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Post-Romanticism Era (1890-1930)

  • Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)

    Gustav Mahler (1860-1911)
    Born in Bohemia on 1860, Gustav Mahler was influential during the Post Romantic Era for combining older styles of the 19th century to newer ones in the 20th. Mahler played a key influence during a very transitional time for music and pioneered many ideas seen in the 20th century such as "progressive tonality" or a focus on contrapuntal textures within orchestras. Some famous pieces by Mahler include 'Des Knaben Wunderhorn', 'Ode to Heavenly Joy', and 'Symphony No. 5'.
  • Claude Debussy (1862-1918)

    Claude Debussy (1862-1918)
    Born in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France, Claude Debussy was famous for his harmony and musical structure which reflected many musical ideas at the time including Symbolism and Impressionism. He was inspired by many Romantic era composers including Chopin and Tchaikovsky. Some of his most famous works include “Clair de lune”, “Nocturnes”, and “Pelléas et Mélisande”.
  • Richard Strauss (1864-1949)

    Richard Strauss (1864-1949)
    Born in Munich, Germany, Richard Strauss was well known for his Maximalist pieces and often included realism in his music. he has made a large variety of poems, orchestral works, operas, piano pieces, and chamber pieces. Some of his more popular works include “An Alpine Symphony, Op. 64”, and "Elektra".
  • Erik Satie (1866-1925)

    Erik Satie (1866-1925)
    Born in Honfleur, France, Erik Satie set the foundation for what would become the Impressionist movement. He was famous for adding drama and realism to many of his works. Some of his famous pieces include "Gymnopédie" and "Je te veux".
  • Max Reger (1873-1916)

    Max Reger (1873-1916)
    Born in Germany on 1873, Maximillian Reger was often regarded as the master of counterpoint. He was well known for his choral music but also made a lot of writings throughout his life. Some of his most famous pieces include "Mariae Wiegenlied" and "Three chorale fantasias, Op. 52"
  • Gustav Holst (1874-1934)

    Gustav Holst (1874-1934)
    Born in Cheltenham, England, Gustav Holst was known for his unique orchestration. Many of his works were inspired by folksongs from across the world along Astronomy and Astrology. Some of his most well known pieces include "The Planets", "St Paul's Suite", and "Japanese Suite".
  • Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)

    Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)
    Born in Vienna, Austria, Arnold Schoenberg is best known for his development 12 tone music. He was one of the earliest composers for Expressionist style of music and taught two well known students: Alben Berg and Alton Weben. Some of his most famous pieces include "Verklärte Nacht" and "Five Pieces for Orchestra".
  • Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)

    Maurice Ravel (1875-1937)
    Born in Ciboure, France, Maurice Ravel created many new and versatile piano styles. Unlike most composers of the day Ravel's work was based more in tradition and established conventions. However Ravel would also give many of his pieces his own type of styling, some of these include "Boléro" and "Pavane pour une infante défunte".
  • Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)

    Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971)
    Born in Lomonosov, Russia, Igor Stravinsky was well known for how he focused on pulse and articulation, which became very popular through his ballets. He was also famous for jumping from style to style with out settling on one thing for too long. Some of his most famous pieces include "The Rite of Spring", "The Firebird", and "Petrushka".
  • Alban Berg (1885-1935)

    Alban Berg (1885-1935)
    Born in Vienna, Austria, Alban Berg was famous for his 12 tone and atonal music. As one of Schoenberg's most famous students, he continued his movement of Expressionism in his works. Some of his most famous pieces include "Wozzeck" and "Lulu".
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    Impressionism

    One of the first Anti-Romantic styles that tried to move away from many German composers such as Richard Wagner. Impressionism focused on vagueness and usually disregarded chord progressions and were usually tonal. Some famous composers of this style include Debussy and Ravel.
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    Maximalism

    Often regarded as the opposite of Impressionism, Maximalism emphasized thick textures along with extreme chromaticism. It often utilized large performance groups with many themes and motifs. Composers include Gustav Mahler and Richard Strauss
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    Avant-Garde

    Avant-Garde style is defined by it use of experimental or unorthodox ideas in music. During the Post-Romantic era Avant-Garde was used to oppose the ideas of German composers and The Romantic Era.
  • Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1951)

    Sergei Prokofiev  (1891-1951)
    Born in Sontsovka, Ukraine, Sergei Prokofiev, incorporated many modern elements into more traditional classical music. Prokofiev was one of the most influential Neo-Classical composers with many famous pieces such as "Romeo and Juliet", "Peter and the Wolf", and "Piano Concerto No. 3".
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    Jazz

    Although distinct in its own right, American Jazz was heavily influenced by the Post-Romantic age. It incorporated many ideas from this era, such as unique chord progressions, and also had influence from many different cultures. Two popular subgenres of Jazz during this era include Ragtime and Blues
  • Fin de Siècle

    A French term literally meaning "end of the century", a lot of music around this time focused on worldliness , escapism, and sophistication.
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    Les Six

    Les Six was a group of five French composers and one Swiss composer whose music was meant to break away from traditional German music from the Romantic Era. The composers included Darius Milhaud, Francis Poulenc, Arthur Honegger, Georges Auric, Louis Durey, and Germaine Tailleferre.
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    Expressionism

    Created in Germany and Austria in the Early 1910s, Expressionism focused on completely freeing music from tonality and chord progressions. Composers include Arnold Schoenberg, Alban Berg, and Alton Weben.
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    Neo-Classicalism

    Neo-Classicalism was a return to the beliefs and characteristics of both the Classical and Baroque era, while also maintaining many new ideas throughout the 20th century. Famous Neo-Classical composers include Igor Stravinsky and Maurice Ravel
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    Primitivism

    Primitivism utilized ideas and Themes not often found in western music. Many composers took inspiration from parts of African and Asian music and incorporated it into music 20th century western music.
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    Gebrauchmusik

    Gebrauchmusik is music that was made primarily for utility and was often simple in the way it was written. It was usually meant to be played more by amateurs than professionals.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    Archduke Franz Ferdinand, monarch of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, is assassinated in Sarajevo. This event directly leads to the outbreak World War I.
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    World War I

    The Great War, as it is also known, saw most of the world fall into conflict in one of the most deadly wars in human history. Many traditional orchestral performances began to decline as many musicians were sent to fight in the war. War songs became popular during this time.
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    Dadaism

    Dadaism was a movement created by artists to oppose World War I. Most music from this movement was very non-sensical, harsh, and "non musical".
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    Russian Revolution

    Due to many underlining factors, Russia broke out into a brutal Civil War nearing the end of World War I that would lead in the rise of the Soviet Union. During this time many Russian Composers either fled the country or went into exile. Music in Russia slowly started to become more propagandistic.
  • Beginning of The Roaring Twenties

    The Roaring Twenties was the decade between 1920-1930 which saw major economical and technological improvements for most of the western world. During the roaring twenties many new styles such as Jazz, Ragtime, Blues, and Swing started to become very popular
  • Beginning of the Great Depression

    The stock market begins to collapse in an event know as Black Thursday, eventually resulting in The Great Depression. During this time most struggled to make a living as the economy got worse and worse in much of the western world. It was also during this time Post-Romanticism begins to slowly decline.