Séance 6

  • Latino populat° higher than Asian immigrants

    Latinos: 4,5% of pop, by 1990 it doubled
    --> 33% inhab of LA/Miami were Hispanic, 48% of San Antonio, 70% of El Paso
    majority of Latinos were concentrated in Cali/Southwest
    --> some fled civil W/gov violence/economic troubles, most ø visa but stayed for $
    --> ø well received by Am: they believed they would cost them their jobs/economic security: bigotry and violence toward them increased
  • Period: to

    New arrivals

    13m° new arrivals in US = mostly were immigrants Latin Am and Asia
    1965: before immigrat° act reforms, less than 1% Am were of Asian ancestry and by 1990, it tripled
    before 1965: majority of Asian Am were of Jap ancestry, Chinese adn Filipino Am
    = US absorbed both skilled/unskilled Asian immigrants
    --> left their countries for better living condit°s: escaped poverty or their home countries were not economically able to support them
  • Lebanon invas°

    Israel invaded southern Lebanon, officially in retaliation for a Palestinian operation (Palestine shelled Israel from Lebanon)
    R = O effort to halt Israeli offensive but agreed to send US marines to Lebanon to join the peacekeeping force
    --> teh Am troops became embroiled in a W btw Christian and Muslims fact°s, as the Muslims accused the US marines to help the Christian-dominated gov. rather than act as neutral peacekeepers.
  • The leftists insurgents in Nicaragua

    they overthrown Anastasia Somosa (ally of the US & member of a dictatorial family that ruled the Central America nat° since mid-1930) Revolutionaries called themselves Sadinistas (in honor of César Sandino who headed the nationalistic anti-imperialist Nicaraguan opposition againts the US occupation in 1930s)
  • Camp David Accords between Israel and Egypt

    raised hope of a lasting settlement involving self-gov. for the Palestinian Arabs living in the Israeli occupied Gaza Strip and West Bank
    --> it did not happened and Israel and the PLO (Palestinian Liberat° Organizat°) were still in disagreement
  • Groups of terrorists acts...

    numerous acts were made to advance their political aims
    --> many of them were associated w/Palestinian cause and Islamic fundamentalism
    ex: 690 hijackings (217 > Am), kidnappings, bombings, shootings... in 1985
    --> most of these act°s were from Iran, Libya, Lebanon, Gaza Strip
  • AM soc in 1980s

    after years of struggle/divis° Am started think that unity=dream
    There was still a deep social/cultural divs° btw Americans
    --> powerful Christian groups challenged Am.culture
    --> new technologies reshaped work/leisure
    --> new waves of immigrat°s was changing the composit° of the populat°
  • 80s and the women

    they expected greater liberties than their mothers
    --> they attended university, took posit°s reserved to men only before
    by 1985: + than half of the married women with children under 3 worked outside of the house (many for economic reasons)
  • People living in poverty

    33% black
    26% Latinos
    10% white
    REASONS: racism, changin job structure, manual unskilled jobs were paid lower
    --> NY lost 234,000 blue collars in 10y
  • 80s, difficulties...

    homelessness rose up
    --> they were alcoholics, poor families, drug addicts, former psychiatric patients who were discharged bcs of the deinstitualizat°
  • CIA & counterrevolutionaries

    they began train/arm/direct + 10mil counterrevolutionaries (the contras) to overthrow the Nicaraguan gov. --> 1984: Congress voted to stop US military aid to contras (but secretly, R's admin lined up other countries -Saudi Ar/S Korea/Panama- to funnel $/weapons to contras)
    --> 1985: R imposed an economic embargo in Nicaragua to undermine Sandinista gov.
    = after approx 10y of W: Nicaragua became one of the poorest countries/30,000 Nicaraguans died
  • AIDS epidemic

    era of safe sex (thank to Penicillin an Pills) was over bcs of AIDS, genital herpes and chlamydia
    The politicians unwillingness (bcs it spread +mainly in gay couples) to devote resources to fight AIDS made it deadly
    ACT UP (AIDS Coalit° To Unleash Power) organized demonstrat°s, they wrapped the house of conservative senator Jess Helms in a huge condom
  • People for the American way

    founded by ppl from diff fields such as business, relig°, politics, entertainment
    --> they promoted civil liberties & freedom, separat° of the church/state, value of tolerance and diversity
    --> it is one of the movements against the New Right, even though it was accepted by the gov. the pop saw it as doctrine of intolerance which threatens basic freedoms
  • Vincent CHIN, Chinese Am, examples...

    27y, beaten to death by unemployed autoworker in Detroit who mistook him for a Japanese during the Japanese dominat° in automobile market
    LA: Af Am boycotted Korean groceries and in schools riots broke out btw Af Am and Mexicans
  • What Reagan told an audience of Evangelical Christians, Florida

    Soviets are "the focus of evil in the modern world, an evil empire"
    same y: restrict° commercial flights to Soviet Un° after Soviet pilot mistakenly shot down a South Korean commercial jet, killing 269 passengers.
    same y: federal debt drove up bcs administrat° launched the largest peacetime arms buildup in American history
  • Reagan's announce concerning space

    desired space based defense shield > ballistic missiles
    name of the project: Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
    --> CRITICS: such system is impossible & some enemy missiles would always get through
    they also warned that the SDI would elevate the arms race to dangerous new levels
  • President and US troops

    he sent them to the Island of Granada (Caribbean) to oust pro-marxist gov. that appeared to be forging ties w/Moscow and Havana
    - in El Salvador: R offered military/economic assistance to a military dominated gov. struggling > left-wing revolutionaries
    US: spent + than 6b° there in counterinsurgency W (guerre > révolutionnaires) Jan 1992: Salvadoran negotiated UN-sponsored peace
  • Beirut attacks, bombing

    The suicide bomber, an Iranian national named Ismail Ascari, detonated his explosives, he killed 214 Am servicemen
    --> R pulled the remaining marines out 4months later because it was showing growing danger of terrorism to US and other Western countries
  • Spendings...

    military budget hit $294b° which meant that the Pentagon spent an average of $28m°/hour
  • Soviet stepped up the W

    Reagan's administration sent + high tech weapons
    for ex: the Stingers which could be fired by a single soldier
  • Highjacking of a jetliner

    a Shi'ite muslim terrorist from Lebanon highjacked a jetliner and killed 1 passenger and took 39 Am hostages for 17 d
  • Reagan and Gorbachev

    they met in 1985 and agreed on the fact that strategic weapons usage should be reduced
    --> after the coming to power of Gorbachev (1985), Reagan saw his reputat° dwindling, he agreed to friendlier relationships (Russia was his enemy before) btw 2 superpowers of the world
  • Secretly sold weapons to Iran

    who did it: Reagan's security adviser (John Pointdexter), marine lieutenant colonel (Olivier North), CIA director (Casey)
    --> it was partly an attempt (failure) to release Am hostages held by Islamic fundamentalist groups in Mid-East
    at the same time: Washington condemned Iran as a terrorist nat° and demanded America's allies not to trade w/Islamic states anymore
  • South Africa

    in the decade: the Am diplomacy became + aggressive w/time
    public protest and congressional legislat° forced the R's admin to impose economic restrict°s > S Af
    --> within 2y approx. half of the US companies pulled out of S Af
  • Simpson-Rodino Act

    Congress passed it, meant to sanct° employers who hired undocumented workers, provided amnesty and a path to citizenship to the m° of immigrates who arrived before 1982
  • Peace process

    it stopped & Palestinians living in the West Bank began an uprising > Israeli forces. Israel refused to negotiate but the US decided to talk w/PLO chief (Yasi Arafat) after he renounced terrorism and accepted Israel's right to live in peace and security
    For the PLO to recognize Israel and for the US to recognize the PLO were major developments in the Arab- Israeli conflict, even as lasting settlement remained elusive.
  • Reagan and Gorbachev signed...

    signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces treaty (INF) in which they banned all based intermediate range nuclear missiles in Europe
    --> 2,800 missiles incl. Soviet ones were targeted at Western EU and NATO ones targeting the Soviet Un° were destroyed
    = both sides were disarmed and Soviets decided reduce their armed force nad withdraw from Afghanistan
  • Pan Am (airline company)

    a passenger plane destroyed over Scotland by a bomb concealed in a cassette player, several groups claimed responsibility for it but no one never knew who it really was.
  • National report on race

    looked back on to 1968 Kerner Commission report to warn people that "America is becoming again 2 separate soc", black and white
    --> the report focused on Af Am enduring poverty/segregat°/crimes in ghettos while white ppl lived nicely in the suburbs
  • By that time...

    25% of households were composed of 1 parent
    --> 59% Af Am children (half of them were poor) for 17% of white children lived in household headed by a single woman
  • Technology

    around that time: companies invested in tech: computers = essentials
    half Am families owned some sort of a computer
    half subscribed to cable TV
    --> MTV became a cultural phenomenon - it premiered the music vid "Thriller" of M.Jackson in 1983 + Madonna's "Boy toy"
    - families went less to movie theaters and rented movies to watch it at their houses
  • Bush

    pardoned former gov. officials of lying to Congress
    critics thought that was a cover-up for Bush who participated in high level meetings on Iran-contras deals
  • Black men

    they were more frequently arrested than they were graduating college