In Mark Twain's book, "Life on the Mississippi", a murderer was identified by the use of fingerprint identification. In a later book, "Pudd'n Head Wilson", there was a dramatic court trial on fingerprint identification. A movie was made from this book in 1916 and a made-for-TV movie in 1984.
Sir Francis Galton
Sir Francis Galton publishes the first book on fingerprints. In his book he identifies the individuality nad uniquness of fingerprints.
In 1892, Juan Vucetich made the first criminial fingerprint identification. He identified the print of a woman, Francisca Rojas, who murdered her 2 sons and then commit suicide in attempt to make it seem as if someone else had commited the crime.
Sir Edward Henry
Develops the first fingerprinting bereau in the UK.
Found guilty of burglary on evidence of fingerprints. First time fingerprints used to prove guilt in a british court room. Harry Jackson was sentenced to 7 years in prison on September 13th, 1902.
Dr.Henry P. DeForrest
Dr. Henry P. DeForrest develops U.S. fingerprinting. The first systematic use of fingeprints in the U.S. by the New York Civil Service Commission for testing. On December 19th, 1902 the first person was fingerprinted in the new fingerprinting system.
The William West
The William West – Will West Case at a Federal Prison in Leavenworth, Kansas, changed the way that people were classified and identified.
New York State Prison
First systematic use of fingerprints in the U.S. for criminals.
Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary
The use of fingerprints began in Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary in Kansas, and the St. Louis Police Department. They were assisted by a Sergeant from Scotland Yard who had been on duty at the St. Louis World's Fair Exposition guarding the British Display. Sometime after the St. Louis World's Fair, the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) created America's first national fingerprint repository, called the National Bureau of Criminal Identification.
The U.S. military adopts the use of fingerprinting. Soon after, police agencies began to use fingerprints.
The U.S. Army begins using fingerprints.
On March 27th 1905, Thomas and Ann Farrow were found dead at the paint shop they owned.Two masks were found at the crime scene indicating that there was more than one murderer. A print was found on a tray that did not match either victim. Using the description of a man given by the milkman, they matched the fingerprint to Albert Stratton, and both brother were charged with murder. Both men were executed on May 23, 1905.
U.S. Navy begins using fingerprints. U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Criminal Identification moves to Leavenworth Federal Penitentiary where it is staffed at least partially by inmates.
U.S. Marine Corps
U.S. Marine Corps begins using fingerprints.
On February 1st, 1911 Thomas Jennings was the first man to be convicted of murder in the united states, based on fingerprint evidence.
First Palm print identification is made in Nevada. The bloody palm print, found on a letter left at the scene of a stage coach robbery and murder of its driver, was identified to Ben Kuhl.
Edmond Locard wrote that if 12 points (Galton's Details) were the same between two fingerprints, it would mean that it was a positive match.
In 1924, an act of congress established the Identifcation Division of the FBI.
By 1946, the FBI had processed 100 million fingerprint cards in manually maintained files.
By 1971, the FBI had produced 200 million fingerprint cards.
The National Society of Fingerprint Officers
In 1974, four employees of the Hertfordshire (United Kingdom) Fingerprint Bureau contacted fingerprint experts throughout the UK and began organization of that country's first professional fingerprint organization, the National Society of Fingerprint Officers.
First computer data base of fingerprints was developed, which came to be known as the Automated Fingerprint Identification System, (AFIS). In the present day, there are nearly 70 million cards, or nearly 700 million individual fingerprints entered in AFIS.
On, July 28th 1999 the Fedural Bereau of Investigation (FBI) installs a massive fingerprint computer capable of storing fingerprints of up to 65 million people.
Currently now in 2005, paper fingerprint cards are still in use and being processed for all identification purposes.
INTERPOL's Automated Fingerprint Identification System repository exceeds 150,000 sets fingerprints for important international criminal records from 190 member countries. Over 170 countries have 24 x 7 interface ability with INTERPOL expert fingerprint services.