics and the natural world. (Matt Jameson) 

4th Jun, 0780  Eclipse  Solar eclipse recorded. In China, the first reliable record of a total solar eclipse was made. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_eclipse (Debra) 

26th Jan, 0950  Abacus into Europe  Gerbert of Aurillac (later Pope Sylvester II) reintroduces the abacus into Europe. He uses Indian/Arabic numerals without having a zero.  
26th Feb, 0976  First Decimals in Europe  Codex Vigilanus copied in Spain. Contains the first evidence of decimal numbers in Europe.  
1st Jan, 1000  Islamic Art  Formal Islamic art began to emerge, as there were discussion between artisians and mathematicians. Islamic art consists of 4 characteristics, figural representation, calligraphy, vegetal patterns, and geometric figures. This was an integration of art and math into religion. (Matt Jameson) 

1st Jan, 1072  Cubic Equations  Persian mathematician Omar Khayyam gives a complete classification of cubic equations with positive roots and gives general geometric solutions to these equations found by means of intersecting conic sections. (Carla Irvin)  
14th Jan, 1100  HinduArabic system  Indian numerals have been modified by Arab mathematicians to form the modern HinduArabic numeral system (used universally in the modern world) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_mathematics#18th_century (Megan Z.) 

1st Jan, 1135  Beg. of algebraic geometry  Sharafeddin Tusi followed alKhayyam's application of algebra to geometry, and wrote a treatise on cubic equations which %u201Crepresents an essential contribution to another algebra which aimed to study curves by means of equations, thus inaugurating the beginning of algebraic geometry.%u201D http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_mathematics#18th_century (Megan Z.) 

1st Jan, 1202  Fibonacci Sequence  Leonardo Pisano Fibonacci published Liber abaci in which he introduced the Fibonacci Sequence. The resulting sequence is 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55, ... This sequence, in which each number is the sum of the two preceding numbers, has proved extremely fruitful and appears in many different areas of mathematics and science. http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/Biographies/Fibonacci.html (Christine Sergeant) 

20th Jan, 1298  Yang Hui was a Chinese mathematician who wrote several outstanding mathematical texts. T  Yang Hui was a Chinese mathematician who wrote several outstanding mathematical texts. These contained solutions of quadratic equations as well as Pascal's triangle and magic squares. (Bill M)  
1st Jan, 1300  Father of Mathematical Analysis  Madhava is considered the father of mathematical analysis, who also worked on the power series for p and for sine and cosine functions, and along with other Kerala school mathematicians, founded the important concepts of Calculus. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_mathematics#18th_century (Megan Z.) 

2nd Jan, 1484  Earliest French Algebra Book  In 1484 Chuquet wrote an important text Triparty en la science des nombres. This is the earliest French algebra book.The Triparty en la science des nombres covers arithmetic and algebra. It was not printed however until 1880 so was of little influence. The first part deals with arithmetic and includes work on fractions, progressions, perfect numbers, proportion etc. Sarah Smith  
1st Jan, 1489  Use of + and   Johannes Widmann wrote an arithmetic book in 1489 which containd the first recorded appearance of + and  signs. This book was better than the ones that came before it in that it had more, a wider range, of examples. (Chrystie Steffens)  
1st Jan, 1492  The decimal point  In the same year that Columbus discovered America, Francesco Pellos wrote a commerical arithmetic book, Compendio de lo abaco, in which he made use of a dot to denote the divison of an integer by a power of ten. This led to the development of what we now refer to as a decimal point. (Chrystie Steffens)  
1st Jan, 1557  Equals Sign invented  Robert Recorde (1510  1558) used two parallel lines to represent the equals sign in 1557. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Recorde (Leah Cottrell) 

1st Jan, 1557  Introduction of the Equals Sign  Robert Recorde (c. 1510 %u2013 1558) was a Welsh physician and mathematician. In 1557, he introduced the "equals" sign (=). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robert_Recorde (Leah Cottrell) 

Variables  In 1591 Francois Vieta (15401603) was the first person to use letters for unknowns and constants in algebraic equations. He used vowels for unknowns and consonants for given numbers (all capital letters) in In artem analyticem isogoge. (Jason Dapkevich) http://jeff560.tripod.com/variables.html  
Pitiscus  Introduced trigonometry  Bartholomaeus Pitiscus achieved fame with his influential work called Trigonometria which introduced[1] the word "trigonometry" to the English and French languages. It consists of five books on plane and spherical trigonometry. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bartholomaeus_Pitiscus (Christine Sergeant) 

Napier Rods  English mathematician John Napier invented a simple calculating machines and a device for performing multiplication and division called Napier rods. He also developed the theory of logarithms. http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Napier.html (Leah Cottrell) 

Rene Decartes  Decartes applied algebraic equations in order to solve geometric problems. He invented analytical geometry. He also invented the method of using exponents to represent the powers of a number. Sarah Smith  
Diffraction Patterns  Francesco Maria Grimaldi discovers diffraction patterns of light and becomes convinced light is a wave like phenomenon. Sarah Smith  
Slide Rule Invented  Since real numbers can be represented as distances or intervals on a line, the slide rule was invented in the 1620s to allow multiplication and division operations to be carried out significantly faster than was previously possible. Slide rules were used in calculation until the invention of the pocket calculator. The engineers in the Apollo program that sent a man to the moon made many of their calculations on slide rules. Steve Platt  
Sir Christopher Wren  According to the history books, Sir Christopher Wren discovered Saturn's rings before Christiann Huygens, but did not publish his findings before the Dutch Astronomer. However, Wren did not seek fame, and had nothing but praise for Huygen's publication. Wren was also the first to resolve Kepler's Problem on cutting a semicircle in a given ratio by a line through a given point on its diameter. (Ashley)  
The first Latin Grammar School  The first Latin Grammar School (Boston Latin School) is established. Latin Grammar Schools are designed for sons of certain social classes who are destined for leadership positions in church, state, or the courts. (Courtney)  
Harvard College  Harvard College, the first higher education institution in the New World, is established in Newton (now Cambridge), Massachusetts. (Courtney Day)  
The Calculator  Calculator The young French mathematician Blaise Pascal (16231662) invented the first adding machine in 1642, a clever device driven by gears and capable of performing mechanical addition and subtraction. (Jason Dapkevich)  
Infinity Sign discovered  The infinity symbol was first given its current mathematical meaning in "Arithmetica Infinitorum" (1655) by the British mathematician John Wallis (16161703). http://home.att.net/~numericana/answer/symbol.htm#infinity (Leah Cottrell) 

Matrices and Determinants  Leibniz solves systems of simultaneous linear equations using matrices and determinants. (Carla Irvin)  
The symbol TT  In 1706 William Jones published his "New Introduction to Mathematics" in which he introduced the symbol TT. It appears he used the symbol repeatedly to denote the (periphery) circumference of a circle with unit diameter, which is TT. (Chrystie Steffens)  
Euler's Graph Theory  Leonhard Euler solved a popular puzzle, called the "Konigsberg brige problem", and in the process introduced a new branch of mathematics known as graph theory. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Bridges_of_KÃ¶nigsberg (Christine Sergeant)  
First methods book  First (U.S.) teaching methods book completed. Written by Christopher Dock, it was originally in German and was printed twenty years later in Germantown, Pennsylvania. http://www.mathdl.org/mathDL/?pa=historicalEvent&sa=browseFrontEnd&month=7&day=3&x=42&y=10 (Debra) 

Buffon's Neede Problem  Buffon's needle problem is a question first posed in the 18th century by GeorgesLouis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon. He threw sticks over his shoulder onton a tiled floor and counted the number times the sticks fell across the lines between the tiles. His conclusion was that the number of successes was related to the area under a cycloid whose generating circle had a diameter equal to the length of the stick. http://mathworld.wolfram.com/BuffonsNeedleProblem.html (Chrystie Steffens)  
Neptune  The first planet to be discovered was Uranus by William and Caroline Herschel on 13 March 1781. It was discovered by the fact that it showed a disk when viewed through even a fairly low powered telescope. The only other planets which have been discovered are Neptune and Pluto. These were predicted using ingenious mathematical arguments based on Newton's laws of gravitation and then observed near their predicted locations. (Jason Dapkevich) http://wwwgroups.dcs.stand.ac.uk/~history/HistTopics  
n!  The symbol n!, called factorial n, was introduced in 1808 by Christian Kramp of Strassbourg, who chose it so as to circumvent printing difficulties. http://www.roma.unisa.edu.au/07305/symbols.htm#Factorial Jordon  
Magnet Compass  Hans Christian Oersted notes the deflection of a magnetic compass needle caused by an electric current after giving a lecture demonstration. Then demonstrates that the effect is reciprocal.This initiates the unification program of electricity and magnetism. Sarah Smith  
Napoleon's Theorem  Napoleon's Theorem
Napoleon's theorem states that if we construct equilateral triangles on the sides of any triangle (all outward or all inward), the centers of those equilateral triangles themselves form an equilateral triangle. This is said to be one of the mostoften rediscovered results in mathematics. The earliest definite appearance of this theorem is an 1825 article by Dr. W. Rutherford in "The Ladies Diary". (Emma Greve) 

Leonhard Euler's first proofs of fundamental theorem  He gave the first satisfactory proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra and of the quadratic reciprocity law  
Complex Numbers  On 4 November 1833 Hamilton read a paper to the Royal Irish Academy expressing complex numbers as algebraic couples, or ordered pairs of real numbers. He used algebra in treating dynamics in On a General Method in Dynamics in 1834. In this paper Hamilton gave his first statement of the characteristic function applied to dynamics and wrote a second paper on the topic the following year Sarah Smith  
Stokes established the science of hydrodynamics  Stokes established the science of hydrodynamics with his law of viscosity describing the velocity of a small sphere through a viscous fluid. (Bill M)  
Catalan's Conjecture  Belgian mathematician Eugene Catalan proposed that in the set of the powers of all positive integers (an infinite set), only 8 and 9 are consecutive integers. This was proven in 2002 by Preda Mihailescu. http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/MihailescusTheorem.html (Leah Cottrell) 

Neptune as a planet  When one looks into the sky on a clear night, it is easy to forget that the stunning beauty of the night sky is full of mathematical equations. Great mathematicians have spent hours observing and meticulously recording what they saw in the sky. Neptune was first seen as a planet on September 18, 1846 is was due to the mathematical calculations that predicted it would be there. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/Math490/Timeline/1846AD.html (Melissa Turner) 

Boole approached logic in a new way  Boole approached logic in a new way reducing it to a simple algebra, incorporating logic into mathematics. He also worked on differential equations, the calculus of finite differences and general methods in probability. (Bill M)  
hebyshev is largely remembered for his investigations in number theory.  Chebyshev is largely remembered for his investigations in number theory. Chebyshev was also interested in mechanics and is famous for the orthogonal polynomials he invented. (Bill M)  
Cantor's Set Theory  Georg Cantor founded set theory and introduced the concept of infinite numbers with his discovery of cardinal numbers. He also advanced the study of trigonometric series. http://wwwhistory.mcs.standrews.ac.uk/HistTopics/Beginnings_of_set_theory.html (Christine Sergeant) 

Booker T. Washington becomes the first principal  Booker T. Washington becomes the first principal of the newlyopened normal school in Tuskegee, Alabama, now Tuskegee University. (Courtney Day)  
Introduction of Set Theory to the mathematics by Cantor!  The modern study of set theory was initiated by Cantor, a German mathematician, which has become a fundemental theory in mathematics. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Cantor (Isil) 

American Mathematical Society founded  Founded in 1888 to further mathematical research it fulfills its mission through programs and services that promote mathematical research and strengthen mathematical education. math.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=math&cdn=education&tm=9&gps=361_210_1276_620&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=1&zu=http://emath.ams.org/ (Chip) 

Thomas Scott Fiske organized a meeting in New York!  The New York Mathematical Society was founded in 1889 from this meeting. The Society became a national organization in 1894 and changed its name to the American Mathematical Society which still exists today and serves many functions for advancing mathematics and mathematical research in the United States. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/math490/Timeline/1865AD.html (Isil) 

AMM  MAA  In those early days the structure of the MAA was more of a club. Its main function was the publication of the Monthly. Today, Benjamin Finkel%u2019s dream has substantially come true, the American Mathematical Monthly is the most widely read mathematics journal in the world. http://www.maa.org/aboutmaa/maahistory.html (Hallie) 

The Mathematical Problems of David Hilbert  Hilbert's address of 1900 to the International Congress of Mathematicians in Paris is perhaps the most influential speech ever given to mathematicians, given by a mathematician, or given about mathematics. In it, Hilbert outlined 23 major mathematical problems to be studied in the coming century. (Emma Greve) 

First solarlunar calendars  First solarlunar calendars in Egypt and Mesopotamia in 2000 BC (Courtney)  
Radioactive Decay  Bertram Boltwood discovers how to calculate the age of a rock by measuring the rate of its radioactive decay. His observations and calculations put Earth's age at 2.2 billion years. Although we now think the Earth is nearly twice that age. Boltwood's formulas are compatible with several radioactive elements, including carbon14, which has been used to date historical artifacts. link (Hallie) 

ICMI founded  The International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) is an international organisation with a focus on mathematics education. ICMI was founded in 1908 at the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM) in Rome. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Commission_on_Mathematical_Instruction (Debra) 

The Turing Machine  Alan Turing was one of the first pioneers in computer science. His integration of mathematical algorithms and nature lead him to develop the theory of "The Turing Machine" before the existence of computers. These findings are important because they helped pioneer the concepts of artificial intelligence and digital computers. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/Math490/Timeline/1940AD.html (Melissa Turner) 

Mathematical Association of America  Since 1915, MAA membership has provided a forum for educators, students, professionals, and math enthusiasts to share ideas, keep abreast of developments in the mathematical community, enhance their careers, and make new friends. Today, more than 25,000 individuals and institutions take advantage of the multitude of benefits that MAA membership provides. (Ashley) 

MAA founded  The Mathematical Association of America was founded in Columbus, Ohio. http://www.maa.org/aboutmaa/maahistory.html (Debra) 

General Relativity  General relativity or the general theory of relativity is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1916. It is the current description of gravity in modern physics. It unifies special relativity and Newton's law of universal gravitation, and describes gravity as a property of the geometry of space and time, or spacetime. (Chrystie Steffens)  
NCTM established  The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) was founded, largely at the instigation of the MAA. The first NCTM president, C. M. Austin, made it clear that the organization would "keep the values and interests of mathematics before the educational world" and he urged that "curriculum studies and reforms and adjustments come from the teachers of mathematics rather than from the educational reformers." http://www.nctm.org/ (Adam) 

Harlem Renaissance  The Harlem Renaissance flourishes in the 1920s and 1930s. This literary, artistic, and intellectual movement fosters a new black cultural identity.  
Piaget  He was the first researcher to make systematic studies of how children learn. His main work was published in 1923, 1924 and 1948. Among his contributions is an understanding of different developmental levels, the basis for schemas to "make and remake their own reality", and the importance of concrete manipulatives. (Matt Jameson) 

Foundations of Method Published  Became a standard text for teacher education courses across the country. Link His view was that subjects should be taught to students based on their direct practical value, or if students independently wanted to learn those subjects. This point of view toward education comported well with the pedagogical methods endorsed by progressive education. Steve Platt  
Standard Mathematical Tables  First edition of %u201CStandard Mathematical Tables%u201D is published by the Chemical Rubber Corporation in 1931. Affectionately referred to as %u201Cthe CRC,%u201D later editions of the book would become a standard reference in assisting with pencil and paper calculations. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/Math490/Timeline/1931AD.html (Melissa Turner) 

Venn Diagrams  John Venn is best remembered for his contribution of "Venn Diagrams" which represent the unions and/or intersections of sets. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/Math490/Timeline/1880AD.html (Melissa Turner) 

Educational Testing Service Charted  Beginning of SAT  We have all taken it and it is one of the gateway exams for entrance into college. To me this was the beginning of standardized testing and a way to quantitatively measure student achievement. Question to ponder: Is the SAT multiculturally biased? http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/sats/where/history.html (lschandl1121) 

National Science Foundation  The National Science Foundation (NSF for short) is an agency of the United States government which primarily promotes research in engineering and computer science (playing a pivotal rle in the development of the Internet, for example), but also gives grants to professional mathematicians for research in pure and applied mathematics. http://planetmath.org/encyclopedia/UnitedStatesOfAmerica.html (Hallie) 

Brown vs. Board of Education  During the historic time of the Civil Rights movement this land mark court appeal which was a big step towards ending formal segregation in public education and acknowledging the right of every child to have access to an equitable education free from bias and segregration. http://www.brownvboard.org/ (lschandl1121) 

Sputnik launched  On October 4, 1957, the Soviet Union sent into orbit Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite in history. Then a month later, an even larger and heavier satellite, Sputnik 2, carried the dog Laika into orbit. http://www.nasm.si.edu/exhibitions/GAL100/sputnik.html Spurred vast changes to the way math and science were taught in the US.  
School Mathematics Study Group (SMSG)  It created junior and senior high school math programs and eventually elementary school curricula as well. (BR)  
The Nation Defence Education Act  The National Defense Education act was passed in response to Sputnik (4 October 1957). $840 million was appropriated to improve the teaching of mathematics, science, and foreign languages. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Defense_Education_Act (Debra) 

New Math  New Math emphasized mathematical structure through abstract concepts like set theory and number bases other than 10. (BR)  
"Summerhill" Published  An account of an ultra progressive school in England that was one of the most influential books on education of that decade. By the 1970 it was the basis for the Open Education Movement. This movement allowed children to decide what, when and if to learn a topic. The eventual backlash to it gave rise to basic skills tests and "fundamental schools" that emphasized traditional academics and promoted student discipline. (Matt Jameson) 

Fuzzy Sets by Zadeh in 1965  Lotfi Asker Zadeh is a mathematician and computer scientist, and a professor of computer science at the University of California, Berkeley. He published his seminal work on fuzzy sets in 1965 in which he detailed the mathematics of fuzzy set theory. In 1973 he proposed his theory of fuzzy logic. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lotfi_Asker_Zadeh (Isil) 

Invention of the Calculator  A Texas Instuments group including Jerry Merryman and James Van Tassel, and led by Jack Kilbydeveloped a calculator small enough to be held in your hand. Just over six inches tall, this portable calculator certainly surpassed the alltransistor calculator released just a year earlier  that calculator weighed 55 pounds and cost $2,500. (BR)  
Shell Centre for Mathematical Education at Nottingham  Its mission was and is to work, through systematic research and development, to enhance the quality and effectiveness of mathematical education at all levels, nationally and internationally. (BR)  
ICME  First took place in Lyon in 1969 and meets every 4 years. The International Congress on Mathematical Education (ICME) aims to:  Show what is happening in mathematics education worldwide, in terms of research as well as teaching practices.  Inform about the problems of mathematics education around the world.  Learn and benefit from recent advances in mathematics as a discipline. http://icme11.org/ (Hallie) 

AWM Founded  The purpose of the Association for Women in Mathematics is to encourage women and girls to study and to have active careers in the mathematical sciences. math.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?zi=1/XJ/Ya&sdn=math&cdn=education&tm=13&gps=375_383_1276_620&f=00&tt=14&bt=0&bts=1&zu=http%3A//www.awmmath.org/ (Chip) 

Rubik's Cube  Ern Rubik actually invented his Magic Cube in 1974. A teacher of threedimensional design at the Academy of Applied Art in Budapest, Rubik designed his Cube to help teach his students to think in three dimensions and to develop spatial reasoning skills. He did not envision the immense popularity that his puzzle would obtain, nor could he imagine the impact that his Cube would have on the world of mathematics. http://faculty.oxy.edu/jquinn/home/Math490/Timeline/1974AD.html (Melissa Turner) 

Herons method for aproximating a square root invented  Heron, a greek mathematician invented the idea of approximating a square root. Jesse C.  
HPM  HPM is the International Study Group on the Relations between History and Pedagogy of Mathematics affiliated to the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI). By combining the history of mathematics with the teaching and learning of mathematics, HPM is the link between the past and the future of mathematics. http://www.clab.edc.uoc.gr/HPM/INDEX.HTM (Jordon) 

Theorem proven with a computer  The four color theorem was the first major theorem to be proven using a computer, in 1976. (Carla Irvin)  
Box and Whisker Plot  Tukey  THE INVENTION OF the boxandwhisker plot dramatically improved the display of numerical data. This efficient method of plotting large amounts of data and diagraming key statistical points was invented by John Tukey, an American statistician in 1977. This method is very effective for comparing multiple sets of data. http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/boxplot/index.htm (Christine Sergeant) 

Julia Robinson  Julia Robinson was the first woman to be elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975, the first woman officer of the American Mathematical Society in 1978 and the first woman president of the Society in 1982. She was awarded a MacArthur Fellowship in 1983 in recognition of her contribution to mathematics. (Jason Dapkevich) http://www.goldenmuseum.com/1612Hilbert_engl.html  
An Agenda for Action Published  Link National Council of Teachers of Mathematics described the shape that school mathematics programs should take. That publication outlined ten recommendations for K12 mathematics programs, focusing on the fundamental need of students to learn how to solve problems. Steve Platt  
Enormous Theorem  The classification of finite simple groups (also called the "enormous theorem"), whose proof between 1955 and 1983 required 500odd journal articles by about 100 authors, and filling tens of thousands of pages. The resulting several dozen volumes has had a controversial influence on mathematical education. (Carla Irvin)  
A Nation at Risk  This report contributed to the evergrowing (and still present) sense that American schools are failing miserably, and it touched off a wave of local, state, and federal reform efforts. (BR)  
CRMSE  The Center for Research in Mathematics & Science Education (CRMSE) brings together researchers interested in studying how individuals acquire knowledge in mathematics and science. http://www.sci.sdsu.edu/CRMSE/index.html (Jordon) 

Introduction of Math Awareness Monty  Mathematics Awareness Month is held each year in April. Its goal is to increase public understanding of and appreciation for mathematics. Jesse C.  
CIMT  The Centre for Innovation in Mathematics Teaching (CIMT) was established in 1986. The centre is a focus for research and curriculum development in Mathematics teaching and learning, with the aim of unifying and enhancing mathematical progress in schools and colleges. This CIMT Website was started in May 1995, and moved to University of Plymouth servers at the end of July 2005. http://www.cimt.plymouth.ac.uk/ (Jordon) 

Release of Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics  The NCTM launche a major reform, this movement calls for abandoning curricula that promotes thinking about mathematics as a rigid system of externally dictated rules governed by standards of accuracy, speed, and memory. www.questia.com/googleScholar.qst;jsessionid=JtQJws9t21v2bymrL9sKSL3d22SmYmpGjGKVJxWSZlLwjSnvJDTs!2131924170?docId=5000186116 (Chip) 

U.S. public school mathematics education policies  Mathematics education policies and programs for U.S. public schools have never been more contentious than they were during the decade of the 1990s. The immediate cause of the math wars of the 90s was the introduction and widespread distribution of new math textbooks with radically diminished content, and a dearth of basic skills. This led to organized parental rebellions and criticisms of the new math curricula by mathematicians and other professionals. (Emma Greve)  
Smart board introduced  SMART introduced the first SMART Board interactive whiteboard in 1991. It was the first interactive whiteboard to provide touch control of computer applications and annotation over standard Microsoft Windows applications. The SMART Board interactive whiteboard, connected to an LCD panel and a computer, introduced the world to interactive technology in classrooms. http://www2.smarttech.com/st/enUS/About+Us/Company+Info/History.htm (Megan Z.)  
Professional Standards for Teaching Mathematics (NCTM)  This document addressed changes neccessary in the classroom environment to accomplish higher achievement. It also spoke of professional development needs of teachers. http://www.usi.edu/Science/math/sallyk/Standards/Previous/ProfStds/index.htm (lschandl1121) 

MidAtlantic Equity Consortium (MAEC)  The mission of the MidAtlantic Equity Consortium (MAEC), a notforprofit corporation, is to create learning environments free of race, gender, class, ethnic and cultural biases so that students of all backgrounds have equal opportunities to flourish. http://www.maec.org/index.html (Ashley) 

Webquests put to use  Bernie Dodge and Tom March have been working since early 1995 to develop the WebQuest as one strategy for effectively integrating the Web into classroom instruction. http://tommarch.com/learning/ (Megan Z.)  
TIMMS  Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study  The Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) provides reliable and timely data on the mathematics and science achievement of U.S. 4th and 8thgrade students compared to that of students in other countries. TIMSS data have been collected in 1995, 1999, 2003, and 2007. TIMSS 2007 results were released on December 9, 2008. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trends_in_International_Mathematics_and_Science_Study (lschandl1121) 

Creation of Leap Frog  When Mike Wood discovered that the toy market offered nothing to help his threeyearold learn math, he decided to do something about it. In 1995, he and Bob Lally founded LeapFrog and introduced the company's first product, the Phonics Desk. Four years and many successful new products later, Bob launched the LeapFrog SchoolHouse division in 1999, in response to countless requests from educators to customize LeapFrog's awardwinning technology and educational products for the classroom.  
NSDL  The National Science Digital Library (NSDL) was created by the National Science Foundation to provide organized access to high quality resources and tools that support innovations in teaching and learning at all levels of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. http://nsdl.org/about/ (Jordon) 

7 Millennium Prize Problems  Millennium Prize Problems were stated by the Clay Mathematics Institute in 2000. Currently, six of the problems remain unsolved. A correct solution to each problem results in a US$1,000,000 prize being awarded by the institute. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Millennium_Prize_Problems (Isil) 

Creation of the Abacus 27002300 BCE  The period 2700%u20132300 BC saw the first appearance of the Sumerian abacus, a table of successive columns which delimited the successive orders of magnitude of their sexagesimal number system. Babylonians may have used the abacus for the operations of addition and subtraction. (Steve Platt)  
Zip Code  Robert A. Moon, a career postal employee who in 1963 won a 20year fight for what was to become the ZIP code. The Zoning Improvement Plan, as ZIP was more prosaically known, represented an ascendancy of numbers over letters, arriving about the same time the telephone company was switching to sevendigit numbers from letter exchanges like BUtterfield 8. (Jason Dapkevich) http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A00E3DA1331F937A25757C0A9679C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=1  
No Child Left Behind signed into law  The Act requires states to develop assessments in basic skills to be given to all students in certain grades, if those states are to receive federal funding for schools. In 2007 math scores for 4th and 8thgraders rose to record highs in according to the Nation's Report Card (NAEP). www.ed.gov/nclb/accountability/results/trends/progres (Chip) 

Perelman solved Poincar conjecture  Poincar Conjecture is one of the seven Millennium Prize Problems, for which the Clay Mathematics Institute offered a $1,000,000 prize for the first correct solution. After nearly a century of effort by mathematicians, Grigori Perelman, a Russian mathemacian, sketched a proof of the conjecture in a series of papers made available in 2002 and 2003. The Poincar conjecture remains the only solved Millennium problem. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Poincar%C3%A9_conjecture (Isil) 

Intr of Deal or No Deal  The first playing of Deal or No Deal took place in 2005. The television game is based on probability and percentages.  
President Bush address to Mathematics Panel  The National Mathematics Advisory Panel was convened by President Bush in April 2006 to address concerns that many of today's students lack the math knowhow needed to become tomorrow's engineers and scientists. The 24member panel of mathematicians and education experts announced recommendations to improve instruction and make better textbooks and even called on researchers to find ways to combat "mathematics anxiety." <a href='http://www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/03/14/MNG4VJALG.DTL</' >www.sfgate.com/cgibin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/03/14/MNG4VJALG.DTL</</a> (Chip) 

9th International Conference %u201CMathematics Education in a Global Community%u201D  Global conference held locally in Charlotte to share innovative, unique and creative solutions for enacting reform in the areas of: educational research in teaching and learning, educational technology, curriculum development, mathematics teacher preparation and development, school organization & policy, classroom practices and issues of equity and ethnomathematics (Steve Platt) 

Polyak  Using Abstract Mathematics to Solve RealWorld Problems  Nearly 25 years ago, Polyak developed a theory called nonlinear rescaling (NR) for solving constrained optimization problems. The methods are essential for solving complicated, realworld technological problems with thousands of variables and tens of thousands of constraints. His theory was used in technological advances to help destroy cancerous tumors. link (Hallie) 

Math Panel Report released  The National Mathematics Advisory Panel presented Foundations for Success: The Final Report of the National Mathematics Advisory Panel to the President of the United States and the Secretary of Education. In response to a Panel recommendation, the U.S. Department of Education, in partnership with the Conference Board of Mathematical Sciences, hosted the first National Math Panel Forum on October 67, 2008. http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/index.html (Adam) 

Culture is possible Key to Math Gender Gap  The math gender gap is huge in some countries and virtually nonexistent in others, suggesting that social and cultural influences trump biology when it comes to how boys and girls learn arithmetic. http://children.webmd.com/news/20080529/cultureisthekeytomathgendergap?src=RSS_PUBLIC (lschandl1121) 

Barack Obama is elected the 44th President of the United States.  Barack Obama defeats John McCain and is elected the 44th President of the United States. Substantial changes in the No Child Left Behind Act are expected in early 2009. (Courtney Day)  
Kummer introduced he concept of an ideal number  Kummer's main achievement was the extension of results about the integers to other integral domains by introducing the concept of an ideal number. (Bill M) 