History of Schools, Schooling, and Curriculum

Timeline created by EDUC614
  • The American Civil War begins

    The American Civil War begins
    Fought between the Northern and Southern havles of America and was mainly circled around the legality of slavery.
  • Southern Reconstruction begins

    Southern Reconstruction begins
  • The American Civil War ends

    The American Civil War ends
    Ends at Appomatox Courthouse, when General Robert E. Lee surrenders.
  • Abraham Lincoln assassinated

    Abraham Lincoln assassinated
    Andrew Johnson becomes president. (southern Democrat and advocate of states' rights)
  • Slavery Abolished

    Slavery Abolished
  • Southern Reconstruction ends

    Southern Reconstruction ends
  • McGraw-Hill was founded

    McGraw-Hill was founded
    Textbook publishing company was founded.
  • Reluctant Allies - Psychologists and Education

    Reluctant Allies - Psychologists and Education
    Change in higher education during the 1890s
    pressure to organize learning around post-Darwinian conception of science
    growing acceptance of natural evolution
    innovation and progress became associated with specialization and experimentation Philosophy underwent a change from being exclusively for men with ministerial training to a secular academic profession Psychology separated itself from Philosophy
    began study of mental structures and functions which had relevance for education
  • Booker T. Washington

    Booker T. Washington
    Founder of Tuskegee University in 1895. Clashed with W.E.B. DuBois over avenues of racial uplift. Booker T. Washington believed that African Americans should accept disenfranchisement and social segregation as long as they had access to economic and educational opportunities. He was a proponent of vocational education for all African Americans which was in direct contrast to W.E.B. DuBois demand for equality. https://www.biography.com/people/booker-t-washington-9524663
  • William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education

    William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education
    1896 : William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education
    study of child in school and family was due to the influence of G. Stanley Hall was contrary to his personal philosophy - the belief that study should begin with the analysis of different branches of human learning and how those could be organized into school curricula G. Stanley Hall thought that systematic studies of children would improve educational practice.
  • G. Stanley Hall - Boston Kindergarten Study

    G. Stanley Hall - Boston Kindergarten Study
    G. Stanley Hall thought that systematic studies of children would improve educational practice. In the Boston Kindergarten Study concluded that "“the mind can learn only what is related to other things learned before and that we must start from the knowledge the children really have and develop this as germs.... [support ] “practical educational conclusions of great scope and importance.” New and expansive conception of educational research based upon a broad and synthetic view of education
  • William James and the role of Harvard University

    William James and the role of Harvard University
    Did not believe that all teachers should or could contribute to Child Study. Began career as a physiologist and moved into psychology
    Argued that habits were built through the repetition of acts
    coming together to form consciousness or “stream of thought”, habits made it possible to digest all the diverse stimuli to which one was subject and this human thought and awareness was grounded in biology
  • Charles Eliot - President of Harvard University

    Charles Eliot - President of Harvard University
    Eliot wanted high schools to be linked upward and identified as “feeders” to Harvard. This conflicted with the Mass Board of Ed which wanted HS as a capstone and Normal Schools to be teachers colleges, not universities. Eliot Limited Harvard teacher courses to males. It was his opinion that there was no “science” to teaching.
  • John Dewey

    John Dewey
    One of the first to embrace the study of education.
    Dewey established an experimental school at University of Chicago where the curricular focus was on occupations rather than studies. He believed that “the child comes to school to do; to cook, to sew to work with wood and tools in simple constructive acts; within and about these acts cluster the studies....” Dewey thought that the school’s aim was to allow students to express their individuality and attain control of own power.
  • Edward Thorndike

    Edward Thorndike
    Thorndike formulated ideas that were more suited for the translation into formulas for educational practice. He is considered the "Father" of the measurement movement. Thorndike was a strong proponent of Nature vs. Nurture - learning as defined as making connections between stimuli and responses; focusing on the importance of individual differences based upon inherited traits and characteristics.
    He ultimately believed that “What anyone becomes by education depends on what he is by nature.”
  • W.E.B. DuBois

    W.E.B. DuBois
    W.E.B. Du Bois rose to national prominence when he very publicly opposed Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise," an agreement that asserted that vocational education for blacks was more valuable than social advantages like higher education or political office. Du Bois criticized Washington for not demanding equality for African Americans, as granted by the 14th Amendment. Published Souls of Black Folks in 1903. Founded NAACP. https://www.biography.com/people/web-du-bois-9279924
  • W.E.B DuBois

    W.E.B DuBois
  • Russell Sage Foundation

    Russell Sage Foundation
    Russell Sage Foundation was created in 1907 by Margaret Olivia Sage. The foundation was dedicated to improving the social and living conditions in US social investigation with public advocacy, supporting much of the survey movement's work.
  • International Commission on Mathematical Instruction was founded

    Felix Klein became first president.
  • First Flight

    First Flight
    The Wright brothers orchestrated the first flight.
  • Montclair and East Orange NJ School Surveys

    Montclair and East Orange NJ School Surveys
    Movement began in 1911 when Paul Hanus of Harvard surveyed the Montclair NJ schools and E.C. Moore of Yale surveyed the East Orange NJ schools . This became the model of social research
  • First Montessori School Opens In U.S.

    First Montessori School Opens In U.S.
    The first Montessori school opened in Scarborough, NY and many began to follow in other states.
    https://amshq.org/Montessori-Education/Introduction-to-Montessori
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    restructures US Banking and Currency- Income Tax 16th Amendment
  • National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE)

    National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE)
    Founded in 1914 at Teachers College Columbia University. Published a yearbook dedicated to curriculum construction /development that focused on a variety of methods and approaches available to educators. Teachers were NOT involved
  • WWI Begins

    WWI Begins
    Takes place in Europe.
  • Leonard Ayres

    Leonard Ayres
    Ayres was a leader in the survey movement, serving as the chief in the Department of Statistics within the Department of Education. Ayres was a proponent of Thorndike's ideas.
  • The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Schools

    The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Schools
    Report on US Secondary schools indicated that there should be growth in 7 areas: health, 3Rs, worth home ownership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, and ethical character.
  • John Franklin Bobbitt

    John Franklin Bobbitt
    Bobbitt believed in the "The Scientific Study of Society - a scientific approach to curriculum. In 1918 he wrote the book, The Curriculum.
    Bobbitt thought curriculum should TRAIN citizens, and should identify objectives of vocations. The ramifications of his ideas were:
    the diversification of curriculum; decoupling of curriculum from traditional academic subjects; and encouragement of educators to claim expertise in their areas.
  • WWI Ends

    WWI Ends
    Many reparations are imposed on Germany and the League of Nations is formed
  • Prohibition enacted - 18th amendment

    Prohibition enacted - 18th amendment
  • Treaty of Versailles is signed

    Treaty of Versailles is signed
    Plants the seed for WWII
  • Scholastic was founded

    Scholastic was founded
    Scholastic, a company that offered educational materials and services, was created.
  • Women's Suffrage

    Women's Suffrage
    The 19th Amendment was passed in 1920 to give women the right to vote.
  • Edith Clarke

    Edith Clarke
    Edith Clarke became the first professionally employed female electrical engineer in the US
  • Report of the National Committee on Mathematical Requirements

    A report released findings on a new curriculum on how math should be addressed through the 8th grade. It also addressed that more complex mathematics should be saved for those who showed promise.
  • Teachers College School System

    Teachers College School System
    Founded by Abraham Flexner whose goal was to reform pre-college education. Thought that schools should be organized around four subjects: science, industry, aesthetics and civics - while reading, writing and spelling are the instruments. He, along with James Earl Russell, were among the first to be interested in teachers carrying out experiments. TC School System consisted of: Horace Mann K-12

    Speyer School for neighborhood outreach and Lincoln (K-12) - looking at curricular change.
  • Great Gatsby was Published

    Great Gatsby was Published
  • Penguin Random House Founded

    Penguin Random House Founded
    Publishing company of books, including children books
  • Scopes "Monkey" Trial

    Scopes "Monkey" Trial
    In this court case, originally titled The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes, Scopes was accused of violating the Butler Act. This act made it illegal to teach evolution in state-funded schools. Scopes was found guilty and fined.
  • The Great Depression Begins

    The Great Depression Begins
    The stock market crashes
  • 21st amendment is ratified

    21st amendment is ratified
    Prohibition is repealed after about 14 years.
  • Social Security Act is Passed

    Social Security Act is Passed
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act
    The first minimum wage is set in the U.S. at 25 cents an hour.
  • Second World War begins

    Second World War begins
    Begins in Europe when Germany invaded Poland
  • Gone with the Wind

  • Little Golden Books was founded

    Little Golden Books was founded
    Early childhood "first readers" publishing company was created.
  • WWII Ends

    WWII Ends
    Ends with a victory from the Allied Powers. Approximately 6 million Jewish people as well as homosexuals, cripples, gypsies, and many other groups were massacred in death camps during the war.
  • Animal Farm

    Animal Farm
  • Mathematics Education for National Defense

    At the end of WWII, the nation calls for an increase in mathematics education for national security.
  • English Translation of The Diary of Anne Frank

    English Translation of The Diary of Anne Frank
    The influential diary of Anne Frank was translated into English.
  • Ralph W. Tyler

    Ralph W. Tyler
    Wrote the Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Pushed the movement from “mental measurements” to evaluation. Thought that exams should be designed to indicate the degree to which students are attaining all of the important goals and objectives. Tyler viewed
    testing as a catalyst for improving education. He wrote seminal book on basic principles of curriculum and instruction which became the basis for how lesson plans are created goals, objectives, etc.
  • Military Spending

    President Eisenhower feared that excessive military spending would damage the economy, so he downsized the Army after Korea and shifted priorities to missiles and nuclear weapons (which were much less expensive than army divisions). He promoted the Interstate Highway system as necessary for national defense, and made space exploration a priority. First man on moon; Much of the new spending went to California and the West, a continuation of wartime spending.
  • Farenheit 451

    Farenheit 451
  • Dow Jones Industrial Average Peaks

    Dow Jones Industrial Average Peaks
    The Dow closes at an all-time high: 382.74. This was the first time that the Dow had gone farther than its peak before the crash in 1929.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Supreme Court decision declaring state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.
  • Vietnam War begins

    Vietnam War begins
  • Sputnik

    Sputnik
    Sputnik is launched and there is a renewed emphasis on education, with a special focus on STEM
  • First Xerox Machine

    First Xerox Machine
  • National Science Foundation created summer research programs for undergrad students interested in STEM.

    REU (Research Experiences for Undergraduates)
  • National Defense Education Act

    This act provided funding for education. Title III of the act supported funding for math and science education (in additional to foreign language)
  • To Kill a Mockingbird

    To Kill a Mockingbird
  • Silent Spring

    This book launches the modern environmental movement.
  • The Science of Teaching

    The Science of Teaching
    Nate Gage began to examine the scientific basis of teaching. Produced the first Handbook of Research on Teaching in 1963
  • JFK assassination

    JFK assassination
  • Fiscal Policy

    Federal taxes on incomes, profits and payrolls had risen to high levels during World War II and had been cut back only slowly; the highest rates for individuals reached the 90% level. Congress cut tax rates in 1964. President Lyndon B. Johnson (1963–69) dreamed of creating a "Great Society", and began many new social programs to that end, such as Medicaid and Medicare.
  • U.S. Official Physical Fitness Program: Fitness Program

    This book is the foundation for physical education. This was President JFK's initiative.
  • The Civil Rights Act of 1964

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964
    Outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
  • Voter Rights Act of 1965

    Voter Rights Act of 1965
    African Americans receive the right to vote.
  • The Coleman Report

    The Coleman Report
    Produced in 1966 by James Coleman, the Coleman Report indicated that schools and teachers were powerless to overcome inequities that came from home - "teachers do not matter. The Process-Product Paradigm grew out of the research that resulted from the Coleman Report. This shaped education for the next decade and beyond.
  • Martin Luther King assassination

    Martin Luther King assassination
  • Americans Land on the Moon

    Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon. Mission commander Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin, both American, landed the lunar module Eagle on July 20, 1969, at 20:18 UTC.
  • First Man on the Moon

    Initiated by JFK and deemed a nation priority, Neil Armstrong is the first man to step foot onto the moon.
  • Watergate Scandal

    Watergate Scandal
    Several burglars were arrested in the office of the Democratic National Committee, located in the Watergate complex of buildings in Washington, D.C. This was no ordinary robbery: The prowlers were connected to President Richard Nixon’s reelection campaign, and they had been caught wiretapping phones and stealing documents.
  • Passage of Title IX

  • Nixon resigns

    Nixon took aggressive steps to cover up the crimes of Watergate, and in August 1974, after his role in the conspiracy was revealed, Nixon resigned. The Watergate scandal changed American politics forever, leading many Americans to question their leaders and think more critically about the presidency.
  • Vietnam War ends

    Vietnam War ends
  • Panama Canal back to Panama

    Panama Canal back to Panama
    President Jimmy Carter signed documents legally relinquished control of the canal back to the country of Panama.
  • FBI "Abscam" Investigation

    The FBI under-covered in this bribery investigation that a US Senator, 7 members of the House of Representatives, and 31 other public officials were guilty.
  • Project 2061

    Project 2061
    Inspired by the passing of Halley's Comet near Earth, James Rutherford established Project 2061. This project had the goal of increasing scientific literacy and culminated in the publication of Science for All Americans in 1989.
  • Computers Brought into Schools

    Computers Brought into Schools
    25% of schools had computers, throughout this time computers became more available in schools.
  • 1989 National Education Summit

    1989 National Education Summit
    President George H. Bush and the nation’s governors held a national Education Summit conference establishing six broad goals to address the issues raised in A Nation at Risk. Their report was titled The National Education Goals Report: Building a Nation of Learners and once again emphasized the development of standards for student performance.
  • Exxon Valdez Oil Spill

    More than 10 million gallons of oil are spilled in Prince William Sound, being the largest oil spill in US history.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

  • Physics First Initiative

    Physics First Initiative
    Teachers and scientists encourage schools to teach Physics in 9th grade, leaving more room for advanced study of Biology and Chemistry in later years.
  • EOG Testing Began in Schools

    EOG Testing Began in Schools
  • 1993 National Council on Education Standards and Testing

    1993 National Council on Education Standards and Testing
    The National Council on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST) was established at the urging of Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander to begin the development of bi-partisan national standards and testing for K-12 education. The effort to develop national consensus standards was ultimately unsuccessful.
  • The Giver

    The Giver
  • 1994 Goals 2000

    1994 Goals 2000
    President Clinton signed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, creating a special council to certify national and state content and performance standards, opportunity-to-learn standards, and state assessments.
    The law had many aspects, not least was its aim to “provide a framework for meeting the National Education Goals,” which included ensuring “all children will start school ready to learn,” a high school graduation rate of “at least” 90%, and more to be achieved by the year 2000.
  • 1996 National Educational Summit

    1996 National Educational Summit
    A National Education Summit is held bringing together the governors of more than 40 states as well as national business leaders to support efforts to establish clear academic standards and subject matter content at the state and local levels.
  • AP Environmental Science

    AP Environmental Science
    AP Environmental Science is introduced by the College Board.
  • First Federal Budget Plan in 30 Years

    President Clinton releases 1999 federal budget plan; it is the first balanced budget since 1969.
  • Columbine Shooting

    Columbine Shooting
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    The federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is revised and signed into law by President George W. Bush. Re-christened the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, it calls for extensive implementation of state educational standards addressing national criteria tied to federal funding. The act contains four basic education reform principles: stronger accountability, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on proven teaching methods.
  • No Child Left Behind Act for ESL Learners

    No Child Left Behind Act for ESL Learners
    The "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 set high standards for english, math, and writing in schools for all students. What this act doesn't account for are students who are not native english speakers. So ESL students, no matter when they enter the American school system, are held to the same english and literacy standards as native speakers on standardized tests. This act does not take into account the challenges ESL students overcome to keep up.
  • Publishing of NC School Report Cards

    Publishing of NC School Report Cards
    These yearly reports provided a list of North Carolina public school report cards and ranked them against each other.
  • STEM acronym created

    STEM acronym created
    US National Scientific Foundation (NSF) introduced the STEM acronym.
  • September 11 Attacks

    September 11 Attacks
    A series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on Tuesday morning, September 11, 2001.
  • War in Afghanistan begins

    The war's public aims were to dismantle al-Qaeda and to deny it a safe base of operations in Afghanistan by removing the Taliban from power. The War in Afghanistan is the second longest war in United States history
  • War in Iraq

    The Iraq War was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein
  • Tax-Cut Bill passed by Bush

    This tax cut constituted $350 million
  • Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District

    Kitzmiller vs. Dover Area School District
    In 2005, it was ruled that the Dover, PA school board could not require teachers to teach "intelligent design" as an alternative to Darwin's Theory of Evolution.
  • Minimum Wage increases to $5.85

    Minimum wage increased from $5.15 and continued to increase 70 cents per year until 2009, where it stopped at $7.25
  • Barack Obama elected

  • 2009Common Core Standards

    2009Common Core Standards
    The National Governor’s Association convened a group to develop standards. These are Copyrighted by the NGA Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers and were
    adopted by 42 of 50 States.
  • STEM to STEAM

    STEM to STEAM
    As a response to the STEM movement in the 1990s, some educators have called for the integration of an A (arts) to the word to include ideas of creativity and innovation.
  • Osama Bin Laden is Killed

    Osama Bin Laden is Killed
    The founder and first leader of the Islamist group Al-Qaeda, was killed in Pakistan on May 2, 2011 shortly after 1:00 am PKT by United States Navy SEALs of the U.S. Naval Special Warfare Development Group
  • 2014 Next Generation Science Standards

    2014 Next Generation Science Standards
    The Common Core Standards led to the state's development of first a Framework of Science followed by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in 2014.
  • The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is a US law passed in 2015 that governs the United States K–12 public education policy. The law replaced its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and modified but did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students. Like the NCLB, ESSA is a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which established the American federal government's expanded role in funding public education.
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    Mathematics in Classroom

    Prior to the 1950s and the launch of Sputnik, the math that was taught in classrooms only included basic skills that people could justify using in every day life.
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    Progressive Era

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    The Testing Movement

    Achievement tests emerged in the 1920s - not geared toward classroom objectives . These tests were standardized; fueled by the development of intelligence tests at the turn of the century. Included
    Alfred Benet and Theodore Simon - 1905 and Lewis Terman- 1916.
    Showed the importance of endowment over training through the Stanford-Binet Test of 1916 - seen as fair. This resulted in an increased reluctance on the heavy reliance on statistics and quantifiable data.
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    The Survey Movement

    The Survey Movement began in 1911 when Paul Hanus of Harvard surveyed the Montclair NJ schools and E.C. Moore of Yale surveyed the East Orange NJ schools becoming the model of social research. The purpose of surveys was to identify and publicize the ways in which all the different elements of a community had changed and what those changes meant in terms of requirements from the community.
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    World War I

    A global conflict originating and centered in Europe between the Allied powers (notably France, Britain, Russia, and eventually the U.S.) and the Central powers (notably Germany and Austria-Hungary). This decreased the number of young men in schools and left families with economic and social hardships that often made education secondary.
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    The Era of Progressive Education

    Period of confirmation of child-centered applications, the importance of real-world applications, the social importance of knowledge and the need to make schools meaningful learning experiences for students. Progressives argued against traditional methods and content in favor of content which was socially relevant, giving the students the tools and knowledge that would allow them to solve problems in their everyday lives - movement towards the teacher as a facilitator
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    The Interwar Years

    Dewey’s ideas began to re-emerge as education as a field began to have multiple voices. There was still a coherence lacking with the greatest confusion found in curriculum due to shifting social priorities and populations. Curriculum interest stimulated by several forces:
    Curriculum was an extension of the reform efforts known as progressive education; Demographic circumstances stimulated curricular interest;growth of population; increase in immigration; and diversification.
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    Great Depression

    The Great Depression was when the stock market crashed with affected the economy in the United States. Many people lost their jobs and were having financial troubles. This event resulted in families needing to rely on their older children to leave school to go to work to help support their families financially.
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    Life Adjustment Movement

    By the mid-1940s, a new educational program called the Life Adjustment Movement emerged from the education community, critiquing secondary schools as "too devoted to an academic curriculum." Public school students would need appropriate high school courses, including math programs, that focused purely on practical problems such as consumer buying, insurance, taxation, and home budgeting, but not on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry.
    https://www.csun.edu/~vcmth00m/AHistory.html
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    Civil Rights Movement

    Through non-violent protest, the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s broke the pattern of public facilities being segregated by race in the South and achieved the most important breakthrough in equal rights legislation since the reconstruction period.
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    Teaching as a black box

    Teaching was seen as a black box. Teacher traits were studied and outcomes demonstrated, but education did not examine what occurred in the classroom
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    Process Product Paradigm Emergence

    A pluralistic worldview that focused on student and teacher behaviors in the classroom. This resulted in a quantification of classroom data. The belief was that if you have a process that you apply with fidelity you will get the same product. The problem that emerged, this does not take CONTEXT into account.
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    Interpretive Models

    Emerged from the Process - Product period when people began to ask questions about what is going on within the classroom. What is happening vs. what was already occurring? People began looking for causal linkages such as: Race, culture, gender, class, identity
    Qualitative studies of the interpretive paradigm described and got at those types of particulars. The problem with this model was its GENERALIZABILITY
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    The Standards Era

    With the emergence of the Nation At Risk, Standards based education became a central focus.
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    Science for All Americans Project 2061

    Became the roadmap for systemic science education reform both at state and national levels , with a focus on "Less is more."
    Resulted in the development of the National Science Education Standards in 1996 by the National Research Council and ultimately the NGSS of 2014.
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    1985-1990s

    Researchers like Margaret Eishenhart began to focus on student - teacher interactions, specifically looking at how the construction of knowledge related to the larger social picture. Others like Geertz thought that culture needed to be further examined in order to create agency. Robert Floden and others began to examine the effects of teaching to search for causality - the causal connections between teaching and learning, including classrooms.