Chapter 26 - The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution (1865-1896)

Timeline created by rebeccahettrick
In History
  • Pike’s Peak gold rush

    Pike’s Peak gold rush
    The Pike's Peak Gold Rush (later known as the Colorado Gold Rush) was the boom in gold prospecting and mining in the Pike's Peak Country of western Kansas Territory and southwestern Nebraska Territory of the United States that began in July 1858 and lasted until roughly the creation of the Colorado Territory on February 28, 1861. An estimated 100,000 gold seekers took part in one of the greatest gold rushes in North American history.
  • Nevada Comstock Lode discovered

    Nevada Comstock Lode discovered
    The Comstock Lode is a lode of silver ore located under the eastern slope of Mount Davidson, a peak in the Virginia Range in Nevada (then western Utah Territory). It was the first major discovery of silver ore in the United States.
    After the discovery was made public in 1859, it sparked a rush of prospectors to the area, scrambling to stake their claims. The discovery is also notable for the advances in mining technology that it spurred.
  • Homestead Act (first of the acts signed into law by Lincoln)

    Homestead Act (first of the acts signed into law by Lincoln)
    The Homestead Acts were several United States federal laws that gave an applicant ownership of land, typically called a "homestead", at little or no cost.The first of the acts, the Homestead Act of 1862, was signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862. Anyone who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government (including freed slaves and women), was 21 years or older, or the head of a family, could file an application to claim a federal land grant.
  • Nevada admitted to the Union

    Nevada admitted to the Union
    The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War (the first being West Virginia).
  • Sand Creek Massacre

    Sand Creek Massacre
    The Sand Creek Massacre was an atrocity in the American Indian Wars that occurred on November 29, 1864, when a 700-man force of Colorado Territory militia attacked and destroyed a peaceful village of Cheyenne and Arapaho inhabited in southeastern Colorado Territory, killing and mutilating an estimated 70–163 Indians, about two-thirds of whom were women and children.
  • National Grange organized

    National Grange organized
    The Grange (The National Grange of the Order of Patrons of Husbandry) is a fraternal organization in the United States that encourages families to band together to promote the economic and political well-being of the community and agriculture. Founded after the Civil War in 1867, it is the oldest American agricultural advocacy group with a national scope. Major accomplishments credited to Grange advocacy include passage of the Granger Laws and the establishment of rural free mail delivery.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn

    Battle of Little Bighorn
    The government ordered all Sioux to leave their territory to put a stop to raids. This broke out into a battle that took place near the Little Bighorn River.The battle, which occurred June 25–26, 1876, near the Little Bighorn River in eastern Montana Territory, was the most prominent action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It was an overwhelming victory for the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho, led by several major war leaders, including Crazy Horse and Chief Gall.
  • Colorado admitted to the Union

    Colorado admitted to the Union
    The United States Congress passed an enabling act on March 3, 1875, specifying the requirements for the Territory of Colorado to become a state. On August 1, 1876 (28 days after the Centennial of the United States), U.S. President Ulysses S. Grant signed a proclamation admitting Colorado to the Union as the 38th state and earning it the moniker "Centennial State".
  • Nez Perce Indian War

    Nez Perce Indian War
    The Nez Perce War was an armed conflict between several bands of the Nez Perce tribe of Native Americans and their allies, a small band of the Palouse tribe led by Red Echo and Bald Head, against the United States Army. The conflict, fought between June–October 1877, stemmed from the refusal of several bands of the Nez Perce, dubbed "non-treaty Indians", to give up their ancestral lands in the Pacific Northwest and move to an Indian reservation in Idaho.
  • Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor

    Helen Hunt Jackson publishes A Century of Dishonor
    Written by Helen Hunt Jackson, it detailed the injustices made to Native Americans during US expansion. Jackson wrote A Century of Dishonor in an attempt to change government ideas/policy toward Native Americans at a time when effects of the 1871 Indian Appropriations Act (making the entire Native American population wards of the nation) had begun to draw the attention of the public.
  • Federal government outlaws Sun Dance

    Federal government outlaws Sun Dance
    The sundance is the predominant tribal ceremony of Great Plains Indians.The sun dance was outlawed in the latter part of the nineteenth century, partly because certain tribes inflicted self-torture as part of the ceremony, which settlers found gruesome, and partially as part of a grand attempt to westernize Indians by forbidding them to engage in their ceremonies and speak their language.
  • local chapters of Farmers’ Alliance formed

    local chapters of Farmers’ Alliance formed
    Similar to the Grange, the Farmers’ Alliance of the late 1870s in Texas organized cooperatives to combat high freight costs. The Farmers’ Alliance evolved into the nationwide People’s Party or Populists who demanded a bimetal (gold and silver) currency base in order to increase the amount of money in circulation and prevent deflation.
  • Dawes Severalty Act

    Dawes Severalty Act
    It dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like "good white settlers" then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government's official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
  • Oklahoma opened to settlement (the Land Run of 1889)

    Oklahoma opened to settlement (the Land Run of 1889)
    In 1889, the federal government decided to open for settlement lands in Oklahoma that had been occupied by the Creeks & Seminoles. Before the opening date, many “Sooners” tried to sneak across the boundary to prospect for the best sites and make sure they could stake out their claims before others, but were forcibly evicted by federal troops. At noon on April 22, a pistol shot signaled the race of the century was on. Fifty thousand “Boomers” raced over the boundary to settle two million acres.
  • North Dakota and South Dakota admitted to the Union

    North Dakota and South Dakota admitted to the Union
    In February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. After controversy over the location of a capital, the Dakota Territory was split in two and divided into North and South in 1889. Later that year, on November 2, North Dakota and South Dakota were admitted to the Union as the 39th and 40th states.
  • Montana admitted to the Union

    Montana admitted to the Union
    Congress approved Montana statehood in February 1889 and President Grover Cleveland signed an omnibus bill granting statehood to Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Washington once the appropriate state constitutions were crafted. In July 1889, Montanans convened their third constitutional convention and produced a constitution acceptable by the people and the federal government. On November 8, 1889 President Benjamin Harrison proclaimed Montana the forty-first state in the union.
  • Washington admitted to the Union

    Washington admitted to the Union
    A Washington State constitution was drafted and ratified in 1878, but it was never officially adopted. Although never approved by Congress, the 1878 constitution is an important historical document which shows the political thinking of the time. It was used extensively during the drafting of Washington State's 1889 constitution, the one and only official Constitution of the State of Washington. Washington became the 42nd state in the United States on November 11, 1889.
  • Census Bureau declares frontier line ended

    Census Bureau declares frontier line ended
    In 1890, the Census Bureau announced the end of the frontier, meaning there was no longer a discernible frontier line in the west, nor large tracts of land yet unbroken by settlement. This news had a terrific psychological impact on many Americans. For the first time in history, America was without a frontier. The ideal of an ever-pioneering spirit with eternally new wildernesses to conquer was the American heroic myth, felt by all. With the end of the frontier, the romance of the West was over.
  • Idaho admitted to the Union

    Idaho admitted to the Union
    National Republicans eager to increase their influence in the U.S. Congress began to push for Idaho statehood in 1888. The following year, the Idaho territorial legislature approved a strongly anti-Mormon constitution. The U.S. Congress approved the document on this day in 1890, and Idaho became the 43rd state in the Union.
  • Wyoming admitted to the Union

    Wyoming admitted to the Union
    Wyoming's constitution included women's suffrage and a pioneering article on water rights. The United States admitted Wyoming into the Union as the 44th state on July 10, 1890.
  • Battle of Wounded Knee

    Battle of Wounded Knee
    The Wounded Knee Massacre, also known as The Battle at Wounded Knee Creek, was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
  • Emergence of Populist Party

    Emergence of Populist Party
    It was established in 1891 during the Populist movement. It was most influential from 1892 to 1896, and it faded away rapidly after. Out of the Farmers' Alliances the People's Party emerged. It called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; instituting a graduated income tax; and creating a new federal subtreasury - a scheme to provide farmers with loans for crops stored in government-owned warehouses. They also wanted the free and unlimited coinage of silver.
  • James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election

    James B. Weaver polls more than 1 million votes in presidential election
    At the first Populist national convention in Omaha, Nebraska, in July 1892, James B. Weaver of Iowa was nominated for president on the first ballot, now lacking any serious opposition to his nomination. While his nomination brought with him significant campaigning experience from over several decades, he also had a longer tract of history for which Republicans and Democrats could criticize him, and also alienated many potential supporters in the South, having participated in Sherman's March to t
  • Frederick Jackson Turner publishes The Significance of the Frontier in American History

    Frederick Jackson Turner publishes The Significance of the Frontier in American History
    A lecture given by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893 arguing that the western frontier had forged the distinctive qualities of American culture: individual freedom, political democracy, and economic mobility. It was presented to a special meeting of the American Historical Association at the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago, Illinois in 1893, and published later that year in Proceedings of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin.
  • “Coxey’s Army” marches on Washington

    “Coxey’s Army” marches on Washington
    Coxey's Army was a protest march by unemployed workers from the U.S., led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey. They marched on Washington D.C. in 1894, the second year of a four-year economic depression that was the worst in U.S. history to that time. Officially named the Army of the Commonwealth in Christ, its nickname came from its leader and was more enduring. It was the first significant popular protest march on Washington and the expression "Enough food to feed Coxey's Army" originates from it.
  • Pullman strike begins

    Pullman strike begins
    The Pullman Strike was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States in the summer of 1894. It pitted the American Railway Union against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the U.S. under President Grover Cleveland. The strike and boycott shut down much of the nation's freight and passenger traffic west of Detroit. It began in Pullman, Chicago, when nearly 4,000 factory employees of the Pullman Company began a strike in response to reductions in wages.
  • Utah admitted to the Union

    Utah admitted to the Union
    Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the Union on January 4, 1896. In the 1890 Manifesto, the LDS Church banned polygamy. When Utah applied for statehood again, it was accepted. One of the conditions for granting Utah statehood was that a ban on polygamy be written into the state constitution. This was a condition required of other western states that were admitted into the Union later. Statehood was officially granted on January 4, 1896.
  • McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency

    McKinley defeats Bryan for presidency
    The United States presidential election of 1896 was the 28th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 3, 1896. It climaxed an intensely heated contest in which Republican candidate William McKinley defeated Democrat William Jennings Bryan in one of the most dramatic and complex races in American history. The 1896 campaign is often considered to be a realigning election that ended the old Third Party System and began the Fourth Party System.
  • Dingley Tariff Act

    Dingley Tariff Act
    The Dingley Act of 1897 raised tariffs in the U.S. to counteract the Wilson–Gorman Tariff Act of 1894, which had lowered rates. Following the election of 1896, McKinley followed through with his promises for protectionism. Congress imposed duties on wool and hides which had been duty-free since 1872. Rates were increased on woolens, linens, silks, china, and sugar. The Dingley Tariff remained in effect for twelve years, making it the longest-lived tariff in U.S. history.
  • Gold Standard Act (approved)

    Gold Standard Act (approved)
    The Gold Standard Act of the United States was passed in 1900 (approved on March 14) and established gold as the only standard for redeeming paper money, stopping bimetallism. It was signed by President William McKinley and made the de facto gold standard in place since the Coinage Act of 1873 (whereby debt holders could demand reimbursement in whatever metal was preferred--usually gold) a de jure gold standard alongside other major European powers at the time.
  • Oklahoma admitted to the Union

    Oklahoma admitted to the Union
    Attempts to create an all-Indian state named Oklahoma and a later attempt to create an all-Indian state named Sequoyah failed but the Sequoyah Statehood Convention of 1905 eventually laid the groundwork for the Oklahoma Statehood Convention, which happened two years later. On November 16, 1907 Oklahoma was established as the 46th state in the Union. The new state became a focal point for the emerging oil industry, as discoveries of oil pools prompted towns to grow rapidly in population & wealth.
  • Indians granted U.S. citizenship (Indian Citizenship Act signed into law)

    Indians granted U.S. citizenship (Indian Citizenship Act signed into law)
    The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to America's indigenous peoples, called "Indians" in this Act. The act was signed into law by President Calvin Coolidge on June 2, 1924. It was enacted partially in recognition of the thousands of Indians who served in the armed forces during World War I.
  • Indian Reorganization Act

    Indian Reorganization Act
    The Indian Reorganization Act of June 18, 1934 was U.S. federal legislation that secured certain rights to Native Americans. These include actions that contributed to the reversal of the Dawes Act's privatization of communal holdings of American Indian tribes and a return to local self-government on a tribal basis. The Act also restored to Indians the management of their assets and included provisions intended to create a sound economic foundation for the inhabitants of Indian reservations.