Slaves grew crops such as rice indigo and tobacco which supported slave owner's lifestyles.
Rhode Island was the first to declare independence from Britain, but the last of the original 13 colonies to be ratified into the union.
Cotton- Dominate Crop
In all south states including not only the original states of Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, North and South carolina, Georigia but also Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Florida, and Texas. Made a very different culture compared to the North.
Second Great Awakening
This completed the Great awakening of transforming slaves to Christianity. farmers beleived that Christianity would convince the slaves that rebellion was wrong.
Bill Of Rights
The Bill of Rights were created in order to have written declaration of state rights. The Bill of Rights were ratified in 1791
The Anti-federalist felt this was a neccessity
Vermont was added to the union as the 14th state. This state was the first to enter after the original 13 colonies.
First Bank Of US Chartered
This bank was made to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States. The bank was given an expiration date of 20 years.
Kentucky was originally apart of Virginia, but in 1792 joined the union as the 15th state.
George Washington is elected as the first president of the United States, and John Adams is elected Vice president.
Fugitive Slave Act
This act was passed to ensure a slaveholder that they could recover an escaped slave.
Chisolm Vs. Georgia
First court case of importance and impact. Alexander Chisolm tried to sue Georgia for payments over goods Farquhar gave to Georgia. This lead to the 11th amendment
Cotton was hard to clean, so yale graduate Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin to help clean the cotton. Catherine Greene collaborated with Eli and suggested the "teeth" be made of wire.
Industrial Revolution Begins
Thanks to the cotton gin the Industrial revolution brought forth a series of inventions such as mechanized spinning and weaving of cloth in the worlds's first factories in the north of England.
The Whiskey Rebellion was a tax protest against paying a new tax for turning their corn into whiskey. This tax was based off of hamilton's program to pay off the national debt.
Battle Of Fallen Timbers
The final battle of the Northwest Indian war, a war between Americans and native tribes to control Northwest terriotory. Ended as a decisive victory for the americans; ending major hostility in this region until Tecumseh.
First African-American Baptist and Methodist Churches
The first African-American Baptist and Methodist church was founded in Philidelphia by the Reverend Absalom Jones and the Reverend Richard Allen
This amandment deals with state's soverign immunity; was adopted to overrule the decsion over Chrisolm vs. Georgia.
Treaty Of Greenville
This treaty ended the Northwest Indian War. The Natives gave us land in present day ohio
Is a treaty between America and Great Britain and fascilitated ten years of peacful trade during the French Revolutionary Wars.
This treaty defined the boundaries of the United States with the Spanish colonies and guaranteed the United States navigation rights on the Mississippi River.
Treaty Of Tripoli
This was a treaty of peace and friendship between the United States and the Bey and Subjects of Tripoli of Barbary.
President John Adams
Was elected as the 2nd president of the United States.
The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic episode during the administration of John Adams that Americans interpreted as an insult from France. It led to an undeclared naval war called the Quasi-War, which raged at sea from 1797 to 1800.
American Gained Possession Of Mississippi
When America gained possession of Mississppi the area surrounding the port became the most important center of settlement in the Old Southwest.
Alien & Sedition Acts
The Alien and Sedition Acts were four bills passed by the Federalists. These four bills included the Nationalization Act-which was about the length of the duration of residence for aliens to become citizens from five to 14 years, Alien Act- gave the president power to deport any alien that was considered dangerous to the peace and safety of americans, Alien enemies Act- gave the president power to deport aliens if their home country was at war with America,Sedition Act-the people can't talk badl
"Edgar Huntly" Published
Charles Brockden Brown a very intellectual, and famous writer in the 1790's- yearly 19th century. Published 'Edgar Huntly"
This was an armed tax revolt among Pennsylvania Dutch farmers between 1799 and 1800, was lead by John Fries.Fries's Rebellion was the third of three tax-related rebellions in the 18th Century United States, the earlier two being Shays' Rebellion and the Whiskey Rebellion.
The Logan Act is a federal law that forbids unathorized citizens from negotiating with foreign governments. it was informally named for Dr. George Logan of Pennsylvania, a state legislator and pacifist who in 1798 engaged in semi-negotiations with France during the Quasi-War.During John Adam's presidency.
President George Washington
General of the revolutionary war and first president of the United States death. He passed away due to pneumonia. He caught a cold riding at home, doctors used leeches as a treatment to the point where he could no longer fight the disease.
Library Of Congress Founded
Located in three buildings in Washington, D.C., it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and number of books. The head of the Library is the Librarian of Congress.The Library's primary mission is researching inquiries made by members of Congress through the Congressional Research Service. Although it is open to the public, only Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices and other high-ranking government officials may check out books.
Gabriel Prosser was a literate Black slave who planned to lead a large slave revolt in Richmond suring the summer. His plans were leaked and foiled. Him and twenty-five other slaves were hung. This started the the education laws on slaves.
1/3 of females were house servants. They had the most access to information, and shared as much as they could with the field workers. Owners felt that they were more loyal than field workers which was wrong. The house sevants usually the first to leave. The house servants had to deal with the owners the most, and take care of the children. This included taking orders from the children.
New Jersey Abolishes Slavery
New Jersey became the last northern state to abolish new slavery and enacted legislation that slowly phased out existing slavery. This led to a gradual scale-down of the slave population. By the close of the Civil War about a dozen African Americans in New Jersey were still apprenticed freedmen. New Jersey voters initially refused to ratify the constitutional amendments banning slavery and granting rights to the United States' black population.
The Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President. Problems with the original procedure arose in the elections of 1796 and 1800. The Twelfth Amendment was proposed by the Congress on December 9, 1803, and was ratified by the required number of state legislatures on June 15, 1804.
A duel between two prominent American politicians, the former Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton and sitting Vice President Aaron Burr, on July 11, 1804. At Weehawken in New Jersey, Burr shot and fatally wounded Hamilton. Hamilton was carried to the home of William Bayard on the Manhattan shore, where he died at 2:00 p.m. the next day.
Lewis & Clark
After Thomas Jefferson bought te Louisian Purchase from france. He sent Meriwether Lewis and William Clark out to explore the new land. With the help a young native american girl Sacagawea, they made it there and back.
President Thomas Jefferson
President Thomas Jefferson against Federalist Charles Cotesworth Pinckney. Jefferson easily defeated Pinckney in the first presidential election conducted following the ratification of the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution.Under the rules of the Twelfth Amendment, presidential electors were required to specify in their votes their choice for president and vice-president; previously, electors voted only for president, with the person who came in second becoming the vice-presid
New Mood- Virginia
Virginia tightened its lenient manumission law: now the freed person was required to leave the state within a year or be sold back into slavery. This was due to the manumitted slave rate jumped tenfolds in twenty years.
International Slave Trade Ends
the United States ended the participation in the international slave trade. A small amount of slaves were smuggled in from Africa. the growth of the slave labor force was dependent birth rate.
African American females had a lower birthrate of 35-40 causing a 2.2% yearly population growth. While compared to white women who had a birthrate of 55 and a 2.9% population growth which eventually dropped to 1.9%. The Black remained high. Slave owners wanted them to work hard while still having children.
The expansion into the Old Northwest took place at the expense of the native American population. This begain at Horseshoe Bend with the defeat of the Creeks.
African Methodist Episcopal (AME)
Reverend Richard Allen joined with African AMerican ministers from other cities to form the AME denomination. Their message was one of faith, and love, of deliverance, of coming of the promise land. Lay ministers preached, sometimes secretly to slaves.
Start of Universal Manhood Suffrage Spread
Men of wealth and property had lef southern politics since colonial times. Planters had to learn how to apeal to the popular vote. Small slave owners, not the great planters, formed a clear majority in every southern state legislature.
This was the divide of hte states into two groups, the slve states, and the free states. Adding Maine into the union along with Missouri, making Maine a free state, and Missouri a slave state. Then stopping slavery from the Missouri line up.
Due to the north Anti-slavery sentiments. Slavery was specifically a South trait.
While the international slave trade was ended, the internal continued to grow. an estimate of 1 million slaves were moved into the lower south between 1820 and 1860.
South Carolina Pass Bill
South Carolina passed a bill requiring that all black seamen be seized and jailed while their ships were in Charleston harbor. Charlestonians soon belived that norther free slaves were spreadingf anti-slavery ideas.
Yeomen Vote Jackson
Thye believed in Jackson's outspoken policy of ruthless expansion, his appeal to the common man, and his rags-to-riches ascent. Yeomen farmers overwhelmingly voted for Andrew Jackson
State legislature tightened black codes. They were lawsconcerning free black people. A free slave could not carry a firearm, purchase slaves (except members of own family), liable to criminal penalties meted out to slaves such as whipping. thye couldn't testify against whites, hold office, vote, or serve in the military. Bascially they couldn't do anything except own property. Free blacks had no civil rights.
Nat Turner's Slave Revolt
Nat Turner was a literate, lay preacher, and a slave. his Intelligence, and strong religious commitment that made him such a leader in the slave community. His master was very kind to him, and Turner claimed he had no reason to complain of his treatment. Turner had a religous vision and started planning a revolt in which 60 whites were killed. After they were caught 40 blacks were executed, including Turner.
Yeomen Vote Jackson Again
The yeomen believed the same story as before. The poor boy to rich slave owner ascent.
James Henry Hammond
Hammond was elected as a South Carolina congressman.
British Goverment Eliminates Slavery in West Indies.
Due tot he North's anti-slavery sentiments, and the British government eliminating Slavery in the west indies, the South fekt threatened about their way of life.
A crowd broke into Charleston post office, stole a large amount of anti-slaver literature and made a huge bonfire, to fervent state and regional acclaim.
Hammond gave a major adress to congress proclaiming slavery was not evil, but produced "the highest toned, the purest, best organization of society that has everexisted on the face of the earth." He explained that a mudsill, or a slave class was a social neccessity.
Tredegar Iron Works
Near Richmond, became the third largest foundry in the nation
Fanny Kemble and Pregnant Slaves
Pregnant Slaves were worked too hard, malnutritioned, and pregnant too ofte, causing the mortality rate of slave children under 5 were twice those of white children. Owners accused Mothers of Smothering children in their sleep. Fanny Kemble a British actress, was shocked at the way pregnant slaves were treated, when she moved to her husband Georgia plantation.
Trail Of Tears
The five civilized tribes are forced to give up their lands and move to indian territory. (Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw and Seminole) This claimed to have ended the expense in which native populations were under during the expansion.
Slave Labor in Mills
Joseph Anderson who was the manger of Tredegar Iron Works who later became manager broke southern precedent by using slave labor in the mills. Proving that enslaved workers were capable of factory work. A fact Southerenrs disputed.
William Gregg was a successful jeweler from Columbia, South Carolina. He felt that textile factories were a good wayto diversify the southern economy, and to provde a way for poor whites. He built a model mill and a company town in graniteville, South Carolina. It attracted poor white families.
William Henry Trescot Prediction
He explained why the South would secede from the Union befoer giving up slavery. Slavery tied whites and blacks southerners together in so many ways that it eventually led to Trescit's prediction, to the Civil War.
Industrial Revolution in the South
The South by 1850 was only 26% of the nations railroads, and by 1860 only increased to 35%. This was due to the fact that Cotton was king and no one felt they needed to change if they were doing so well. By the 1860's only 15% of factories were located in the South. Cotton was King
Slave labor Force
55% of slaves were involved in cotton growing. 20% in other crops such as Tobacco, 10% in rice, sugar, and hemp. 15% Domestic servant, and 10% mining, and lumbering.
Felt that slaves were the happiest, and in some sense the freest people in the world. Claiming they had no responsibilities.
White Travelors Interpretation of Slaves
"First came, led by an old driver carrying a whip, forty of the largest and strongest women i ever saw together...they carried themselves loftily, each having a hoe over the shoulder, and walking with a free, powerful stride. Behind them came the....[plowhands and their mules], thirty strong, mostly men, but a few of them women.... A lean and vigilant white overseer, on a brisk pony, brought up the rear." (pg 319)
The "Impending Crisis" Published
Hinton Helper published an attack on slavery in a book. His protest was an indicator of the growning tensions between the haves and the have-nots in the south. ggggg
James Henry Hammond made a famous boast explaiing that cotton was king and untouchable.
Slave elderly were honored by the slave community, and was tolerated by white owners. thye feed, and clothed them until their death. The speed in which the white owners evicted their elderly increased when the end of the slave system was insight.
Davis Deserted by House Servants
Presidnet Jefferson davis and his wife, Varina were shocked by their House Servants who ran away.