Timeline small square

History of Science

Timeline created by AustinRBower
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
34071502507665265 small square 1st Jan, 0850 Al-Dinawari founded Arabic Botany Al-Dinawari is considered the founder of Arabic botany for his Book of Plants, in which he describes at least 637 plants and discussed plant evolution from its birth to its death, describing the phases of plant growth and the production of flowers and fruit. Not only was Al-Dinawari a scientist but also a astronomer, historian and a mathematician.
Kerosene small square 4th Jan, 0900 Rhazes distinguishes smallpox from measels Rhazes distinguishes smallpox from measels. He also had the discovery of numerous compounds and chemicals including alcohol and kerosene
Vesalius fabrica fronticepiece small square 9th Feb, 1543 Andreas Vesalius publishes the anatomy treatise De humani corporis fabrica. Andreas Vesalius publishes the anatomy treatise De humani corporis fabrica. He made this book from common practice and by disecting a human corpse.
Red blood cells small square Jan Swammerdam observed red blood cells under a microscope. In 1668, he was the first to observe and describe red blood cells. He was one of the first people to use the microscope in dissections, and his techniques remained useful for hundreds of years.
Jan verkolje   antonie van leeuwenhoek small square Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed protozoa and calls them animalcules. Anton van Leeuwenhoek is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and considered to be the first microbiologist.
Sperm egg small square Anton van Leeuwenhoek observed spermatozoa. A spermatozoon is a motile sperm cell, or moving form of the haploid cell that is the male gamete.
Ts small square Lazzaro Spallanzani again disproved spontaneous generation by showing that no organisms grow in a rich broth if it is first heated and allowed to cool in a stoppered flask. Lazzaro Spallanzani was an Italian Catholic priest, biologist and physiologist who made important contributions to the experimental study of bodily functions, animal reproduction, and essentially discovered echolocation.
O2 logo no bubbles small square Joseph Priestley demonstrated that plants produce a gas that animals and flames consume. Those two gases are carbon dioxide and oxygen. He is usually credited with the discovery of oxygen, having isolated it in its gaseous state, although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Antoine Lavoisier also have a claim to the discovery.
Principleofpopulation small square Thomas Malthus discussed human population growth and food production in An Essay on the Principle of Population. The book An Essay on the Principle of Population was first published anonymously in 1798 through J. Johnson. The author was soon identified as The Reverend Thomas Robert Malthus. While it was not the first book on population, it has been acknowledged as the most influential work of its era.
Ml biology small square Jean-Baptiste Lamarck began the detailed study of invertebrate taxonomy. In an 1802 publication, he became one of the first to use the term biology in its modern sense.
Nc evolution 080103 ms small square Charles Darwin came up with the theory of evolution Natural selection is the process by which traits become more or less common in a population due to consistent effects upon the survival or reproduction of their bearers. It is a key mechanism of evolution.
Cellnucleus small square Friedrich Miescher discovered nucleic acids in the nuclei of cells. Nucleic acids are biological molecules essential for life, and include DNA and RNA.
Bateson small square William Bateson coined the term "genetics" to describe the study of biological inheritance. Genetics deals with the molecular structure and function of genes, with gene behavior in the context of a cell or organism.
Wilhelm johannsen 1857 1927 small square Wilhelm Johannsen coined the word "gene." His most well-known research concerned so-called pure lines of the self-fertile common bean. He was able to show that even in populations homozygous for all traits, i.e. without genetic variation, seed size followed a normal distribution.
Chromosome small square Thomas Hunt Morgan proposesd that genes are arranged in a line on the chromosomes. A chromosome is an organized structure of DNA and protein that is found in cells.
Penicillin core small square Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic, penicillin. Penicillin antibiotics are historically significant because they are the first drugs that were effective against many previously serious diseases such as syphilis and Staphylococcus infections.
Androsterone small square Adolf Butenandt discovered androsterone. Androsterone (ADT) is a steroid hormone with weak androgenic activity. It is made in the liver from the metabolism of testosterone.
Woodwardbc small square Robert Woodward synthesized cholesterol and cortisone. He made many key contributions to modern organic chemistry, especially in the synthesis and structure determination of complex natural products, and worked closely with Roald Hoffmann on theoretical studies of chemical reactions. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1965.
Hodgkin small square Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin discovered the three-dimensional structure of vitamin B12. Among her most influential discoveries are the confirmation of the structure of penicillin that Ernst Boris Chain had previously surmised, and then the structure of vitamin B12, for which she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
Kornberg small square Arthur Kornberg discovered DNA polymerase enzymes. DNA polymerases are best-known for their feedback role in DNA replication, in which the polymerase "reads" an intact DNA strand as a and uses it to synthesize the new strand.
Insulin small square Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin deciphered the three-dimensional structure of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body.
Smith&nathans small square Hamilton Smith and Daniel Nathans discovered DNA restriction enzymes. A restriction enzyme is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded or single stranded DNA at specific recognition nucleotide sequences known as restriction sites.
Alec%20jeffreys small square Alec Jeffreys devised a genetic fingerprinting method. DNA profiles are encrypted sets of numbers that reflect a person's DNA makeup, which can also be used as the person's identifier.
Gene therapy small square French Anderson et al. performed the first approved gene therapy on a human patient. Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease.
Dolly small square Dolly the sheep was first clone of an adult mammal. Dolly was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal to be cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer.
Human%20genome small square Publication of the first drafts of the complete human genome. The genetic map of the human body's DNA, including chromosomes and genes.
Rotary end polio now logo small square First virus produced 'from scratch', an artificial polio virus that paralyzes and kills mice. Poliomyelitis is a viral disease that can affect nerves and can lead to partial or full paralysis.