Timeline created by madirhame
In History
  • 1800

    Napoleon conquers Italy, firmly establishes himself as First Consul in France.
  • 1800

    In the U.S., federal government moves to Washington, D.C. Robert Owen's social reforms in England.
  • 1800

    William Herschel discovers infrared rays. Alessandro Volta produces electricity.
  • 1801

    Austria makes temporary peace with France.
  • 1801

    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland established with one monarch and one parliament; Catholics excluded from voting.
  • 1803

    U.S. negotiates Louisiana Purchase from France: for $15 million, U.S. doubles its domain, increasing its territory by 827,000 sq mi (2,144,500 sq km), from Mississippi River to Rockies and from Gulf of Mexico to British North America.
  • 1804

    Haiti declares independence from France; first black nation to gain freedom from European colonial rule.
  • 1804

    Napoleon transforms the Consulate of France into an empire, proclaims himself emperor of France, systematizes French law under Code Napoleon.
  • 1804

    In the U.S., Alexander Hamilton is mortally wounded in duel with Aaron Burr. Lewis and Clark expedition begins exploration of what is now northwest U.S.
  • 1805

    Lord Nelson defeats the French-Spanish fleets in the Battle of Trafalgar. Napoleon victorious over Austrian and Russian forces at the Battle of Austerlitz.
  • 1807

    Robert Fulton makes first successful steamboat trip on Clermont between New York City and Albany.
  • 1808

    French armies occupy Rome and Spain, extending Napoleon's empire.
  • 1808

    Britain begins aiding Spanish guerrillas against Napoleon in Peninsular War.
  • 1808

    In the U.S., Congress bars importation of slaves.
  • 1808

    Beethoven's Fifth and Sixth Symphonies performed.
  • 1812

    Napoleon's Grand Army invades Russia in June. Forced to retreat in winter, most of Napoleon's 600,000 men are lost.
  • 1812

    In the U.S., war with Britain declared over freedom of the seas for U.S. vessels (War of 1812). USS Constitution sinks British frigate.
  • 1814

    French defeated by allies (Britain, Austria, Russia, Prussia, Sweden, and Portugal) in War of Liberation.
  • 1814

    Napoleon exiled to Elba, off Italian coast
  • 1814

    Bourbon king Louis XVIII takes French throne.
  • 1814

    George Stephenson builds first practical steam locomotive.
  • 1815

    Napoleon returns: “Hundred Days” begin. Napoleon defeated by Wellington at Waterloo, banished again to St. Helena in South Atlantic.
  • 1815

    Congress of Vienna: victorious allies change the map of Europe
  • 1815

    War of 1812 ends with Treaty of Ghent.
  • 1819

    Simón Bolívar liberates New Granada (now Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador) as Spain loses hold on South American countries; named president of Colombia.
  • 1820

    Missouri Compromise. Missouri admitted as slave state but slavery barred in rest of Louisiana Purchase north of 36°30' N.
  • 1821

    Guatemala, Panama, and Santo Domingo proclaim independence from Spain.
  • 1822

    Greeks proclaim a republic and independence from Turkey. Turks invade Greece.
  • 1823

    U.S. Monroe Doctrine warns European nations not to interfere in Western Hemisphere.
  • 1824

    Mexico becomes a republic, three years after declaring independence from Spain.
  • 1824

    Bolívar liberates Peru, becomes its president.
  • 1824

    Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.
  • 1825

    First passenger-carrying railroad in England.
  • 1826

    Joseph-Nicéphore Niepce takes the world's first photograph.
  • 1828

    Russia declares war on Turkey. Greece also aided by France and Britain.
  • 1829

    War ends and Turks recognize Greek independence
  • 1830

    French invade Algeria. Louis Philippe becomes “Citizen King” as revolution forces Charles X to abdicate. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints formed in U.S. by Joseph Smith.
  • 1831

    Polish revolt against Russia fails. Belgium separates from the Netherlands. In U.S., Nat Turner leads unsuccessful slave rebellion.
  • 1833

    Slavery abolished in British Empire.
  • 1834

    Charles Babbage invents “analytical engine,” precursor of computer. McCormick patents reaper.
  • 1836

    Boer farmers start “Great Trek”—Natal, Transvaal, and Orange Free State founded in South Africa.
  • 1836

    Mexican army besieges Texans in Alamo. Entire garrison, including Davy Crockett and Jim Bowie, wiped out. Texans gain independence from Mexico after winning Battle of San Jacinto.
  • 1837

    Victoria becomes queen of Great Britain.
  • 1839

    First Opium War between Britain and China, over importation of drug into China.
  • 1840

    Lower and Upper Canada united.
  • 1841

    U.S. President Harrison dies one month after inauguration; John Tyler becomes first vice president to succeed to presidency.
  • 1842

    Crawford Long uses first anesthetic
  • 1843

    Wagner's opera The Flying Dutchman.
  • 1844

    Democratic convention calls for annexation of Texas and acquisition of Oregon
  • 1844

    Five Chinese ports opened to U.S. ships. Samuel F. B. Morse patents telegraph.
  • 1845

    Congress adopts joint resolution for annexation of Texas.
  • 1845

    Edgar Allan Poe publishes The Raven and Other Poems.
  • 1846

    U.S. declares war on Mexico. California and New Mexico annexed by U.S. Brigham Young leads Mormons to Great Salt Lake.
  • 1846

    Sewing machine patented by Elias Howe.
  • 1846

    Frederick Douglass launches abolitionist newspaper The North Star.
  • 1846

    Failure of potato crop causes famine in Ireland.
  • 1848

    Revolt in Paris: Louis Philippe abdicates; Louis Napoleon elected president of French Republic. Revolutions in Vienna, Venice, Berlin, Milan, Rome, and Warsaw.
  • 1848

    U.S.-Mexico War ends; Mexico cedes claims to Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, Nevada. U.S. treaty with Britain sets Oregon Territory boundary at 49th parallel.
  • 1848

    Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery and joins the Underground Railroad.
  • 1848

    Women's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, N.Y.
  • 1849

    California gold rush begins.
  • 1850

    Henry Clay opens great debate on slavery, warns South against secession.
  • 1851

    Herman Melville's Moby-Dick.
  • 1852

    Louis Napoleon proclaims himself Napoleon III (“Second Empire”).
  • 1852

    Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin.
  • 1853

    Crimean War begins as Turkey declares war on Russia.
  • 1854

    Britain and France join Turkey in war on Russia.
  • 1854

    In U.S., Kansas-Nebraska Act permits local option on slavery; rioting and bloodshed. Japanese allow American trade. Antislavery men in Michigan form Republican Party. Tennyson's Charge of the Light Brigade. Thoreau's Walden.
  • 1855

    Armed clashes in Kansas between pro- and anti-slavery forces.
  • 1855

    Walt Whitman's Leaves of Grass.
  • 1857

    Supreme Court, in Dred Scott decision, rules that a slave is not a citizen. Financial crisis in Europe and U.S. Great Mutiny (Sepoy Rebellion) begins in India. India placed under crown rule as a result.
  • 1858

    Pro-slavery constitution rejected in Kansas
  • 1858

    Abraham Lincoln makes strong antislavery speech in Springfield, Ill.: “This Government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free.”
  • 1859

    John Brown raids Harpers Ferry; is captured and hanged.
  • 1859

    Charles Darwin's Origin of Species
  • 1860

    South Carolina secedes from the Union.
  • 1861

    U.S. Civil War begins as attempts at compromise fail. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas secede; with South Carolina, they form the Confederate States of America, with Jefferson Davis as president. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina secede and join Confederacy. First Battle of Bull Run. Congress creates Colorado, Dakota, and Nevada territories; adopts income tax; Lincoln inaugurated.
  • 1862

    Several major Civil War battles: Battle of Shiloh, Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas), Battle of Antietam
  • 1863

    French capture Mexico City; proclaim Archduke Maximilian of Austria emperor. Battle of Gettysburg.
  • 1864

    Gen. Sherman's Atlanta campaign and “march to the sea.”
  • 1865

    Gen. Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox; the Civil War is over.
  • 1865

    Lincoln fatally shot at Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth. Vice President Johnson sworn as successor. Booth caught and dies of gunshot wounds; four conspirators are hanged.
  • 1865

    Joseph Lister begins antiseptic surgery. Gregor Mendel's Law of Heredity. Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.
  • 1867

    Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy established. French leave Mexico; Maximilian executed. Dominion of Canada established. U.S. buys Alaska from Russia for $7,200,000. South African diamond field discovered. Japan ends 675–year shogun rule. Volume I of Marx's Das Kapital. Strauss's Blue Danube.
  • 1868

    Revolution in Spain; Queen Isabella deposed, flees to France.
  • 1868

    In U.S., Fourteenth Amendment giving civil rights to blacks is ratified. Georgia under military government after legislature expels blacks.
  • 1869

    First U.S. transcontinental rail route completed.
  • 1869

    Suez Canal opens. Mendeleev's periodic table of elements.
  • 1870

    Franco-Prussian War: Napoleon III capitulates at Sedan. Revolt in Paris; Third Republic proclaimed.
  • 1871

    France surrenders Alsace-Lorraine to Germany; war ends. German Empire proclaimed with Prussian King as Kaiser Wilhelm I.
  • 1871

    Fighting with Apaches begins in American West.
  • 1871

    The Chicago Fire, with 250 deaths and $196-million damage.
  • 1872

    Congress gives amnesty to most Confederates.
  • 1873

    Economic crisis in Europe. U.S. establishes gold standard.
  • 1875

    First Kentucky Derby.
  • 1876

    Sioux kill Gen. George A. Custer and 264 troopers at Little Big Horn River.
  • 1876

    Alexander Graham Bell patents the telephone.