Nicolaus CopernicusBorn; February 19, 1473
Nicolaus Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, and catholic canon. who formulated a model of the universe. That placed the sun rather than the Earth at its center.
Francis BaconBorn: January 22, 1561
most known for his philosophy of science. He argued that scientific knowledge is obtained after making observations. He also argued that controlled scientific experimentation is essential for understanding nature.
Galileo Galileiborn; February 15, 1564
Galileo Galilei was an engineer, astronomer, and sometimes described as a polymath. He is famous because he was the first to report telescopic observations. of the mountains on the moon, the moon of Jupiter, and the phases of venus.
Rene DescartesBorn; March 31, 1596
Rene Descartes was a French philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. mathematics was central to his method of inquiry, and he made an important connection between geometry and algebra.
Isaac NewtonBorn; January 4, 1643
Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, alchemist, and author. Who was described in his time as a ¨nautral philosopher¨.
John LockeBorn; August 29, 1632
was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers. founder of a school of thought known as British Empiricism.
MontesquieuBorn; January 18, 1689
was a French judge, historian, and political philosopher. He is the principal source of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. The Spirit of Laws
Denis DiderotBorn; October 5, 1713
was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie.
Jean-Jacques RousseauBorn; July 2, 1778
was a Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of the French Revolution and the development of modern political, economic, and educational thought
Voltaireborn; November 21, 1694,
was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher. Known for his fictitious Lettres philosophiques and the satirical novel Candide, he was famous for his wit, and his criticism of Christianity especially of the Roman Catholic Church and of slavery.
James WattBorn; January 19, 1736
was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1776, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
Adam SmithBorn; July 17, 1790
was a Scottish economist and philosopher who was a pioneer in the thinking of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment. Smith is most famous for his 1776 book, "The Wealth of Nations."
George WashingtonBorn; February 22, 1732
was an American military officer, statesman, and Founding Father who served as the first president of the United States. often called the “Father of His Country.”
Thomas JeffersonBorn; April 13, 1743
was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Wolfgang Amadeus MozartBorn; January 27, 1756
was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical period. Despite his short life, his rapid pace of composition resulted in more than 800 works of virtually every genre of his time.
Maximillien RobespierreBorn; May 6, 1758
was a French lawyer and statesman who became one of the best-known, influential, and controversial figures of the French Revolution.
Miguel HidalgoBorn; May 8, 1753
was a Catholic priest, leader of the Mexican War of Independence and recognized as the Father of the Nation.
Simon BolivarBorn; July 24, 1783
was a Venezuelan military and political leader who led what are currently the countries of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Panama, and Bolivia to independence from the Spanish Empire.