US History

Timeline created by Hector 2001
  • Homestead Act

    Homestead Act
    the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land.
  • • 13th Amendment (1865)

    free
  • • 14th Amendment (1868)

    citizen
  • Transcontinental Railroad Completed

    Transcontinental Railroad Completed
    a golden spike was driven at Promontory, Utah, signaling the completion of the first transcontinental railroad in the United States. The transcontinental railroad had long been a dream for people living in the American West.May 10, 2012
  • • Industrialization Begins to Boom

    •	Industrialization Begins to Boom
    The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
  • • 15th Amendment (1870)

    vote (men)
  • • Boss Tweed rise at Tammany Hall

    •	Boss Tweed rise at Tammany Hall
    the Society of St. Tammany, the Sons of St. Tammany, or the Columbian Order, was a New York City political organization founded in 1786 and incorporated on May 12, 1789, as the Tammany Society. It was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City and New York State politics and helping immigrants, most notably the Irish, rise up in American politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. It typically controlled Democratic Party nominations.
  • • Telephone Invented

    •	Telephone Invented
    They were spoken by Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, when he made the first call on March 10, 1876, to his assistant, Thomas Watson: "Mr. Watson--come here--I want to see you."
  • Reconstruction Ends

    Reconstruction Ends
    The Compromise of 1877 was a purported informal, unwritten deal that settled the intensely disputed 1876 U.S. presidential election. It resulted in the United States federal government pulling the last troops out of the South, and formally ended the Reconstruction Era.
  • • Jim Crow Laws Start in South (1877)

  • • Light Bulb Invented

    •	Light Bulb Invented
    Joseph Swan demonstrates the electric lamp to the Newcastle Chemical Society in northern England. The incandescent light bulb has become synonymous with Thomas Edison. But Swan was the first to show a more-or-less workable version of this remarkable creation
  • • Third Wave of Immigration

    •	Third Wave of Immigration
    The third wave, between 1880 and 1914, brought over 20 million European immigrants to the United States, an average of 650,000 a year at a time when the United States had 75 million residents. ... Third-wave European immigration was slowed first by World War I and then by numerical quotas in the 1920s.
  • • Chinese Exclusion Act

    •	Chinese Exclusion Act
    It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States. In the spring of 1882, the Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and signed by President Chester A. Arthur. This act provided an absolute 10-year moratorium on Chinese labor immigration.
  • • Pendleton Act

    •	Pendleton Act
    The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act (ch. 27, 22 Stat. 403) is a United States federal law, enacted in 1883, which established that positions within the federal government should be awarded on the basis of merit instead of political affiliation.
  • • Dawes Act

    •	Dawes Act
    The Dawes Act of 1887 (also known as the General Allotment Act or the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887), adopted by Congress in 1887, authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians.
  • • Interstate Commerce Act

    •	Interstate Commerce Act
    The Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 is a United States federal law that was designed to regulate the railroad industry, particularly its monopolistic practices. The Act required that railroad rates be "reasonable and just," but did not empower the government to fix specific rates.
  • • Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth

    •	Andrew Carnegie’s Gospel of Wealth
    "Wealth", more commonly known as "The Gospel of Wealth", is an article written by Andrew Carnegie in June of 1889 that describes the responsibility of philanthropy by the new upper class of self-made rich.
  • • Klondike Gold Rush

    •	Klondike Gold Rush
    Canada A Country by Consent: The Klondike Gold Rush 1890s. The Klondike Gold Rush began with the discovery of gold in a tributary of the Klondike River in August of 1896. As word spread, the flow of adventurers and prospectors increased until it reached its peak in the summer of 1898.
  • • Sherman Anti-Trust Act

    •	Sherman Anti-Trust Act
    The Sherman Antitrust Act (Sherman Act, 26 Stat. 209, 15 U.S.C. §§ 1–7) is a landmark federal statute in the history of United States antitrust law (or "competition law") passed by Congress in 1890 under the presidency of Benjamin Harrison.
  • • Influence of Sea Power Upon History

    •	Influence of Sea Power Upon History
    The Influence of Sea Power Upon History: 1660–1783 is a history of naval warfare published in 1890 by Alfred Thayer Mahan. ... Its policies were quickly adopted by most major navies, ultimately leading to the World War I naval arms race.
  • • Homestead Steel Labor Strike

    •	Homestead Steel Labor Strike
    The Homestead Strike, also known as the Homestead Steel Strike, Pinkerton Rebellion, or Homestead Massacre, was an industrial lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892
  • • Pullman Labor Strike

    •	Pullman Labor Strike
    he Pullman Strike was a nationwide railroad strike in the United States on May 11, 1894, and a turning point for US labor law. It pitted the American Railway Union (ARU) against the Pullman Company, the main railroads, and the federal government of the United States under President Grover Cleveland.
  • • Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)

  • • Annexation of Hawaii

    •	Annexation of Hawaii
    Soon after, President Benjamin Harrison submitted a treaty to annex the Hawaiian islands to the U.S. Senate for ratification. In 1897, the treaty effort was blocked when the newly-formed Hawaiian Patriotic League, composed of native Hawaiians, successfully petitioned the U.S. Congress in opposition of the treaty.Aug 15, 2016
  • • Spanish American War

    •	Spanish American War
    The Spanish–American War (Spanish: Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Filipino: Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898. Hostilities began in the aftermath of the internal explosion of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor in Cuba leading to United States intervention in the Cuban War of Independence
  • • Open Door Policy

    •	Open Door Policy
    Open Door policy, statement of principles initiated by the United States in 1899 and 1900 for the protection of equal privileges among countries trading with China and in support of Chinese territorial and administrative integrity.
  • Assassination of President McKinley

    Assassination of President McKinley
    William McKinley was the 25th President of the United States from March 4, 1897 until his assassination in September 1901, six months into his second term.
  • • Wright Brother’s Airplane (1903)

  • • Panama Canal U.S. Construction Begins

    •	Panama Canal U.S. Construction Begins
    Building the Panama Canal, 1903–1914. President Theodore Roosevelt oversaw the realization of a long-term United States goal—a trans-isthmian canal. Throughout the 1800s, American and British leaders and businessmen wanted to ship goods quickly and cheaply between the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
  • • Model-T

    The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie, Leaping Lena, or flivver) is an automobile produced by Ford Motor Company from October 1, 1908, to May 26, 1927.
  • 16th Amendment

    16th Amendment
    16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913) ... Passed by Congress on July 2, 1909, and ratified February 3, 1913, the 16th amendment established Congress's right to impose a Federal income tax.
  • Federal Reserve Act

    Federal Reserve Act
    The Federal Reserve Act intended to establish a form of economic stability in the United States through the introduction of the Central Bank, which would be in charge of monetary policy. The Federal Reserve Act is perhaps one of the most influential laws concerning the U.S. financial system.
  • 17th Amendment

    17th Amendment
    This is a simple addition to prevent the passage of the Seventeenth Amendment from interrupting the election or term of any Senator chosen before the amendment was passed. The United States Senate elections, 1914 were the first nationwide popular elections for Senators.
  • Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

    The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, occurred on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo when they were mortally wounded by Gavrilo Princip.
  • Trench Warfare, Poison Gas, and Machine Guns

    Chemical warfare first appeared when the Germans used poison gas during a surprise attack in Flanders, Belgium, in 1915. At first, gas was just released from large cylinders and carried by the wind into nearby enemy lines. Later, phosgene and other gases were loaded into artillery shells and shot into enemy trenches.
  • Sinking of the Lusitania

    The sinking of the Cunard ocean liner RMS Lusitania occurred on Friday, 7 May 1915 during the First World War, as Germany waged submarine warfare against the United Kingdom which had implemented a naval blockade of Germany. The ship was identified and torpedoed by the German U-boat U-20 and sank in 18 minutes.
  • National Parks System

    National Parks System
    On August 25, 1916, President Woodrow Wilson signed the act creating the National Park Service, a new federal bureau in the Department of the Interior responsible for protecting the 35 national parks and monuments then managed by the department and those yet to be established.
  • Zimmerman Telegram

    The Zimmermann Telegram (or Zimmermann Note or Zimmerman Cable) was a secret diplomatic communication issued from the German Foreign Office in January 1917 that proposed a military alliance between Germany and Mexico in the prior event of the United States entering World War I against Germany.
  • 18th Amendment

    18th Amendment
    The ratification of the 18th Amendment was completed on January 16th, 1919 and would take effect on January 17th, 1920. It is important to note that the 18th Amendment did not prohibit the consumption of alcohol, but rather simply the sale, manufacture, and transportation of alcoholic beverages.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    Ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution granted American women the right to vote—a right known as woman suffrage. At the time the U.S. was founded, its female citizens did not share all of the same rights as men, including the right to vote.
  • • President Harding’s Return to Normalcy

    Return to normalcy, a return to the way of life before World War I, was United States presidential candidate Warren G. Harding's campaign slogan for the election of 1920.
  • • Harlem Renaissance

    The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural, social, and artistic explosion that took place in Harlem, New York, spanning the 1920s. During the time, it was known as the "New Negro Movement", named after the 1925 anthology by Alain Locke.
  • • Red Scare

    A "Red Scare" is promotion of widespread fear by a society or state about a potential rise of communism, anarchism, or radical leftism. The term is most often used to refer to two periods in the history of the United States with this name.
  • • Teapot Dome Scandal

    The Teapot Dome Scandal was a bribery incident that took place in the United States from 1921 to 1922, during the administration of President Warren G. Harding. Secretary of the Interior Albert Bacon Fall had leased Navy petroleum reserves at Teapot Dome in Wyoming and two other locations in California to private oil companies at low rates without competitive bidding
  • • Joseph Stalin Leads USSR

    Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin[a] (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Georgian-born Soviet revolutionary and political leader. Governing the Soviet Union as its dictator from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953, he served as General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1952 and as Premier of the Soviet Union from 1941 to 1953. Ideologically a Marxist and a Leninist
  • • Scopes “Monkey” Trial

    The Scopes Trial, formally known as The State of Tennessee v. John Thomas Scopes and commonly referred to as the Scopes Monkey Trial, was an American legal case in July 1925 in which a substitute high school teacher, John T. Scopes, was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act, which had made it unlawful to teach human evolution in any state-funded school.
  • • Charles Lindbergh’s Trans-Atlantic Flight

    Yet, when Charles Lindbergh landed safely in Paris less than 34 hours later, becoming the first pilot to solo a nonstop transatlantic flight, he changed public opinion on the value of air travel and laid the foundation for the future development of aviation.Jul 20, 2012
  • • St. Valentine’s Day Massacre

    •	St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
    The Saint Valentine's Day Massacre is the name given to the 1929 murder in Chicago of seven men of the North Side gang during the Prohibition Era.[2] It happened on February 14, and resulted from the struggle between the Irish American gang and the South Side Italian gang led by Al Capone to take control of organized crime in the city.
  • • Stock Market Crashes “Black Tuesday” (

    •	Stock Market Crashes “Black Tuesday” (
    The Wall Street Crash of 1929, also known as Black Tuesday (October 29),[1] the Great Crash, or the Stock Market Crash of 1929, began on October 24, 1929 ("Black Thursday"), and was the most devastating stock market crash in the history of the United States (acting as the most significant predicting indicator of the Great Depression), when taking into consideration the full extent and duration of its after effects
  • • Hoovervilles

    •	Hoovervilles
    A "Hooverville" was a shanty town built during the Great Depression by the homeless in the United States of America. They were named after Herbert Hoover, who was President of the United States of America during the onset of the Depression and was widely blamed for it.
  • • Smoot-Hawley Tariff

    •	Smoot-Hawley Tariff
    ch. 4), otherwise known as the Smoot–Hawley Tariff or Hawley–Smoot Tariff, was an act implementing protectionist trade policies sponsored by Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley and signed into law on June 17, 1930. The act raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods.
  • • 100, 000 Banks Have Failed

    •	100, 000 Banks Have Failed
    The 2008 financial crisis led to the failure of a large number of banks in the United States. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) closed 465 failed banks from 2008 to 2012.[1] In contrast, in the five years prior to 2008, only 10 banks failed
  • • Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)

    •	Agriculture Adjustment Administration (AAA)
    This article is about the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933. For the act by the same name in 1938, see Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938.
    Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
    Great Seal of the United States
    Other short titles

    Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1933
    The Farm Relief Bill
    Long title An Act to relieve the existing national economic
  • • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)

    The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) is a United States government corporation providing deposit insurance to depositors in US banks.
  • • Public Works Administration (PWA)

    Public Works Administration (PWA), part of the New Deal of 1933 was a large-scale public works construction agency in the United States headed by Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes. It was created by the National Industrial Recovery Act in June 1933 in response to the Great Depression
  • • Dust Bowl

    The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
  • • Social Security Administration (SSA)

    The United States Social Security Administration (SSA)[2] is an independent agency of the U.S. federal government that administers Social Security, a social insurance program consisting of retirement, disability, and survivors' benefits.
  • • Tuskegee Airmen

    The Tuskegee Airmen /tʌsˈkiːɡiː/[1] is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. Officially, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
  • • Navajo Code Talkers

    •	Navajo Code Talkers
    On November 27, 2017, three Navajo code talkers, including the president of the Navajo Nation, Russell Begaye, appeared with President Trump in the Oval Office in an official White House ceremony to "pay tribute to the contributions of the young Native Americans recruited by the United States military to create top- ...
  • • Tuskegee Airmen

    •	Tuskegee Airmen
    The Tuskegee Airmen /tʌsˈkiːɡiː/[1] is the popular name of a group of African-American military pilots (fighter and bomber) who fought in World War II. Officially, they formed the 332nd Fighter Group and the 477th Bombardment Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
  • • Navajo Code Talkers

    Code talkers are people in the 20th century who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime. The term is now usually associated with the United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages.
  • • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942.
  • • Executive Order 9066

    Executive Order 9066 was a United States presidential executive order signed and issued during World War II by United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt on February 19, 1942.
  • • Bataan Death March

    The Bataan Death March (Filipino: Martsa ng Kamatayan sa Bataan; Japanese: バターン死の行進, Hepburn: Batān Shi no Kōshin) was the forcible transfer by the Imperial Japanese Army of 60,000–80,000 Filipino and American prisoners of war from Saysain Point, Bagac, Bataan and Mariveles to Camp O'Donnell, Capas, Tarlac, via San Fernando, Pampanga, where the prisoners were loaded onto trains.
  • • Invasion of Normandy (D-Day

    •	Invasion of Normandy (D-Day
    The Normandy landings (codenamed Operation Neptune) were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 (termed D-Day) of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
  • • Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)

    •	Invasion of Normandy (D-Day)
    The Western Allies of World War II launched the largest amphibious invasion in history when they assaulted Normandy, located on the northern coast of France, on 6 June 1944. The invaders were able to establish a beachhead as part of Operation Overlord after a successful "D-Day," the first day of the invasion.
  • • GI Bill

    The Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944, also known as the G.I. Bill, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning World War II veterans (commonly referred to as G.I.s). It was designed by the American Legion, who helped push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters (along with the Veterans of Foreign Wars); the goal was to provide immediate rewards for practically all World War II veterans.
  • • Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    •	Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima
    During the final stage of World War II, the United States dropped nuclear weapons on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
  • • Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) Day

    •	Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) Day
    Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war. ... On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan, aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
  • •Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.

    •Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
    Heinrich Himmler's SS took full control of the police and the concentration camps throughout Germany in 1934–35.[4] Himmler expanded the role of the camps to hold so-called "racially undesirable elements", such as Jews, criminals, homosexuals, and Romanis.
  • • Atomic bombing of Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively. The United States dropped the bombs after obtaining the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed at least 129,000 people, most of whom were civilians. They remain the only use of nuclear weapons in the history of warfare.
  • • Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) Day

    •	Victory over Japan/Pacific (VJ/VP) Day
    Victory over Japan Day (also known as V-J Day, Victory in the Pacific Day, or V-P Day) is the day on which Imperial Japan surrendered in World War II, in effect ending the war. ... On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was performed in Tokyo Bay, Japan, aboard the battleship USS Missouri.
  • • Liberation of Concentration Camps

    The camps were liberated by the Allied forces between 1944 and 1945. The first major camp, Majdanek, was discovered by the advancing Soviets on July 23, 1944.
  • • Victory in Europe (VE) Day

    Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, was the public holiday celebrated on 8 May 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces. The formal surrender of the German forces occupying the Channel Islands did not occur until the following day, 9 May 1945. It thus marked the end of World War II in Europe.
  • • United Nations (UN) Formed

    States first established international organizations to cooperate on specific matters. The International Telecommunication Union was founded in 1865 as the International Telegraph Union, and the Universal Postal Union was established in 1874. Both are now United Nations specialized agencies.
  • • Germany Divided

    the American Legion, who helped push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters (along with the Veterans of Foreign Wars); the goal was to provide immediate rewards for practically all World War II veterans.
  • • United Nations (UN) Formed (1945)

    The Formation of the United Nations, 1945. On January 1, 1942, representatives of 26 nations at war with the Axis powers met in Washington to sign the Declaration of the United Nations endorsing the Atlantic Charter , pledging to use their full resources against the Axis and agreeing not to make a separate peace.
  • • Germany Divided

    ded a range of benefits for returning Worlrican Legion, who helped push it through Congress by mobilizing its chapters (along with the Veterans of Foreign Wars); the goal was to provide immediate rewards for practically all World War II veterans.
  • • United Nations (UN) Formed

    The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order. A replacement for the ineffective League of Nations, the organization was established on 24 October 1945 after World War II with the aim of preventing another such conflict.
  • • Germany Divided

  • • Germany Divided

    As a consequence of the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, Germany was cut between the two global blocs in the East and West, a period known as the division of Germany. Germany was stripped of its war gains and lost territories in the east to Poland and the Soviet Union. At the end of the war, there were in Germany some eight million foreign displaced persons
  • • Nuremberg Trials

    •	Nuremberg Trials
    Nuremberg, Germany, was chosen as a site for trials that took place in 1945 and 1946. Judges from the Allied powers—Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—presided over the hearings of twenty-two major Nazi criminals.
  • • Nuremberg Trials

    Nuremberg, Germany, was chosen as a site for trials that took place in 1945 and 1946. Judges from the Allied powers—Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States—presided over the hearings of twenty-two major Nazi criminals. Twelve prominent Nazis were sentenced to death.
  • • Truman Doctrine

    •	Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947 and further developed on July 12, 1948 when he pledged to contain threats to Gr
  • • Truman Doctrine

    The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy whose stated purpose was to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by President Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947 and further developed on July 12, 1948 when he pledged to contain threats to Greece and Turkey.
  • • Mao Zedong Established Communist Rule in China (1947)

  • • Mao Zedong Established Communist Rule in China (1947)

    On October 1, 1949, Mao Zedong proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of China. Chiang Kai-shek, 600,000 Nationalist troops, and about two million Nationalist-sympathizer refugees retreated to the island of Taiwan.
  • • 22nd Amendment (1947)

    •	22nd Amendment (1947)
    The 22nd amendment limits the president to only two 4 year terms in office. ... After FDR died in 1945, many Americans began to recognize that having a president serve more than eight years was bad for the country. This led to the 22nd amendment, which was passed by Congress in 1947 and ratified by the states by
  • • Marshall Plan

    The Marshall Plan (officially the European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $13 billion (nearly $140 billion in 2017 dollars) in economic assistance to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II.
  • • Berlin Airlift

    •	Berlin Airlift
    The Berlin Blockade (24 June 1948 – 12 May 1949) was one of the first major international crises of the Cold War. During the multinational occupation of post–World War II Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. The Soviets offered to drop the blockade if the Western Allies withdrew the newly introduced Deutsche mark from West Berlin.
  • • Arab-Israeli War Begins (1948)

  • • NATO Formed

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO /ˈneɪtoʊ/; French: Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between several North American and European countries based on the North Atlantic Treaty that was signed on 4 April 1949.[5][6]
  • • Kim Il-sung invades South Korea

    •	Kim Il-sung invades South Korea
    In December 1945, the Soviets installed Kim as chairman of the North Korean branch of the Korean Communist Party. ... Prior to Kim's invasion of the South in 1950, which triggered the Korean War, Joseph Stalin equipped the KPA with modern, Soviet-built medium tanks, trucks, artillery, and small arms.
  • • UN forces push North Korea to Yalu River- the border with China

    •	UN forces push North Korea to Yalu River- the border with China
    On Nov. 25-26, 1950, the Chinese Army entered the Korean War in earnest with a violent attack against the American and United Nations forces in North Korea. The 300,000-man Chinese offensive caught the U.N. forces off guard, largely because of U.S. Gen. Douglas MacArthur's belief that China would not openly enter the war, and vastly expanded the conflict.
  • • Chinese forces cross Yalu and enter Korean War

    , "Fatherland Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953)[38][b][40] was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States). The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea[41][42] following a series of clashes along the border.[43][44
  • • Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Execution

    Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage in 1951, are put to death in the electric chair. The execution marked the dramatic finale of the most controversial espionage case of the Cold War.
  • • Armistice Signed

    The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany. Previous armistices had eliminated Bulgaria, the Ottoman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
  • • Hernandez v. Texas

    Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.S. 475 (1954)[1] was a landmark case, "the first and only Mexican-American civil-rights case heard and decided by the United States Supreme Court during the post-World War II period.
  • • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
  • • Hernandez v. Texas (1954)

  • • Brown v. Board of Education (1954)

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. Wikipedia
  • • Ho Chi Minh Established Communist Rule in Vietnam (1954)

    •	Ho Chi Minh Established Communist Rule in Vietnam (1954)
    landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. Wikipedia
  • • Warsaw Pact Formed

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, 347 U.S. 483 (1954), was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional.
  • • Polio Vaccine

    Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio).[1] There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection (IPV), and one that uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth (OPV).
  • • Rosa Parks Arrested (1955)

    •	Rosa Parks Arrested (1955)
    On 1 December 1955, Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat to a white passenger on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama. This single act of nonviolent resistance sparked the Montgomery bus boycott, an eleven-month struggle to desegregate the city's buses.
  • • Montgomery Bus Boycott (1955)

    The Montgomery Bus Boycott was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. It was a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement. The campaign lasted from December 5, 1955—the Monday after Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a Unite
  • • Interstate Highway Act

    The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956. It took several years of wrangling, but a new Federal-Aid Highway Act passed in June 1956. The law authorized the construction of a 41,000-mile network of interstate highways that would span the nation.
  • • Elvis Presley First Hit Song

    February 1956. As "Heartbreak Hotel" makes its climb up the charts on its way to #1, "I Forgot to Remember to Forget" b/w "Mystery Train," Elvis' fifth and last single to be released on the Sun label, hits #1 on Billboard's national country singles chart. His first #1 hit on a national chart.
  • Sputnik I

    History changed on October 4, 1957, when the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik I. The world's first artificial satellite was about the size of a beach ball (58 cm.or 22.8 inches in diameter), weighed only 83.6 kg. or 183.9 pounds, and took about 98 minutes to orbit the Earth on its elliptical path. That launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. While the Sputnik launch was a single event, it marked the start
  • • Leave it to Beaver First Airs on TV

    Leave It to Beaver is an American television sitcom about an inquisitive and often naïve boy, Theodore "The Beaver" Cleaver (portrayed by Jerry Mathers), and his adventures at home, in school, and around his suburban neighborhood.
  • • Civil Rights Act of 1957 (1957)

    1957—the Monday after Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a Unite
  • • Little Rock Nine (1957)

    •	Little Rock Nine (1957)
    ember 5, 1955—the Monday after Rosa Parks, an African American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a Unite
  • • Kennedy versus Nixon TV Debate

    The United States presidential election of 1960 was the 44th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 8, 1960. In a closely contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee.
  • • Kennedy versus Nixon TV Debate (1960)

    In a closely contested election, Democrat John F. Kennedy defeated incumbent Vice President Richard Nixon, the Republican Party nominee. ... The 1960 presidential election was the closest election since 1916, and this closeness can be explained by a number of factors.
  • • Chicano Mural Movement Begins (1960)

    •	Chicano Mural Movement Begins (1960)
    n, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person—to December 20, 1956, when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a Unite
  • • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    On April 17, 1961, 1400 Cuban exiles launched what became a botched invasion at the Bay of Pigs on the south coast of Cuba. In 1959, Fidel Castro came to power in an armed revolt that overthrew Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista.
  • • Peace Corps Formed

    The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the United States government. The stated mission of the Peace Corps includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans to understand the cultures of other countries. The work is generally related to social and economic development.
  • • Mapp v. Ohio

    •	Mapp v. Ohio
    Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961), was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • Bay of Pigs Invasion

    On January 1, 1959, a young Cuban nationalist named Fidel Castro (1926-) drove his guerilla army into Havana and overthrew General Fulgencio Batista (1901-1973), the nation’s American-backed president. For the next two years, officials at the U.S. State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) attempted to push Castro from power. Finally, in April 1961, the CIA launched
  • • Peace Corps Formed (1961)

    •	Peace Corps Formed (1961)
    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involv
  • • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)

    Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961), was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme C
  • • Affirmative Action (1961)

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involv
  • • Cuban Missile Crisis

    decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)

    The Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a direct and dangerous confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union during the Cold War and was the moment when the two superpowers came closest to nuclear conflict. The crisis was unique in a number of ways, featuring calculations and miscalculations as well as direct and secret communications and miscommunications between the two sides
  • • Sam Walton Opens First Walmart (1962)

    state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involv
  • • Kennedy Assassinated in Dallas, Texas

    •	Kennedy Assassinated in Dallas, Texas
    , was a landmark case in criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • Gideon v. Wainwright

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • Kennedy Assassinated in Dallas, Texas (1963)

    n state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involv
  • • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)

    •	Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)
    state courts, as well as in federal criminal law prosecutions in federal courts as had previously been the law. The Supreme Court accomplished this by use of a principle known as selective incorporation; in Mapp this involv
  • • George Wallace Blocks University of Alabama Entrance (1963)

    The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation
  • • The Feminine Mystique (1963)

    , stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.[1] In response, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which federalized the Alabama National Guard
  • • March on Washington (1963)

    " and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.[1] In response, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which federalized the Alabama National Guard
  • • The Great Society

    decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • Escobedo v. Illinois

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • • The Great Society (1964)

    •	The Great Society (1964)
    The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a s
    In response, President John F. Kennedy issued Executive Order 11111, which federalized the Alabama National Guard
  • • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)

    The Stand in the Schoolhouse Door took place at Foster Auditorium at the University of Alabama on June 11, 1963. George Wallace, the Democratic Governor of Alabama, in a symbolic attempt to keep his inaugural promise of "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever" and stop the desegregation of schools, stood at the door of the auditorium to try to block the entry of two African American students, Vivian Malone and James Hood.[1]
  • • Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (1964)

    The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution or the Southeast Asia Resolution, Pub.L. 88–408, 78 Stat. 384, enacted August 10, 1964, was a joint resolution that the United States Congress passed on August 7, 1964, in response to the Gulf of Tonkin incident.
    States.
  • • Civil Rights Act of 1964 (1964)

    The Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub.L. 88–352, 78 Stat. 241, enacted July 2, 1964) is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States[5] that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.[6] It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employm
  • • 24th Amendment (1964)

    •	24th Amendment (1964)
    in the United States[5] that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.[6] It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employm
  • • Israeli-Palestine Conflict Begins (1964)

    ) is a landmark civil rights and US labor law in the United States[5] that outlaws discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex or national origin.[6] It prohibited unequal application of voter registration requirements, racial segregation in schools, employm
  • • Voting Rights Act of 1965 (1965)

    •	Voting Rights Act of 1965 (1965)
    our American boys into combat in a war in which we have no business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • Malcom X Assassinated (1965)

    964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • United Farm Worker’s California Delano Grape Strike (1965)

    involving armed forces. It was opposed in the Senate only by Senators Wayne Morse (D-OR) and Ernest Gruening (D-AK). Senator Gruening objected to "sending our American boys into combat in a war in which we have no business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964)
  • • Miranda v. Arizona

    It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of conventional military force in Southeast Asia. Specifically, the resolution authorized the President to do whatever necessary in order to assist "any member or protocol state of the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty". This included involving armed forces.
  • • Thurgood Marshall Appointed to Supreme Court (1967)

    It was opposed in the Senate only by Senators Wayne Morse (D-OR) and Ernest Gruening (D-AK). Senator Gruening objected to "sending our American boys into combat in a war in which we have no business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution
  • • Six Day War (1967)

    •	Six Day War (1967)
    drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear Down This Wall!” (1987)

    business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • Tet Offensive (1968)

    business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • My Lai Massacre (1968)

    •	My Lai Massacre (1968)
    It was opposed in the Senate only by Senators Wayne Morse (D-OR) and Ernest Gruening (D-AK). Senator Gruening objected to "sending our American boys into combat in a war in which we have no States.
  • • Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated (1968)

    ding our American boys into combat in a war in which we have no business, which is not our war, into which we have been misguidedly drawn, which is steadily being escalated". (Tonkin Gulf debate 1964) The Johnson administration subsequently relied upon the resolution to begin its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in South Vietnam and open warfare between North Vietnam and the United States.
  • • Tinker v. Des Moines (1969)

    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Vietnamization (1969)

    ), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Vietnamization (1969)

    •	Vietnamization (1969)
    U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Woodstock Music Festival (1969)

    was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Draft Lottery (1969)

    On December 1, 1969, the Selective Service System of the United States conducted two lotteries to determine the order of call to military service in the Vietnam War for men born from 1944 to 1950. These lotteries occurred during a period of conscription from just before World War II to 1973. It was the first time a lottery system had been used to select men for military service since 1942.
  • • Draft Lottery (1969)

    Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Manson Family Murders (1969)

    •	Manson Family Murders (1969)
    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Apollo 11 (1969)

    Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District, 393 U.S. 503 (1969), was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court that defined the constitutional rights of students in U.S. public schools. The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Invasion of Cambodia (1970)

    •	Invasion of Cambodia (1970)
    In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees.[1] More than half of EPA's employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • Kent State Shootings (1970)

    . The Tinker test is still used by courts today to determine whether a school's disciplinary actions violate students' First Amendment rights.
  • • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (1970)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President Richard
  • • Pentagon Papers (1971)

    The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates
  • • 26th Amendment (1971)

    The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in
    half of EPA's employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs, financial,
  • • Policy of Détente Begins (1971)

    In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees.[1] More than half of EPA's employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • Title IX (1972)

    In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees.[1] More than half of EPA's employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • Nixon Visits China (1972)

    ments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powers include fines, sanctions, and other measures. The agency also works with industries and all levels of government in a wide variety of voluntary pollution prevention programs and energy conservation efforts.
  • • Watergate Scandal (1972)

    •	Watergate Scandal (1972)
    Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified by committee hearings in the House and Senate. The agency is led by its Administrator, who is appointed by the President and approved by Congress. The current Administrator is Scott Pruitt. The EPA is not a Cabinet department, but the Administrator is normally given cabinet rank.
  • • War Powers Resolution (1973)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President Richard Nixon proposed the establishment of EPA and it began operation on December 2, 1970, after Nixon signed an executive order. The order establishing the EPA was ratified b
  • • Roe v. Wade (1973)

    The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and educationcy jo
  • • Engaged Species Act (1973)

    In 2016, the agency had 15,376 full-time employees.[1] More than half of EPA's employees are engineers, scientists, and environmental protection specialists; other employees include legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • OPEC Oil Embargo (1973)

    national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S. states and the federally recognized tribes. EPA enforcement powerspublic affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • First Cell-Phones (1973)

    •	First Cell-Phones (1973)
    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or sometimes U.S. EPA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress.[2] President The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a qua
  • • United States v. Nixon (1974)

    •	United States v. Nixon (1974)
    The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The ing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates ude legal, public affairs, financial, and information technologists. In 2017 the Trump administration proposed a 31% cut to the EPA's budget to $5.7 billion from $8.1 billion and to eliminate a quarter of the agency jo
  • • Ford Pardons Nixon (1974)

    The EPA has its headquarters in Washington, D.C., regional offices for each of the agency's ten regions, and 27 laboratories. The agency conducts environmental assessment, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments. It delegates some permitting, monitoring, and enforcement responsibility to U.S.
  • • Fall of Saigon (1975)

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most
    The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • Bill Gates Starts Microsoft (1975)

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[10][11] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates.
  • • Bill Gates Starts Microsoft (1975)

    •	Bill Gates Starts Microsoft (1975)
    manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates. The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • National Rifle Associate (NRA) Lobbying Begins (1975)

    The National Rifle Association of America (NRA) is an American nonprofit organization that advocates for gun rights.[5][6][7] Founded in 1871, the group has informed its members about firearm-related bills since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against legislation since 1975.[8]
  • • Steve Jobs Starts Apple (1976)

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[10][11] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or
  • • Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 (1977)

    Observers and lawmakers see the NRA as one of the top three most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[10][11] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced
  • • Camp David Accords (1978)

    The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty (1979)

    •	Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty (1979)
    The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • Conservative Resurgence (1981)

    Founded in 1881, the group has informed its members about firearm-related bills since 1934, and it has directly lobbied for and against legislation since 1975.[8]
  • • “Trickle Down Economics” (1981)

    •	“Trickle Down Economics” (1981)
    most influential lobbying groups in Washington, D.C.[10][11] The NRA Institute for Legislative Action (NRA-ILA) is its lobbying arm, which manages its political action committee (PAC), the Political Victory Fund (PVF). Over its history the organization has influenced legislation, participated in or initiated lawsuits, and endorsed or opposed various candidates.
  • • War on Drugs (1981)

    The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • AIDS Epidemic (1981)

    The NRA has been criticized by gun control and gun rights advocacy groups, political commentators, and politicians.[12][13] The organization has been the focus of intense criticism in the aftermath of high-profile shootings, such as the Sandy Hook Elementary
  • • Sandra Day O’Connor Appointed to U.S. Supreme Court (1981)

    Sandra Day O'Connor (born March 26, 1930) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, serving from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan to 2006. She was the first woman to serve on the Court.[5]
  • • Marines in Lebanon (1983)

    Timeline: 1982 - President Ronald Reagan sends Marines to Lebanon on a peacekeeping mission. October 23, 1983 - At 6:22 am, a truck carrying 2000 pounds of explosives drives into the Marine compound in Beirut, Lebanon, and crashes into the 1st Battalion, 8th Marine Regimental Battalion Landing Team barracks.Oct 18, 2017
  • • Iran-Contra Affair (1985)

    The Iran–Contra affair (Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated the sale of arms to Iran, which was the subject of an arms embargo.[3] They hoped, thereby, to fund the Contras in
  • • The Oprah Winfrey Show First Airs (1986)

    •	The Oprah Winfrey Show First Airs (1986)
    the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the hostages.[4][5] Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in late 1985, in which a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales was diverted to fund anti-Sandinista fighters, known as Contras, against the socialist government of Nicaragua.[4]
  • • End of Cold War (1989)

    on December 7, 1985, indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostage transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderate elements" within that country.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • Berlin Wall Falls (1989)

    diversion of the money to the Contras, raised by the arms sales.[4][5][7] Handwritten notes taken by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger on December 7, 1985, indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostage transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderate elements" within that country.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • Germany Reunification (1990)

    group with Iranian ties connected to the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything k
  • • Iraq Invades Kuwait (1990)

    •	Iraq Invades Kuwait (1990)
    The scandal began as an operation to free seven American hostages being held in Lebanon by Hezbollah, a paramilitary group with Iranian ties connected to the Army of the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive ]
  • • Soviet Union Collapses (1991)

    ardians of the Islamic Revolution. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the hostages.[4][5] Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in
  • • Operation Desert Storm (1991)

    •	Operation Desert Storm (1991)
    The Iran–Contra affair (Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Aweapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve t
  • • Ms. Adcox Born (1991)

  • • Rodney King (1991)

    the diversion of the money to the Contras, raised by the arms sales.[4][5][7] Handwritten notes taken by Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger on December 7, 1985, indicate that Reagan was aware of potential hostage transfers with Iran, as well as the sale of Hawk and TOW missiles to "moderate elements" within that country.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • NAFTA Founded (1994)

    •	NAFTA Founded (1994)
    The Iran–Contra affair (Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Guardians of the Islamic Revolution. It was planned that Israel would but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • Contract with America (1994)

    While President Ronald Reagan was a supporter of the Contra cautry.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • O.J. Simpson’s “Trial of the Century” (1995)

    The Iran–Contra affair (Persian: ماجرای ایران-کنترا‎, Spanish: caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate,[1] Contragate[2] or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. Senior administration officials secretly facilitated Israel and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the hostages.[4][5] Large
  • • Bill Clinton’s Impeachment (1998)

    and receive the Israeli payment. The Iranian recipients promised to do everything in their power to achieve the release of the hostages.[4][5] Large modifications to the plan were devised by Lieutenant Colonel Oliver North of the National Security Council in late 1985, in which a portion of the proceeds from the weapon sales was diverted to fund anti-Sandinista fighters, known as Contras, against the 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • • USA Patriot Act (2001)

    Suspicion quickly fell on al-Qaeda. The United States responded by launching the War on Terror and invading Afghanistan to depose the Taliban, which had harbored al-Qaeda. Many countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation and expanded the powers of
  • • 9/11 (September 11, 2001)

    The September 11 attacks (also referred to as 9/11)[a] were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda on the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. The attacks killed 2,996 people, injured over 6,000 others, and caused at least $10 billion in infrastructure and property damage.[2][3]
  • • War on Terror (2001)

    •	War on Terror (2001)
    seven American hostages being held in Lebanon by Hezbollah, a paramilitary group with Iranian ties connected to the Army of the Guardi elements" within that country.[8] Weinberger wrote that Reagan said "he could answer to charges of illegality but couldn't answer to the charge that 'big strong President Reagan passed
  • my birthday

    I was born in November 15, 2001
  • • NASA Mars Rover Mission Begins (2003)

    ered toward Washington, D.C., but crashed into a field in Stonycreek Township near Shanksville, Pennsylvania, after its passengers tried to overcome the hijackers. 9/11 was the single deadliest incident for firefighters and law enforcement officers[4] in the history of the United States, with 343 and 72 killed respectively.
  • • Facebook Launched (2004)

    •	Facebook Launched (2004)
    Facebook is a social networking service launched on February 4, 2004. It was founded by Mark Zuckerberg with his college roommate and fellow Harvard University student Eduardo Saverin.
  • • Hurricane Katrina (2005)

    Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly tropical cyclone that is tied with Hurricane Harvey of 2017 as the costliest tropical cyclone on record. Katrina was also one of the costliest natural disasters and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States.[3] As Katrina made landfall, its front right quadrant, which held the strongest winds, slammed into Gulfport, Mississippi, devastating it.[4]
  • • Saddam Hussein Executed (2006)

    intense United States landfalling tropical cyclone, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille in 1969. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • Iphone Released (2007)

    •	Iphone Released (2007)
    , at and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (2009)

    st intense United States landfalling tropical cyclone, behind the 1935 Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille in 1969. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • Hilary Clinton Appointed U.S. Secretary of State (2009)

    verall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • Sonia Sotomayor Appointed to U.S. Supreme Court (2009)

    nants of Tropical Depression Ten. Early the following day, the new depression intensified into Tropical Storm Katrina. The cyclone headed generally westward toward Florida and strengthened into a hurricane only two hours before making landfall at Hallandale Beach and Aventura on August 25. After very briefly weakening to a tropical storm, Katrina emerged into the Gulf of Mexico on August 26 and
  • • Arab Spring (2010)

    the Gulf of Mexico,[5] but weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 hurricane on August 29, in southeast Louisiana. The storm caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from
  • • Osama Bin Laden Killed (2011)

    •	Osama Bin Laden Killed (2011)
    Labor Day hurricane and Hurricane Camille in 1969. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since the 1928 Okeechobee hurricane. Total property damage was estimated at $125 billion (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • Space X Falcon 9 (2015)

    August 26 and began to rapidly deepen. The storm strengthened to a Category 5 hurricane over the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico,[5] but weakened before making its second landfall as a Category 3 (2005 USD),[2][1] roughly four times the damage wrought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992 in the United States.[6]
  • • Donald Trump Elected President (2017)

    Donald Trump was inaugurated as the 45th President of the United States at noon EST on January 20, 2017, succeeding Barack Obama.
  • • Liberation of Concentration Camps

    •	Liberation of Concentration Camps
    Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (German: Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
  • Period: to

    American Civil War (1861-1865)

    The American Civil War (also, known by other names) was a civil war that was fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865. As a result of the long-standing controversy over slavery, war broke out in April 1861, when Confederate forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina, shortly after U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated. The nationalists of the Union proclaimed loyalty to the U.S. Constitution.
  • Period: to

    Reconstruction (1865-1877)

    The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the legal end of slavery) or 1865 (the end of the Confederacy) to 1877. In the context of the history of the United States, the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War (1861 to 1865); the second applies to the attempted transformation of the Southern United States from 1863 to 1877, as directed by Congress. Reconstruction ended the
  • Period: to

    Gilded Age

    The Gilded Age in United States history is the late 19th century, from the 1870s to about 1900. The term for this period came into use in the 1920s and 1930s and was derived from writer Mark Twain's 1873 novel The Gilded Age: A Tale of Today, which satirized an era of serious social problems masked by a thin gold gilding
  • Period: to

    Imperialism

    American imperialism is the economic, military and cultural philosophy which states that the United States, either directly or indirectly, affects and controls other countries or their policies.
  • Period: to

    Theodore Roosevelt

    Political party: Republican and Progressive ( Bull Moose) Party
    Domestic Policy: Square Deal (3'cs 16/17 amendments
  • Period: to

    William Howard Taft

    William Howard Taft served as the 27th President of the United States and as the tenth Chief Justice of the United States, the only person to have held both offices.
  • Period: to

    Woodrow Wilson

    Political Parties: Democrat
    Domestic Policy: Clayton Anti-trust Act, Nationals Parks Service, Federal Reserve Act, 18th/19th amendments
  • Period: to

    World war 1

    also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars,[5] was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
  • Period: to

    : Roaring Twenties

    The Roaring Twenties was the period of Western society and Western culture that occurred during and around the 1920s. It was a period of sustained economic prosperity with a distinctive cultural edge in the United States and Western Europe, particularly in major cities such as Berlin
  • Period: to

    : Great Depression

    The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, originating in the United States.
  • Period: to

    : Franklin D. Roosevelt

    commonly known as FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
  • Period: to

    : New Deal Programs

    The New Deal was a series of federal programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted in the United States during the 1930s in response to the Great Depression.
  • Period: to

    The Holocaust

    was a genocide during World War II in which Adolf Hitler's Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered some six million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe.
  • Period: to

    World War II

    also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier.
  • Period: to

    : Harry S. Truman

    was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking the office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
  • Period: to

    Baby Boom

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    : The Cold War

    seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    • TIMESPAN: Korean War

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    : 1950s Prosperity

    criminal procedure, in which the United States Supreme Court decided that evidence obtained in violation of the Fourth Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    Dwight D. Eisenhower

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    Warren Court

    Amendment, which protects against "unreasonable searches and seizures," may not be used in state law criminal prosecutions in state courts, as ...
  • Period: to

    Warren Court (1953- 1969)

    The Warren Court was the period in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States during which Earl Warren served as Chief Justice. Warren replaced the deceased Fred M. Vinson as Chief Justice in 1953, and Warren remained in office until he retired in 1969. Warren was succeeded as Chief Justice by Warren Burger.
  • Period: to

    Vietnam War (1955- 1975)

    Tennessee Senator and former
    Johnson’s interpretations of Lincoln’s policies prevailed until the ion came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U.S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau. The Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, and set up schoo
  • Period: to

    John F. Kennedy

    John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963. Kennedy served at the height of the Cold War, and much of his presidency focused on managing relations with the Soviet Union. A member of the Democratic Party, Kennedy represented the state of Massachusetts in the United States Hou
  • Period: to

    Lyndon B. Johnson

    Lyndon Baines Johnson (/ˈlɪndən ˈbeɪnz/; August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963. A Democrat from Texas, he also served as a United States Representative and as the Majority Leader in the United States Senate. Johnson is one of only fo
  • Period: to

    Richard Nixon (1969- 1974)

    The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the legal end of slavery) or 1865 (the end of the Confederacy) to 1877. In the context of the history of the United States, the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to
  • Period: to

    Jimmy Carter (1971-1981)

    The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the legal end of slavery) or 1865 (the end of the Confederacy) to 1877. In the context of the history of the United States, the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the Civil War (1861 to 1865); took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the union as quickly as vailed
  • Period: to

    Gerald Ford (1974-1977)

    Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977. Prior to his accession to the presidency he served as the 40th Vice President of the United States from December 1973 to August 1974.
  • Period: to

    Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-1981)

    The Iran hostage crisis was a diplomatic standoff between Iran and the United States. Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for 444 days from November 4, 1979, to January 20, 1981, after a group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.[3] It stands as the longest hostage crisis in recorded history.[4]
  • Period: to

    Ronald Reagan (1981- 1989)

    onald Wilson Reagan (/ˈreɪɡən/; February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. Prior to the presidency, he was a Hollywood actor and union leader before serving as the 33rd Governor of California from 1967 to 1975.
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    George H. W. Bush (1989- 1993)

    George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st president of the United States from 1989 to 1993. Prior to assuming the presidency, Bush was the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981 to 1989. A member of the Republican Party, he had previously been a congressman, ambassador and Director of Central Intelligence.
  • Period: to

    Persian Gulf War (1990- 1991)

    The Gulf War (2 August 1990 – 28 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 1990 – 17 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 1991 – 28 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
  • Period: to

    : Bill Clinton (1993-2001)

    William Jefferson Clinton (né Blythe III; born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Prior to the presidency, he was the Governor of Arkansas from 1979 to 1981, and again from 1983 to 1992. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.
  • Period: to

    : George W. Bush (2001- 2009)

    he presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009. Bush, a Republican, took office following a very close victory over Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore in the 2000 presidential election. Four years later, in the 2004 election, he
  • Period: to

    War in Afghanistan (2001-2018)

    This article covers the history of Afghanistan since the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001, a period sometimes referred to as the War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan, code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present).[51][52]
  • Period: to

    Iraq War (2003-2009)

    The Iraq War[nb 1] was a protracted armed conflict that began in 2003 with the invasion of Iraq by a United States-led coalition that overthrew the government of Saddam Hussein. The conflict continued for much of the next decade as an insurgency emerged
  • Period: to

    Barack Obama (2009- 2017)

    Barack Hussein Obama II (/bəˈrɑːk huːˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/ (About this sound listen);[1] born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. The first African American to assume the presidency, he was previously the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 to 2008. He served in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 until 2004.