The History of Art Therapy (Dates Approx. by Year)

Timeline created by jennybug678
  • Institutions for Insane developed

    Institutions for Insane developed
    This is the year approximately when institutions were created to care for the insane and when the medical establishment began to embrace "moral techniques."
  • Moral Treatment

    Moral Treatment
    The idea of Moral Treatment came about for the insane in asylums. Moral Treatment was based on a utilitarian philosophy that moral values were created individually through the process of people making judgements about the actions of others. This paved the way for the use of the arts in therapy and treatment for the insane.
  • The View of Madness

    The View of Madness
    At the end of the 18th century, madness was viewed differently. Being "mad," was not ncessarily seen as unreasonable or bestial. They began to treat insane pateints morally and used the arts to tap into their emotions in a controlled manner to find out their "story." They used kindness as a tool for therapy instead of cruelty and punishment.
  • Degeneration

    Degeneration
    A dominant 19th century idea that used both the arts ans sciences to formulate it's reasonings. The idea of Degeneration was biblical in orgin and thought people to be considered "degenerates" if they were savages or mentally ill because they degenerated from Eden's perfection as a result of sinful behavior. Degenerates were considered to be children, peasants, women, laborers, and the insane. This led to many being condemned to asylums because of the thought of so many to be degenerates.
  • Psychiatrists view of Insanity

    Psychiatrists view of Insanity
    During the 19th century, psychaitrists beganto theorize insanity not as a psychological or psychosamatic disorder but as a irrereversible brain condition as a product of degeneration. They lso believed it to be hereditary and it will become worse and worse every generation in a family line until finally they become extinct.
  • A.C. Haddon (1855-1940)

    A.C. Haddon (1855-1940)
    A late 19th century anthropologist, he combined the theory of degeneration with art. He believed the more primitive or abstract the art looked from a person, the more degenerate they were. He believed art reflected people's character. He believed primitive people like the insane and abstract artists were uninventive.
  • Cesare Lombroso

    Cesare Lombroso
    An Italian psychiatrist and anthropologist. He perceived the value of the art of the insane as providing visual evidence of mental pathology. He thought art of the insane used exagerrated symbols which showed their primitive mentality. He was one of the first psychiatrists to make an extensive collection of the drawings and paintings of the insane. He believed all artists are a little mad and madness could promote genius.
  • Max Nordau

    Max Nordau
    Built off of Lombroso's ideas, he was a Jewish German Philosopher and a trained physician. He believed there were pathological elements in the art of the insane such as minuteness of detail, complication of inscriptions, use of symbolism, execessive pre-dominance of one color, and licentious subject matter.
  • Sigmund Freud

    Sigmund Freud
    Was interested in linguistic usage and symbolism. Him and Lombroso were similar in their beliefs yet, Freud believed symbols were a irrational and uninhibited expression of the unconcious achieved through symbol formation. He believed dreams were visions of repressed thoughts from the unconcious and where wishes could be fulfilled, even sexual ones . He believed also expressive art was seen as pathological or psychopathological or both.
  • "Shell Shock "

    The beginning of psychoanalytic psychotherapy began in this time after World War I when there was a heightened interest in psychogenesis of the "shell shock" from WWI. This was a time when many became mentally or physically disturbed from the affects of the war.
  • Beginning of link between pathology and artistic expression

  • Carl Jung

    Carl Jung
    Carl Jung described modern art as characterizing "anti-Christian and Luciferian forces." He also believe many artists could be considered degenerates.
  • Oskar Pfister

    Oskar Pfister
    A protestant pastor who also worked in the field of psychopathology and in education. He was the first psychoanalyst to publish a detailed work on the treatment of an artist psychoanalytically. He believed the movement of Expressionism was concerned really with the 'inner self' of the artist. He believed using images allowed opportunity to express the individual's instincts, to express the repressed or unconcious, and to explore the metaphysical dimensions of their lives.
  • Melanie Klein

    Melanie Klein
    Was the first psychoanalyst to use artwork with children as an adjunct to analysis.
  • Ernst Kris

    Ernst Kris
    Believed psychoanalysis contributed to the study of art by use of mythological themes, links between psyche and artistic works, and creative imagination. He believed like Freud that artists had an easier itme accessing the "Id" for material.
  • 1940's , Art therapy grows to a seperate profession

    Art therapy during the 1970's and 80's grew into a seperate profession. Art therapists built primary partnerships with medicine and psychiatry resulted in jobs being created in mental health centers, medical centers, day treatment programs, and substance abuse programs. Art therapy was heavily influenced by the educational field and Froebel's idea of art and it's therapuetic qualities for students.
  • Adrian Hill- coined phrase "Art therapy"

    Adrian Hill- coined phrase
    Adrian Hill was an artist and became a sanatorium patient for tuberculosis in 1938. During his stay, he realized the therapuetic value of art for the sick. He began working with patients in the same hospital at their bedside. He also tried to align art therapy with education in the 1960's.
  • Susan Bach

    A pioneer for art therapy in Britain. She found that patients with specific mental illnesses had recurring colors, symbols, and images in their art work. She also believed drawing could be an aid for diagnosis, treatments, and early prognosis for mental illnesses.
  • Margaret Naumburg

    Margaret Naumburg
    Thought to be the earliest of pioneers for art therapy in the US. She was primarily an educator, second a psychotherapist, and third an art therapist. She believed art had an evocative power to unlock repressed material. She believed the process of art therapy is based on the recognition that a person's most fundemental thoughts and feelings are derived from the unconcious reach expression in images rather than words. Florence Cane also worked with her.
  • Division of the ranks of art therapists

    In the 1970's there bgan to be a division in the theories of practicing art therapists. Some practiced "art as therapy," and some practiced "art psychotherapy." The "art as therapy" art therapists used the healing power of making art and favored the process over the product. The "art psychotherapists," used art as a healing tool within the framework of verbal psychotherapy.
  • Art Therapy revitalized

    Art Therapy revitalized
    Art therapy in the past decade has become an integral part of expanding social services and a new focus on the healing aspects of expressive arts. Art therapists have now been working collaboratively with health professionals ,cancer programs, prisons, trauma relief teams, and personal growth classes. Art therapists now are also employed in school systems to address the needs of children with physical and learning disabilities.
  • World Trade Center attack and Art Therapy

    World Trade Center attack and Art Therapy
    After 9/11, Art therapists were assigned to work with victims and family members of the WTC collapse and with police, fire, and medical units at the scene. This served as a way for patients to grieve and show the terrible horrors they witnessed that day.
  • Cathy Malchiodi

    Cathy Malchiodi
    Cathy Malchiodi is currently an art therapist, visual artist, research psychologist, and author in the fields of art therapy and art in healthcare. She is known for her books on the "healing arts," and is known for creating the International Art Therapy Organization in May of 2009. She also co-founded Art Therapy Without Borders in April, 2010.
  • Period: to

    History of Art Therapy