Environmental History in China and Japan

By gchao
  • Period: 1570 to 1579

    Hawk trades between Ando and Kakizaki families (VS)

  • Period: to

    Shakushain's family

    Sentaiin (father of Kamokutain); Kamokutain (murdered by Onibishi for poaching); Shakushain (village elder for the Ainu - leader of the war against Hai Ainu in 1669).
  • Nishirain brings 10 Sea Otter pelts to Fukuyama (VS)

    First instance of trade mentioned in the reading pg 101
    Pelts were form sea otter island
    From Ezo people given to the Matsumae government and then the Matsumae then gave it to the central Japanese government in Edo. Example of gift giving culture between Japanese and Ainu.
  • Wajinchi-Ezochi border established

    Wajinchi - Land closest to the Japanese archipelago; "classic" Japanese live in this region, meaning likely Matsumae affiliates.

    Ezochi - Land beyond, encompassing the rest of Hokkaido Island Border was made to restrict Ainu and Japanese movement in Ezo.
    Ezo being on one hand, "barbarians," and on another "The Ainu People," and on a third level, geographically, northern tip of Honshu, and all of Hokkaido.
  • Period: to

    The 6-year war

    Caused by Shakushaiin murdering one of Onibishi's subordinates.
  • Takamachi establishes 300 posts in Wjinchi (VS)

    Found on page 105
    Posts were established for the purpose of trading hawks and making profit for Matsumae.
    Takamachi are hawk trappers for Japanese government
  • Period: to

    Pre-Shakushain War Tension Build-up

    Punctuated moments of aggravation:
    Shakushain upset over Onibishi-Matsumae alliance.
    1668 - Shakushain murders Onibishi's two younger brothers as retaliation for an incident in 1667 in which a crane ostensibly belonging to Shakushain's land is captured by a member of Onibishi's clan.
    Onibishi was killed
    The Hae Ainu seek military aid from the Matsumae Ongoing problems:
    Problems along the Wajinchi-Ezochi border, such as poaching, disputes over rights to exploit animals.
  • Shibuchari Ainu kill 273 Japanese

    Trade ships sent by Matsumae to help the Hae Ainu.
    Shakushain intercepted them and killed everyone on the ships. Question:
    - What precipitated Shakushain's murder of Japanese people?
  • Shakushain's Death

    Shakushain murdered by Matsumae forces, along with his generals.
  • Matsumae forces begin mobilizing against Shakushain

    Matsumae Yasuhiro arrives at Fukuyama Castle in order to acquire military forces to deal with the Ainu once and for all.
  • Most takamachi withdrawn from posts (VS)

  • Shakushain Surrenders (SB)

    Ainu in the east and Shakushain himself surrender to the Matsumae forces and present the Matsumae with gifts.
  • Wajinchi-Ezochi line expanding to between Kamaishi and Shinori (NDS)

    By having the line moved so far south this could have been an instigator or final push that caused the events that started the war that same year.
  • Period: to

    Shakushain's War

  • Peace Treaty between Matsumae and Ainu.

    Final settlement of land between the Ainu and the Matsumae.
  • Period: to

    The Genroku Period

  • Japan: Population count

    Population = 26,065,425
  • The Kyoho Famine

    Famine from 1732 - 1733 mainly in Matsuyama in Shikoku
    *Prior to this, crop failures happened due to drought.
    Caused by cold rain and leaf-hopper infestation.
    Resulted in The Bakufu (the Shogun leaders) trying to centrally control rice distribution and failing at it.
  • The Tenmei Famine

    Occurred in 1783 but repercussions lasted until 1787.
    Caused by Mt. Asama eruption - leading to ash covering crops, also flooding.
    Surplus rice was ruined by a wet summer, so again, not enough food. Pre-existing poor weather conditions were exacerbated by the eruption.
    A lot of social breakdown occurs - crime skyrockets.
  • Period: to

    Japan: General famine decrease ("difficulties eased")

  • Period: to

    Japan: Sumptuary Regulations Established

    Rulers wanted to command the economy so they could distribute resources.
    Sumptuary regulations become the favored way to control population and famine because they believed it was the best way to keep society from consuming more than it produced.
    One of the main things that was being regulated was land itself.
  • Japan: Population Count

    Population = 24,891,441
  • The Tenpo Famine

    Refers to a series of famines in the 1830s.
    More cold rain, wet summers, and ruinage of crop surpluses.
    Famines enhanced by the outbreak of diseases.
    Important outcome: people moved to the cities - increased urbanization (Osaka and Edo), which caused more social problems for the cities themselves.
  • Japan: Population count

    Population = 26,907,625
  • Period: to

    Sino-Japanese War (SB)

  • Hokkaido Former Natives Protection Law (SB)

    Basically the the law gives the Natives of Hokkaido rights of regular citizens like land, healthcare, education, their own communal fund, and a government.