The Path of the Native Peoples

  • Jan 1, 1492

    Columbus Arrives in America

    Although Native Americans were afflicted by European guns and technology, the most detrimental effects to their society were brought by diseases, cultural suppression, and being forced off ancestral land. Therefore, the European colonization of North America severely degenerated Native American society.
  • Period: Jan 1, 1492 to

    The Path of the Native Americans

  • Jan 1, 1539

    Napituca Massacre

    Hernando De Soto explores Florida. Along the way, he encounters hostile Timucuan warriors, which he defeats and executes in the first massacre of Native Americans by Europeans.
  • Jamestown Founded

    Jamestown is founded as the first English colony in America, and sets an important precedent for the English taking advantage of Native American knowledge and resources. Settlers increasingly encroached on native land and relied on natives for food and shelter.
  • Smallpox Epidemic

    A smallpox epidemic swept through coastal Native Americans, climaxing in 1616 and the following three years. This epidemic wiped out about 90% of the native population and significantly weakened them to European advances.
  • First Native American - European Treaty

    The Plymouth settlers sign a peace treaty with the Wampanoag tribe, probably the first agreement signed between North Americans and Europeans.
  • Indian Massacre of 1622

    The Powhatan tribe brutaly attacked Jamestown and nearby settlements in retaliation to English seizure of tribal land.
  • Metacom's War

    The Wampanoag tribe, led by Cheif Metacom, started this war with an attack on the English settlement of Swansea. Metacom believed that his people were being continually driven westward by the English settlers.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Nathaniel Bacon led English colonists against Indians that had raided a settlement. Unfortunately, he initially attacked the wrong tribe, resulting in even more raids and animosity between the two groups.
  • Early Slavery

    Although slavery makes most think only about africans. But in reality, American Indians made up one-fourth up all the snelaved people in the carolinas in the early 1700's
  • Slave Markets

    One of the first North American slave markets is erected at Wall Street, selling both Africans and Native Americans.
  • French and Indian War

    The French and Indian War, which lasted from 1756 to 1763, weakened many native tribes and contributed to American's idea of natives as war-like barbarians. This view would justify many actions taken by the federal government against future tribes.
  • Scalp Act

    Governor Morris declared war on the Delaware and Shawnee Indians, placing a bounty on the scalps of all natives.
  • First Indian Reservation

    The colony of New Jersey established the first Indian Reservation, setting an important precendent for future government actions.
  • Anglo-Cherokee War

    The Cherokee revolted agaisnt the English, initially their allies, because of suspected betrayals and breaking treaties.
  • Proclamtion of 1763

    Isuued by King George the third in order to ease tensions between Frane, the natives and Britan. It forbade all settlement across a line drawn along the Appalachain Mountains.
  • Pontiac's Rebellion

    Pontiac pulled together a loose confederation of natives in the Great Lakes region to resist American settlers and their anti-Indian policies.
  • Treaty of Paris

    While it eneded the American Revolution War, it also ceded a large amount of territory that belonged to the Native Americans, without their consent.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    The Northwest Ordinance caused a surge of westward expansion, while only providing minimally for Indian landholdings and governmental rights.
  • Commerical Clause

    The federal government claims the power the regulate commerce with Indian tribes.
  • Northwest Indian War

    Culminating in the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, this war was fought by natives to prevent white encroachment on their ancestral land.
  • Treaty of Greenville

    The Treaty of Greenville was signed between the United States government and northwestern Indian tribes to end warfare and settle land and sovereignty disputes.
  • Indian Removal Act

    Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson, it gave him power to grant unsettled land in exchange for Indian land west of the Mississippi. Along with this, around 4,000 Cheroke Indians died on a forced march, which became known as 'the trail of tears".
  • Worcester v. Georgia

    Court case deciding that only the federal court has jurisdiction over the native american population, because they're a seperate nation from the US.
  • Treaty of Echota

    A small group of Cherokee Indians, 500, sign an agreement with the US government to authorize more sales of their lands.
  • Trail of Tears

    Cherokee Indins begin their march towards present day Oklahoma after a long fought migration resistance.
  • Sandcreek Massacre

    A US Calvary, led by Colonel Chivington brutally slaughters over 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, chiefly women and children. This attack would later lead to the raid on Julesburg, 39 days later.
  • Custer's Last Stand

    Custer is brutally defeated by an army of Lakota, Cheyenne, and Apaho Indians led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Enacted by congress, allowing the president to allot land to Indians in 160 acre installments to American Indian heads of household. After each household had recieved lands, the remaining amount were to be sold to Anglo American homesteaders.
  • Murder of Sitting Bull

    Sitting Bull, a Sioux chief, is murdered by Indian police, who have orders from the territorial Indian agent, who suspects Sitting Bull will lead Indians in igniting a war against the whites.
  • Wounded Knee Massacre

    A Seventh Calvary battalion opens fire on a camp of Sioux indians at Wounded Knee Creek. This attack kills nearly 300 people, two-thirds of those being women and children.
  • Ghost Dance

    Wovoka has a spiritual vision that leads him to encourage Indians to 'reform' their lives, this event will later be assumsed to be used as a tactic to fight against the whites.
  • Society of American Indians

    American Indian graduates from various schools establish this orginization. Their main goal is to encourage other American Indians to have looser constitutions on tribal identities and local conerns in order to become a more nationally supported group.
  • National Congress of American Indians

    The group created to improve upon the efforts of the Society of American Indians and the American Indian Federation. This group fought against "termination" policies put in place by congress, worked towards overcoming tribal living, and put plans in place to create an alliance between them and the U.S government. In conclusion, these events in succession, along with the still tireless battle for Native American freedom and representation, leads to where they are today.