The Depression Through the New Deal

  • Intro

    Turblent periods of drought, famine, and laissez-faire governmental actions crippled the country to a point of hopeless despair, however through the weak government, a stronger one was able to emerge, bringing with it reforms, many new programs and a rejuvinated sense of nationalism; therefore the depressions were necessary for sustaining the American way of life, economically and culturally.
  • Black Tuesday: Stock Market Crash of 1929

    Black Tuesday: Stock Market Crash of 1929
    Stock prices of almost 13,000,000 shares drop to lows unprecedented, marking the event as one of the starting dominos of the Great Depression. The falling prices made investors lose millions of dollars, causing banks to fail and accounts being wiped out.
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    The Great Depression to the New Deal

  • Arkansas Food Riot

    Arkansas Food Riot
    The first reported food riot of the Great Depression occured in England, Arkansas, and involved up to 500 people. It was one of the first signs of the violence and controversy that the depression would bring.
  • Bank of United States Collapses

    Bank of United States Collapses
    On December 10, 1930, the Bank of the United States in New York City experienced one of the first runs of the Great Depression, closing the bank and ultimately running the national bank into collapse. This was a dark foreshadowing of further economic collapses, as well as a sign that the depression might not be as short-lived as many citizens hoped.
  • Ford Strike

    Ford Strike
    The Ford Hunger Strike was the first major demonstration of citizens due to unemployment and other depression conditions. It ended in violence, with five workers killed and over 50 others wounded.
  • Bonus March

    Thousands of WW1 veterans march from Oregon to Washington DC in support of the veteran's Bonus Bill. They would end up camping near the White House for nearly a month until the bill is defeated.
  • FDR Elected

    Roosevelt wins the 1932 election in a landslide victory, setting the country on a new course towards the New Deal and liberalism.
  • Start of New Bank Runs

    Start of New Bank Runs
    The governor of Lousiana announces a state holiday to let its banks' cash reserves recover physical currencey. On February 6, the banks reopen and have somewhat recovered their reserves enough to remain open. This success, however, prompted a domino of other states to annouce state holidays for their own banks, most of them not considering the effect they would have on the economy as a whole, causing widespread panic and even more withdrawals from bank accounts, leading to rampant insolvency.
  • FDR Inagurated

    FDR's first inaguration marks the beginning of the Hundred Day period in which the government passed some of the most reformative legislation of the century.
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    1st Hundred Days

    Roosevelt's first Hundred Days in office offered a landslide of reformative legislation and government agencies.
  • Newly Inaugurated Roosevelt Declares National Bank Holiday

    Newly Inaugurated Roosevelt Declares National Bank Holiday
    One day after taking the oath, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt issues a national banking holiday with no definite resume date. The holiday was officially over March 13, a week from the start of the holiday. During this time, Roosevelt and Congress deliberated on legislation aimed at restoring America's finacial state, eventually passing the Emergency Banking Act on March 9, dictating which banks deemed safe to open once March 13 arrived.
  • Fireside Chats

    On this day FDR delivered the first of what became known as his fireside chats. These "chats" helped create a feeling of intimacy and connection among Americans and their president and boosted Roosevelt's popularity.
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)

    Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
    This act came into effect in order to reduce excess of crops, and prevented farmers from growing on certain areas of their lands, and required them to kill off excess livestock. This act therefore raised the price of crops because there wasn't an excess of anything.
  • National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)

    National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA)
    The NIRA was a law passed that allowed the President to rise, or at least attempt to rise, prices of US products to recover the economy by regulating and adjusting industry.
  • Civilian Conservtion Corps (CCC)

    Civilian Conservtion Corps (CCC)
    The CCC was a public program intended to, in the words of Hoover, "keep kids off city street corners", by creating a 'green squad'. The CCC was essentially a public works program to help 'troubled citizens' by placing them into environmental protection program.
  • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)

    Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
    The FERA, under Hoover's administration, funded other disaster agencies and worked with the CCC to rebuild communities after disaster. Today, its equivalent would be FEMA.
  • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

    Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
    The TVA was created in order to create crews from a government charter to help the Tennessee Valley, an area greatly affected by the Great Depression, in order to provide help with naigation, electricity generators, and flood control, all these services were also meant to spark economic growth.
  • Gold Standard Removed

    FDR finally pulled the nation off the gold standard after years of it severely limiting economic growth and health. Although effective in the era of its passing, Roosevelt recognized its crippling effects on the economy.
  • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)

    Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
    The SEC act during the New Deal was created with the intent to allow government regulation over securities and transactions past the initial market in order to protect the investment population of the US.
  • Dust Bowl

    Dust Bowl
    Gale force winds and sandstorms erupt in an already drought-ridden, heated Kansas, soon spreading across other southern states. Farms across cenntral and eastern United States were in drought and experienced intense heat, literally tons of soil being tossed in the wind, and all remaining crops being ripped out of the ground. This storm, which began in 1931, did not end until 1939. This stormeventually caused the migration of "Okies" and other farmers to California.
  • National Labor Relations Board (NLRB)

    The NLRB was created during the New Deal in order to encourage employees to bargain with eachother and their employer in order to have better work lives, and also protect workers.
  • Resettlement Administration (RA)

    Resettlement Administration (RA)
    This New Deal act used a federal agency to reloacte urban and rural famalies to government communities between April of 1935 to December of 1936.
  • FDR Reelected

    FDR was elected for his second term, allowing him to continued his reformative program.
  • UAW Strike

    The United Auto Worker's organization led a strike at a General Motors plant in Michigan that spread across the country. Unfortunately, the stike ended in violence and only minimal increases in pay.
  • Roosevelt Recession

    Unemployment rose unexpectedly in spring of 1937 and into 1938, forming what many Roosevelt critics termed the "Roosevelt Recession." It provided a temporary setback in economic improvement and expansion.
  • Farm Security Adminstration (FSA)

    Farm Security Adminstration (FSA)
    The FSA went hand in hand with the RA; attempting to fight rural American poverty by relocating rural famalies to government subsidized communities.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

    Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
    The FLSA was put into power to establish standards for employees; overtime pay, minimum wage, and record keeping. The FLSA also established rights for youth employees.
  • FDR Reelected

    Roosevelt is elected yet again, becoming the only president to serve a third (and later fourth) term.
  • Pearl Harbor

    Pearl Harbor
    The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the US naval base on Pearl Harbor off the coast of Hawaii, killing about 2,000 Americans and wounding another 1,000. With no prior warning or declaration of war, the Japanese launched bombers and fighter planes against the base, sinking many battleships and warships that would later be repaired to fight in WWII in the Pacific theater after the US declares war on Japan on December 8, 1941.
  • Conclusion

    The stock market disaster of 1929, the surplus of farm goods from WWI, and the Dust Bowl all coalesced into the Great Depression, forcing the hand of politicians like FDR to either address the grievences of the American people, or continue Herbert Hoover's policy of hands-off economics and watch America crumble. Just as in the days of Washington, when the nation had to decide what economic system they wanted to run on, so did FDR, except under unemployment and debt, not a newborn country.