1600-1876

By BethAu
  • 1600-1700 BEGINS: Establishment of Jamestown, Virginia

    Three English ships, the Discovery, the Godspeed, and the Susan Constant, brought approximately one hundred English citizens to establish a colony called Jamestown, Virginia.
  • New Colonies

    King Charles II set aside 12 million acres of land, which was granted to Cecilius Calvert in an alliance request. Religious arguments over Maryland ignited. After the Glorious Revolution, the Calverts lost Maryland. New England colonies of Rhode Island and Connecticut were formed in the heat of religious feuds later on.
  • Sword of the Lord

    English Puritans claimed Pequot Indian territory, leading to the Puritans burning the Pequot people alive. This led to more secure English colonization.
  • English Civil War

    Charles I's refusal to aid in a Scotland rebellion caused friction between the king and the English Parliament. Parliament won. Charles I was executed.
  • Navigation Act of 1651

    Compelled merchants of all colonies to send goods directly to England through English ships in an attempt to force the colonies into dependency with England.
  • Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina

    John Lock coauthored these constitutions that specifically legalized slavery.
  • King Philip's War

    Mohegan and Wampanoag Indians joined together against Puritans. Brought a definitive end to Indian power in New England.
  • Great Swamp Fight

    English attacked a powerful and neutral Narragansett community, which joined the Indians and destroyed a good part of English forced by 1676. The tide turned by the spring, the English prevailing.
  • Bacon's Rebellion

    Native American and English settlers fought over Indian-owned land. A man named Thomas Mathew refused to pay a debt to some Doeg Indians, which resulted in the theft of his pigs as payback. This all led to the Susquehannock war.
  • Besiegement of Santa Fe

    A Puebloan religious leader was accused of sorcery, so he lead a group of rebels to the Spanish countryside and besieged Santa Fe. Possibly the greatest show of Indian Resistance in American history. Eradicated Spanish rule of New Mexico, then lost their control, then regained it by 1692
  • 1600-1700 ENDS: Salem Tower

    English felt threatened by witchcraft practices. Anyone practicing witchcraft was executed.
  • 1700-1800 BEGINS: Yamasee attack Carolina

    Carolina's strongest trading partners and best allies, the Yamasee, betrayed and nearly destroyed the entirety of the colony.
  • Walking Purchase of 1737

    Created by Native Delaware leaders in an attempt to keep the peace between Pennsylvania and the Indians, the Walking Purchase of 1737 decreed that any man could claim as much land as he could walk in a day. Sections of Delaware were given up.
  • Stono Rebellion

    eighty slaves marched to Spanish Florida with a banner that said "Liberty!". They burned and razed plantations and at least twenty white settlers before being overwhelmed and executed by the local military.
  • African Rebellions Uncovered

    authorities found planned rebellions by slaves, free blacks, and poor whites. A witch hunt ensued, capturing thirty-two offenders who were burned alive.
  • Consumer Revolution

    The explosion of manufacturing and transportation in the seventeenth and eighteenth allowed colonists to expand their purchasing habits. This time period lasted until roughly 1750.
  • Currency Acts of 1751 and 1763

    The Board of Trade set restrictions on the uses of paper money and metal coins. Standardized money was not widely available and was necessary for inter-colony trade to thrive.
  • Seven Years' War

    Between the Glorious Revolution and the American Revolution, Britain and France engaged in a long, drawn-out war. They mostly fought over land boundaries and religious dominance. Native Americans were sometimes convinced to join the fighting.
  • Quakers Turn Against Slavery

    The first major organization to revoke slavery, the Quakers began advocating for black rights and expelling slave-holding Quakers from meetings.
  • Pontiac's War

    A prophet named Neolin received a vision from his religion's highest deity, called the Master of Life. Neolin was instructed to remove the English influence in Indian land. He and his people attacked colonists and Fort Detroit. The conflict didn't conclude until 1766.
  • Stamp Act

    Parliament passed the Stamp Act, which required many documents to be printed on paper and stamped to prove the duty had been paid. This act, unlike the Sugar Act, directly affected several groups.
  • Regulating and Tea Acts

    Pariliament passed the Regulating Act, which effectively controlled the troubled company of East India. The Tea Act allowed this company to sell its tea directly to the colonies, which lowered costs but was still met with resistance.
  • American Revolution

    From 1775 to 1783, the colonies fought back against English authorities and sought their own independence. Britain attempted to hold American colonies too tightly and was met with resistance. King George III forbade all settlement west of the Appalachian Mountains. In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act, which controlled molasses smuggling. In the same year, the Currency Act was put into place and restricted colonies from creating paper money.
  • The American Revolution Rages On

    The American Revolution, through the previous Acts, commenced a war with Britain that ignited in Massachusetts and spread rapidly.
  • Signing of the Declaration of Independence

    The Declaration of Independence was signed by several authorities, including Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, and John Adams. It officially announced America as free from Britain rule.
  • Articles of Confederation

    The Continental Congress passed a Constitution, which was agreed upon by all 13 states, that served as the first frame of government.
  • Dirty Compromise

    An agreement between New England and the Deep South in which New Englanders included a constitutional provision protecting the slave trade for twenty years and, in return, South Caroline/Georgia supported a constitutional cause that made it easer for Congress to pass commercial legislation.
  • Virginia Plan

    James Madison proposed that the American government would have 3 branches- judicial, legislative, and executive. The legislature, also known as Congress, would have two houses. Roger Sherman proposed Congress having a House of Representatives, where members were added depending on each state's population, and the Senate, where every state would have one vote. The proposals were sent to Congress for approval, then to the states, then eventually was put into effect.
  • Haitian Revolution

    Beginning in 1791 and ending in 1804, the Haitian Revolution successful slave revolt against French colonial rule. Located in the West Indies, this revolt ended France's plans to expand into the Americas any further.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    An uprising of farmers and civilians to protest a whiskey tax enacted. The federal government's effective handling of the situation showed their capabilities of keeping their own nation in check.
  • Jay's Treaty

    John Jay proposed a treaty that required Britain to leave their military operations in the Northwest Territory. In return, the US became Britain's best trading partner, which involved supporting Britain's conflict with France.
  • Battle of Fallen Timbers

    The final battle of the Northeast Indian War, resulting in the Western Confederacy's victory.
  • 1700-1800 ENDS: Alien and Sedition Acts

    The Alien Act gave the federal government the right to deport foreigners, or "aliens" that posed a national security threat. The Sedition Act controlled the newspapers and how the government was portrayed by writers. Both acts were met with backlash and were eventually revoked.
  • 1800-1876 BEGINS: Louisiana Purchase

    A massive chunk of land was added to America for $15 million. Thomas Jefferson bought the land from Napoleonic France because he ultimately wanted to gain access to the port of New Orleans
  • Northern Slavery and Southern Slavery

    Slavery in the North began to decline in the early nineteenth century, while the cotton demand in the South led to increased slave trade there. States North of the Mason-Dixon Line started work towards abolishing slavery. New Jersey was the last of the states to adopt slow plans for abolishing slavery in the North
  • Embargo Act

    The Embargo Act was created by Thomas Jefferson and was met with Federalist outrage. This is because the act cut off foreign trade ports and controlled trading with Britain in particular. The Embargo Act cut off many traders' way of lives and was not received well by Jefferson's Federalist critics.
  • War of 1812

    British ships began forcing American sailors into English armies. This led to James Madison declaring war on Britain and prevailing.
  • Creation of the Powered Loom

    Francis Cabot Lowell and Paul Moody copied the powered loom in the mills of England. This resulted in a reformation of the American manufacturing business. Female mill workers began working more hours, while some went on strike due to being overworked. Women in general adopted new responsibilities and spent less time confined to the household.
  • Treaty of Ghent

    All conquered territory was returned and the boundaries between Britain and the US were firmly established. This ended the War of 1812.
  • Battle of New Orleans

    The Battle of New Orleans occurred between Britain and the US. It was considered the strongest US victory of the war. It was the finally major battle of the War of 1812, despite occurring in 1815. Since the Treaty of Ghent had not been officially ratified, only signed 18 days prior, the battle was included in the War of 1812.
  • Last Federalist to Run for President

    Rufus King lost to Monroe in 1816 and was the final Federalist to ever run for president.
  • State of Indiana

    The state of Indiana joined the Union, courtesy of President James Madison
  • Jackson Purchase

    The Jackson Purchase was a successful deal with the Chickasaw Indians, which bought a chunk of land that was divided and added to Kentucky and Tennessee.
  • State of Illinois

    Illinois was admitted into the Union as a free state, since Mississippi had been made a slave state in 1817 and Alabama would follow as a slave state in 1819.
  • Civilization Fund Act

    The act that offered $10,000 annually to societies that funded missionaries to create schools in Indian tribes.
  • The Missouri Crisis

    When Missouri sought to join the Union as a slave state, The Missouri Compromise was developed by Jesse Thomas in an attempt to avoid conflict. Missouri would be a slave state, but Maine would be admitted at a free state, keeping the balance. The Crisis ended peacefully.
  • Nullification Crisis

    South Carolina apposed the tariffs of 1828 and 1832. John C. Calhoun mended the tension by proposing that the states be able to nullify a federal statute if it was deemed unconstitutional.
  • Texas Revolution

    Beginning in 1835 and ending the next year, the Texas Revolution lead to Texas's independency from Mexico.
  • The Panic of 1837

    The growth of American banks and high cotton prices, as well as domestic/foreign credit, led to America's economy crumbling. Civilians panicked to turn their banknotes into hard currency for fear of the broken system. Economic depression hit and lasted until late 1842.
  • The Second Great Awakening

    Protestant revival led to an increase in Baptist and Methodist churches. Temperance became more popular. Joseph Smith, the founder of the Mormon faith, became widely popular Transcendentalism was the belief that a higher spiritual principle existed within each person. Slave holders believed that God created African Americans for slavery, and it was their God-given right to own those slaves. This Awakening stretched over the nineteenth century.
  • Child Labor Controversy

    Child labor became a big problem for the American labor movement. the middle-class tended to support the protection of children more than the upper-class. Massachusetts passed a low shielding children under the age of twelve from working over 10 hours a day. The 1840's continued to fuel the cotton demand, which fueled the Southern slave trade.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Originating around 1845, manifest destiny was the vague belief that America was blessed by God and had a divine right to conquer the world. Divisions between the South and the North slowed this process, due to the South's dependency on slavery to expand.
  • State of Texas

    Texas was admitted into the Union as a slave state after Texan President Sam Houston made a deal with US President James K. Polk.
  • US-Mexican War

    The US declared war on Mexico after Mexico continued to claim Texas land despite Texas being a US state.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

    Mexico recognized the Rio Grande as the US official southern border and agreed to leave Texan lands alone.
  • State of Wisconsin

    Wisconsin was admitted as a free state in May 1848, helping to ease tension between Texas and Mexico.
  • Market Revolution

    The Market Revolution flooded the New World with transportation and technology. Robert Fulton created the first commercial steamboat service in 1807, using Hudson River in New York. Congress to funded Samuel Morse's forty-mile telegraph line from Washington, D.C. to Baltimore. This allowed messages to be conveyed at a shocking rate. St. Lois and Cincinnati were turned into trade centers by the steamboat service. By the 18302, New England was losing its advantage over the West.
  • The Cotton Revolution and the Black Belt

    The cotton demand led to a drastic increase in Southern slavery. the Antebellum south was constantly struggling to meet the cotton market's needs, which led to slaves working longer hours in harsher conditions. Small revolts occurred from time to time. Tobacco was not nearly as popular as cotton due to how rough it was on the soil. by the 1850's, the Cotton Belt (cotton production sites spreading over the South) was called the Black Belt because of the sheer number of slaves.
  • Compromise of 1850

    This compromise was an assemblage of 5 bills designed to smooth over tensions between slave and free states. Unfortunately, it only worsened the Sectional Crisis.
  • Immigration Skyrockets

    Between 1820 and 1840, more than 250,000 Irish citizens immigrated into the US. German immigrants tended to settle in American rural countrysides. Catholic and Jewish Germans influenced religion across the US and angered Anglo-Protestant Americans.
  • Beginning of the Civil War

    The Sectional Crisis, Manifest Destiny, and Second Great Awakening funneled into a massive war between slave and free states. Countless battles and territories were fought. Women's rights evolved into medical roles while the men were fighting.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    This battle stopped Confederate advances in the Eastern Theater. It is considered the turning point in the Civil War, the battle that led the North to victory. It started on July 1, 1863 and ended two days later.
  • Reconstruction Era

    1865 to 1877 was a major rebuilding time for the US. The Civil War took a heavy toll. African Americans were still not always treated fairly, despite not being in slavery anymore. There was still mistreatment and abuse of blacks across the country.
  • The Thirteenth Amendment

    This amendment formally abolished slavery, except in the case of a criminal's punishment.
  • Confederate Surrender

    General Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in Virginia, ending the Civil War.
  • Assassination of Abraham Lincoln

    John Wilkes Booth, the first person to ever assassinate an American president, shot Abraham Lincoln with a pistol at Ford's Theater. Booth was a slavery supporter and sought revenge for the outcome of the Civil War and the Thirteenth Amendment.
  • The 1876 Election

    Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden reached an informal agreement during their presidential debate: In return for the Republicans removing their troops from the South, Tilden accepted Hayes's election.