Fengkong Xiong

  • 1543

    1543 Nicolaus Copernicus

    1543 Nicolaus Copernicus
    Discovered and proposed the idea that the Sun was the stationary object in the middle of the solar system instead of the Earth. He also proposed that the other planets revolved around the Sun. And the also proposed the idea that the moon only revolved around the Earth.
  • 1603 Francis Bacon

    1603 Francis Bacon
    Discovered and popularized the scientific method. Essentially, science was based on only observations. He also maintained the idea that the three most important inventions were gunpowder, the magnetic compass, and printing.
  • 1610 Galileo Galilei

    1610 Galileo Galilei
    Galileo discovered that the Moon was in fact, not smooth and perfectly round, but rough and uneven. Over time Galileo discovered four star-like objects that revolved around Jupiter. Galileo guessed correctly that these star-like objects were in fact moons of Jupiter, similar to the moon of Earth.
  • 1641 Rene Descartes

    1641 Rene Descartes
    Rene Descartes invented analytical geometry. He also introduced skepticism as an essential part of the scientific method. He is known by the phrase "Cogito ergo sum.", or "I think therefore I am."
  • 1666 Isaac Newton

    1666 Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton wrote the law of gravity after observing an apple falling down and theorizing why it only fell straight down. Isaac Newton also developed a powerful mathematical tool, calculus. He also made theories about the nature of white light.
  • 1679 John Locke

    1679 John Locke
    Often credited as the founder of modern "liberal" thought. Pioneered the idea of natural law (rights). He believed the fundamental natural rights are "life, liberty, and property." He also was for the right of revolution.
  • 1748 Montesquieu

    1748 Montesquieu
    Worked on political theory, specifically the separation of power in a government. Wrote "The Spirit of the Laws". Essentially shaped modern democracy.
  • 1751 Denis Diderot

    1751 Denis Diderot
    Co-created the Encyclopedie along side Jean Le Rond d'Alembery. One of the originators and interpreters of the Enlightenment. Connected the newest scientific trends, at the time, to a radical philosophical ideas. Ex. Materialism.
  • 1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    1762 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Known to have written "The Social Contract". His works focused on political theory and, you could say, philosophy. His work, The Social Contract, alongside Baron Montesquieu's ideas on government provided the backbone of a radical movement in the French Revolution.
  • 1763 Voltaire

    1763 Voltaire
    Known for his struggle for religious tolerance and was known to defend people who were persecuted for their religious views.He believed a constitutional monarchy was the best form of government. The famous quote "common sense is not so common" is attributed to Voltaire.
  • 1764 James Watt

    1764 James Watt
    James Watt invented the efficient steam engine as a solution to the problem he found with a Newcomen model steam engine he was given to repair, it was too inefficient. He also invented the rotatory engine. His inventions and improvements on technology helped start the Industrial Revolution.
  • 1776 Adam Smith

    1776 Adam Smith
    Published "The Wealth of Nations", which is arguably one of the most influential books on market economics to date. Known as the forefather of modern capitalism. Is an important key historical figure in modern economics.
  • 1776 Thomas Jefferson

    1776 Thomas Jefferson
    Drafted the Declaration of Independence in 1776. This paper explained to foreign nations as to why the thirteen colonies had to separate from the British. Five other people helped Thomas Jefferson write the Declaration of Independence.
  • 1776 George Washington

    1776 George Washington
    Led the remnants of his army to victory against the British at the Second Battle of Second Trenton and Princeton. On the 4th of July, representatives from the thirteen British colonies met in Philadelphia to sign the "Declaration of Independence". It is known that George Washington brought a broom to the meeting that day.
  • 1786 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    1786 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    A famous piano soloist and writer of concertos and many famous songs. In 1786 he premiered "The Marriage of Figaro" in Vienna. This is known as one of three of Mozart's greatest Italian operas.
  • 1789 Maximilian Robespierre

    1789 Maximilian Robespierre
    Was the leader of the French Revolution. Was Elected in 1789 to represent the Third-Estate of Artois. Known for spearheading the "Reign of Terror".
  • 1810 Miguel Hidalgo

    1810 Miguel Hidalgo
    Regarded as the "Father of Mexico Independence." His speech, "Grito de Dolores" ("Cry of Dolores"), called for the end of Spanish colonial rule in Mexico. This in turn begun the war for Mexico's independence from Spain.
  • 1821 Simon Bolivar

    1821 Simon Bolivar
    Known as "The Liberator" upon first liberating Venezuela in 1813. The leading role in the independence of Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, and the Bolivar. Simon Bolivar fought in more than 200 battles during his life.