AP European Semester 1 Timeline

  • Oct 14, 1066

    Battle of Hastings

    Battle of Hastings
    The Battle of Hastings was extremely important for the history of England as it completely changed who was in charge. The Anglo-Saxons had ruled the land for over 600 years since the Roman times. Now, the Normans had taken over, which meant big changes.
  • 1337

    Hundred Years War

    Hundred Years War
    The Hundred Year's War was a war between England and France over feudal disputes that lasted 116 years, with fighting divided over the course of that time. The war laid waste to much of France and caused enormous suffering; it virtually destroyed the feudal nobility and thereby brought about a new social order.
  • 1346

    The Black Death

    The Black Death
    The plague was spread by rats imported from ships from Asia that caused the death of 1/3 of Europe. The plague had large scale social and economic effects. People abandoned their friends and family, fled cities, and shut themselves off from the world. Funeral rites became perfunctory or stopped altogether, and work ceased being done.
  • May 1, 1400

    The Rise of Rome and the de Medici Family

    The Rise of Rome and the de Medici Family
    The Medici family ruled the city of Florence throughout the Renaissance. They had a major influence on the growth of the Italian Renaissance through their patronage of the arts and humanism. The Medici family were wool merchants and bankers. Both businesses were very profitable and the family became extremely wealthy.
  • 1414

    Council of Constance

    Council of Constance
    The council held to resolve the dispute over who the pope was. The decision came to be that Pope Martin V was the true pope.
  • 1440

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    The printing press was invented by Gutenberg, revolutionizing the ability to print books, and spurring the Northern Renaissance. The printing press made information a lot easier to spread.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    Fall of Constantinople
    The beginning of the fall of Constantinople, the capitol of the Byzantine Empire, was sparked by the first crusades in 1095. The Crusaders would need to go through the Byzantine Empire in order to capture the holy city of Jerusalem from the Muslims and Jews. The fall of the city removed what was once a powerful defense for Christian Europe against Muslim invasion, allowing for uninterrupted Ottoman expansion into eastern Europe.
  • 1488

    Commercial Revolution

    Commercial Revolution
    The Commercial Revolution was a period of European colonization and mercantilism which lasted from 1488 with the first European sailing around the Cape of Good Hope and ended around the time of the American Revolution in 1776.
  • 1492

    Columbian Exchange

    Columbian Exchange
    The Columbian Exchange was a vast exchange of goods, culture, diseases, and ideas between Europe and the New World, caused by the Commercial Revolution. While it had positive impacts, it also brought and spread disease into the new Americas.
  • 1492

    Columbus's Discovery of the New World

    Columbus's Discovery of the New World
    This is when Columbus was sent on his voyages and discovered America. When he did this, he brought disease and was cruel to the inhabitants.
  • 1500

    Witch Hunts

    Witch Hunts
    This was a time where 'witches' were being hunted and then burned at stake. It was commonplace during this time to also use witches as excuses for bad things.
  • 1507

    Copernicus's "Commentariolus" Begins to Circulate

    Copernicus's "Commentariolus" Begins to Circulate
    The Commentariolus is Nicolaus Copernicus's brief outline of an early version of his revolutionary heliocentric theory of the universe. This was when it first got going.
  • 1509

    Rule of King Henry VIII of England

    Rule of King Henry VIII of England
    Henry VIII of England separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. King Henry VIII ruled England for 36 years, presiding over sweeping changes that brought his nation into the Protestant Reformation. He famously married a series of six wives in his search for political alliance, marital bliss and a healthy male heir.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    95 Thesis

    95 Thesis
    Martin Luther posts his 95 thesis on a church door, arguing that indulgences are morally wrong. This marks the beginning of the Reformation.
  • 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    A diet in the Holy Roman Empire which produced the Edict of Worms, that declared Martin Luther and his following to be outlaws, and his religion banned. It was held in Worms, Germany. It was made famous by Martin Luther's appearance before it to respond to charges of heresy.
  • 1524

    German Peasant Revolts

    German Peasant Revolts
    German peasants, inspired by Martin Luther, tried and failed to revolt. It resulted in the suppression of revolt and execution of its participants, as well as major implications for the Anabaptist movement
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    The Council of Trent was the Catholic attempt to stop the Protestant religion and to reform the Catholic church. It has been described as the embodiment of the Counter-Reformation.
  • Sep 25, 1550

    The Peace of Augsburg

    The Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg ended early conflict between German Lutherans and Catholics and established a principle in which princes were guaranteed the right to select either Lutheranism or Catholicism within the domains they controlled. It formally acknowledged Protestantism as a legitimate religion of the Empire.
  • 1553

    Rule of Mary I of England

    Rule of Mary I of England
    Mary Tudor, - also known as Bloody Mary- a catholic ruler who was disliked in the public view because of her Catholic faith that caused her to execute protestants. She was England's first female monarch, and she ruled for just 5 years.
  • 1562

    French Wars on Religion

    French Wars on Religion
    This was a period of fighting within France between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots) that resulted in the Edict of Nantes. The war began when the Catholic League convinced King Henry III to issue an edict outlawing Protestantism and annulling Henry of Navarre's right to the throne.
  • 1568

    Dutch Revolt

    Dutch Revolt
    The Dutch Revolt was the revolt in the Low Countries against the rule of the Hapsburg King Philip II of Spain, hereditary ruler of the provinces. The revolts of the protestant Dutch against the Catholic Spain ending in Dutch separation from Spain. This revolt was one of the first successful secessions in Europe, and led to one of the first European republics of the modern era, the United Provinces
  • 1570

    Dutch Golden Age

    Dutch Golden Age
    After the Dutch Revolts, dutch trade, science, and are were superior to nearly everyone else's at the time. They were ahead of everyone.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre
    The St. Bartholomew's Day massacre in 1572 was a targeted group of assassinations and a wave of Catholic mob violence, directed against the Huguenots during the French Wars of Religion. It was plotted by Catherine de' Medici and carried out by Roman Catholic nobles and other citizens. It was one event in the series of civil wars between Roman Catholics and Huguenots that beset France in the late 16th century.
  • England's Navy defeats Spanish Armada

    England's Navy defeats Spanish Armada
    Off the coast of Gravelines, France, Spain's so-called “Invincible Armada” is defeated by an English naval force under the command of Lord Charles Howard and Sir Francis Drake. Its hopes of invasion crushed, the remnants of the Spanish Armada began a long and difficult journey back to Spain.
  • Agricultural Revolution

    Agricultural Revolution
    This was a period where efficiency of agriculture allowed for better quality of life and eventually lead to the Industrial Revolution. Things were looking up.
  • Rule of Louis XIII

    Rule of Louis XIII
    Louis XIII took the throne at a young age. He was crowned king after the assassination of his father, Henry IV, in 1610.
  • Thirty Years' War

    Thirty Years' War
    This was the war that ended the Reformation with the Treaty of Westphalia. It had 4 stages and was between Catholics and Protestants.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    Civil war in England which ended with the execution of King Charles, and the establishment of the Commonwealth by Oliver Cromwell.
  • Rule of Louis XIV

    Rule of Louis XIV
    He practiced a centralized French government by building and maintaining nobles in Versailles. He waged successful wars and revoked the Edict of Nantes.
  • Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan

    Thomas Hobbes publishes Leviathan
    Leviathan, Hobbes's most important work and one of the most influential philosophical texts produced during the seventeenth century, was written partly as a response to the fear Hobbes experienced during the political turmoil of the English Civil Wars.
  • Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia

    Peter the Great becomes Czar of Russia
    One of Peter the Great's goals was to transform Russia into a maritime, or sea fearing empire. He greatly increased the size of Russia's navy.
  • War of Spanish Succession

    War of Spanish Succession
    The war was caused by conflicting claims to the Spanish throne after the death of the childless King Charles II. The war ended by Philip of Anjou winning. Britain and its allies finally accepted him to become the next king of Spain, but Philip V had to gave up his right to be king of France. Austria got most of Spanish Italy, and Britain got Spanish Menorca and Gibraltar.
  • Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia

    Rule of Fredrick the Great of Prussia
    He was a brilliant military strategist who lead Prussia in successful campaigns during his reign. Nearly all 19th-century German historians made Frederick into a romantic model of a glorified warrior, praising his leadership, administrative efficiency, devotion to duty and success in building Prussia into a great power in Europe.
  • Seven Years' War

    Seven Years' War
    This ended with the Treaty of Paris of 1763, marking the beginning of British Dominance outside Europe. The French and Indian War was the North American conflict in a larger imperial war between Great Britain and France known as the Seven Years' War.
  • Invention of the Spinning Jenny

    Invention of the Spinning Jenny
    It was an early multiple-spindle machine for spinning wool or cotton. Simply put, the spinning jenny was a machine that used a large wheel to spin many spindles of thread at once. The invention increased the production ability of textile manufactures and was particularly important for cotton.
  • Marie Antoinette becomes Queen

    Marie Antoinette becomes Queen
    After a brief trial, Marie Antoinette herself was convicted of treason and also of sexual abuse of her son in October 1793. On October 16, she too was executed by guillotine. She was 37 years old.
  • Abolition of Feudalism

    Abolition of Feudalism
    The National Constituent Assembly, acting on the night of 4 August 1789, announced, "The National Assembly abolishes the feudal system entirely." It abolished both the seigneurial rights of the Second Estate and the tithes gathered by the First Estate.
  • Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

    Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen
    The basic principle of the Declaration was that all “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” , which were specified as the rights of liberty, private property, the inviolability of the person, and resistance to oppression....
  • The Taking of the Bastille

    The Taking of the Bastille
    A Paris mob stormed the Bastille, in search of large quantities of arms and ammunition that they believed was stored at the fortress. Also, they hoped to free prisoners at the Bastille, as it was traditionally a fortress in which political prisoners were held.
  • The Great Fear

    The Great Fear
    This was a period in the French Revolution where rumors spread that an armed group of peasants were roaming the countryside as part of the Revolution.
  • Women's March on Versailles

    Women's March on Versailles
    Parisian women rioted over high bread prices and so they ransacked the Palace of Versailles, which ended with King Louis XVI to return to Paris with them.
  • National Convention

    National Convention
    This was when a French revolutionary committee which organized the Revolution and the Committee of Public Safety. The National Convention ended in October of 1795 following the execution of Maximilien Robespierre and the excesses of the Reign of Terror. The Directory formed out of and replaced the National Convention.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    This was a time when the Committee of Public Safety was executing anyone who they thought didn't support the Revolution. This was about 25,000 people.
  • Execution of Marie Antoinette

    Execution of Marie Antoinette
    This took place at the Place de la Révolution. Her family was executed as well. They were all guillotined.
  • The Directory

    The Directory
    This was France's revolutionary government. The Directory fought an undeclared war with the United States called the "Quasi-War" when the United States refused to repay its debts from the American Revolution.
  • The Egyptian Expedition

    The Egyptian Expedition
    Napoleon and the Scientific Expedition to Egypt | Linda Hall Library. On July 1, 1798, Napoleon landed in Egypt with 400 ships and 54,000 men and proceeded to invade the country, as he had recently invaded Italy. The campaign ended in defeat for Napoleon, and the withdrawal of French troops from the region. On the scientific front, the expedition eventually led to the discovery of the Rosetta Stone, creating the field of Egyptology.
  • Napoleon: Invasion of Russia

    Napoleon: Invasion of Russia
    Napoleon hoped to compel Tsar Alexander I of Russia to cease trading with British merchants through proxies in an effort to pressure the United Kingdom to sue for peace. The official political aim of the campaign was to liberate Poland from the threat of Russia.
  • Napoleon Exiled to Elba

    Napoleon Exiled to Elba
    Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor of France and one of the greatest military leaders in history, abdicates the throne, and, in the Treaty of Fontainebleau, is banished to the Mediterranean island of Elba
  • Napoleon Exiled to St Helena

    Napoleon Exiled to St Helena
    He escaped from the island the next year, only to be defeated at Waterloo. This time, his enemies wanted to incarcerate him in a place from which he could definitely not escape. They chose St Helena.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    The Battle of Waterloo, in which Napoleon's forces were defeated by the British and Prussians, marked the end of his reign and of France's domination in Europe. The Battle of Waterloo brought an end to the Napoleonic Wars once and for all, finally thwarting Napoleon's efforts to dominate Europe and bringing about the end of a 15-year period marked by near constant warring.