cameron ryan

  • 1543

    Nicolaus Copernicus

    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Nicolaus Copernicus
    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was a mathematician and astronomer who proposed that the sun was stationary in the center of the universe and the earth revolved around it.
  • Francis Bacon

    Francis Bacon
    Francis Bacon
    Francis Bacon is most famous for his philosophy of science. He argued that scientific knowledge is obtained after making observations and then utilizing inductive reasoning to interpret the observations. Bacon also argued that controlled scientific experimentation is essential for understanding nature.
  • Galileo Galilei

     Galileo Galilei
    Galileo Galilei
    He is renowned for his discoveries: he was the first to report telescopic observations of the mountains on the moon, the moons of Jupiter, the phases of Venus, and the rings of Saturn. He invented an early microscope and a predecessor to the thermometer
  • Rene Descartes

    Rene Descartes
    Rene Descartes
    Descartes has been heralded as the first modern philosopher. He is famous for having made an important connection between geometry and algebra, which allowed for the solving of geometrical problems by way of algebraic equations
  • Isaac Newton

    Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton
    Isaac Newton (1642–1727) is best known for having invented the calculus in the mid to late 1660s (most of a decade before Leibniz did so independently, and ultimately more influentially) and for having formulated the theory of universal gravity — the latter in his Principia, the single most important work in the
  • John Locke

    John Locke
    John Locke
    Often credited as a founder of modern “liberal” thought, Locke pioneered the ideas of natural law, social contract, religious toleration, and the right to revolution that proved essential to both the American Revolution and the U.S. Constitution that followed.
  • Montesquieu

    Montesquieu is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many constitutions throughout the world. He is also known for doing more than any other author to secure the place of the word “despotism” in the political lexicon.
  • Denis Diderot

     Denis Diderot
    Why is Denis Diderot significant? The French philosopher and essayist Denis Diderot served as chief editor (1745–72) of the Encyclopédie, and in that role he was one of the originators and interpreters of the Enlightenment.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau

    Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan born political and moral philosopher of the Enlightenment Era. He is well known for his work On the Social Contract, which questioned the purpose and place of government and its responsibility for its citizens.
  • Voltaire

    Voltaire was a French Enlightenment writer, historian, and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state.
  • James Watt

    James Watt
    The Scottish inventor is known for his efficient steam engine that was first patented in 1769
  • Adam Smith

     Adam Smith
    Smith's writings were studied by 20th-century philosophers, writers, and economists. Smith's ideas–the importance of free markets, assembly-line production methods, and gross domestic product (GDP)–formed the basis for theories of classical economics.
  • George Washington

    George Washington
    George Washington is often called the “Father of His Country.” He not only served as the first president of the United States, but he also commanded the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1775–83) and presided over the convention that drafted the U.S. Constitution
  • Thomas Jefferson

    Thomas Jefferson
    Thomas Jefferson, a spokesman for democracy, was an American Founding Father, the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and the third President of the United States (1801–1809).
  • Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) was one of the most influential, popular and prolific composers of the classical period. He composed over 600 works, including some of the most famous and loved pieces of symphonic, chamber, operatic, and choral music. Mozart was born in Salzburg to a musical family.
  • Maximillien Robespierre

    Maximillien Robespierre
    Maximilien Robespierre was a radical democrat and key figure in the French Revolution of 1789. Robespierre briefly presided over the influential Jacobin Club, a political club based in Paris. He also served as president of the National Convention and on the Committee of Public Safety.
  • Miguel Hidalgo

    Miguel Hidalgo
    Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla is generally regarded as the “Father of Mexican Independence.” He was born in a rural area of Guanajuato where his father managed a hacienda. He was an excellent student in both theology and philosophy at the then Colegio de San Nicolás Obispo in present-day Morelia.
  • Simon Bolivar

    Simon Bolivar
    Bolivar became the most powerful leader in South America, nicknamed “El Libertador” (the liberator) for helping nations become independent from Spain. Today, July 24 is celebrated as Simon Bolivar Day throughout Latin America. Bolivar was inspired by the American Revolutionary War