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    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer and mathematician known as the father of modern astronomy. He was the first European scientist to propose that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun, the heliocentric theory of the solar system.
  • Francis Bacon

    Francis Bacon
    Francis Bacon discovered and popularized the scientific method, whereby the laws of science are discovered by gathering and analyzing data from experiments and observations, rather than by using logic-based arguments.
  • Galileo Galilei

    Galileo Galilei
    He was the first to report telescopic observations of the mountains on the moon, the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and the rings of Saturn. He invented an early microscope and a predecessor to the thermometer.
  • Rene Descartes

    Rene Descartes
    Descartes has been heralded as the first modern philosopher. He is famous for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for the solving of geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations.
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Far more than just discovering the laws of gravity, Sir Isaac Newton was also responsible for working out many of the principles of visible light and the laws of motion, and contributing to calculus.
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    Often credited as a founder of modern “liberal” thought, Locke pioneered the ideas of natural law, social contract, religious toleration, and the right to revolution that proved essential to both the American Revolution and the U.S. Constitution that followed.
  • Montesquieu

    The philosopher and author, who is considered one of the founders of sociology as a scholarly discipline. He was among the most influential thinkers of the French Enlightenment.
  • Denis Diderot

    Denis Diderot
    Diderot argues that the laws must be based upon natural rights and be made for all and not for one. He Served as chief editor of the Encyclopédie, one of the principal works of the Age of Enlightenment.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

     Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Rousseau's core belief was that humans are mostly good and that it is society that corrupts. He thought societal institutions and organizations oppress man and can lead to evil, and that the natural "uncivilized" state of human beings is the ideal human condition.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer. In his lifetime he published numerous works, including books, plays, poems, and polemics. His most famous works included the fictitious Lettres philosophiques and the satirical novel Candide.
  • James Watt

     James Watt
    Inventing the Watt steam engine, which converted steam back to water. Developing a rotary engine which mechanised weaving, spinning and transport.
  • Adam Smith

    Adam Smith
    He's known primarily for his groundbreaking 1776 book on economics called An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Smith introduced the concept that free trade would benefit individuals and society as a whole.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    Commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1775–83) and presided over the convention that drafted the U.S. Constitution.
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson, a spokesman for democracy, was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    He composed over 600 works, including some of the most famous and loved pieces of symphonic, chamber, operatic, and choral music. Mozart was born in Salzburg to a musical family.
  • Maximillien Robespierre

    Maximillien Robespierre
    Maximilien Robespierre was a radical democrat and key figure in the French Revolution of 1789. Robespierre briefly presided over the influential Jacobin Club, a political club based in Paris. He also served as president of the National Convention and on the Committee of Public Safety.
  • Miguel Hidalgo

    Miguel Hidalgo
    He uttered the cry of Dolores, which put the independence movement in motion. Accompanied by Allende, he managed to form an army made up of more than 40,000 people. They took Guanajuato and Guadalajara but decided not to occupy Mexico City.
  • Simon Bolivar

    Simon Bolivar
    Simón Bolivar is remembered today as the greatest leader of South American independence. Highly influenced by the examples of the United States, the French Revolution and Napoleon, he led a massive revolt against Spanish colonial rule in South America, beginning in 1810.