Spain's Golden Age

Timeline created by emmabain123
In History
  • 1190

    Hermandad formed

  • 1200

    Cortes created (1200s)

    In I + F's reign continues to recognise customs from the mid 1200s.
  • Jul 1, 1273

    Mesta established

    An organisation that united various associations of sheep owners and decided on important privileges in return for financial contributions.
  • 1300

    Corregidores created (1300s)

  • 1342

    Alcabala tax created

    Provides 80% of royal revenue in I + F's reign.
  • 1385

    Royal Council formed

  • Jan 27, 1449

    Disturbances in Toledo

    Anti-converso riots spread through the city. Conversos were attacked during a revolt against taxation imposed by King John II of Castile. They were accused of siding with the tax collectors. 300 of them decided to band together and defend themselves. During the attack 1 Christian was killed. In response, 22 conversos were murdered and numerous houses burned. In one incident, Hebrew books were found in a New Christian regidor's library and accusations of heresy were made.
  • May 29, 1453

    Fall of Constantinople

    The capture of the capital of the Byzantine Empire by an invading army of the Ottoman Empire revived the call for a crusade against Granada
  • Jul 21, 1454

    Henry IV becomes King of Castile

  • Jul 1, 1455

    Henry IV resumes Reconquista

    In an atmosphere of renewed Catholic fervour after the Fall of Constantinople, Henry resumed the crusade against the Moors. So from 1455-1457, 6 full-scale military incursions were made into Granada but achieved nothing of importance or significance.
  • 1459

    Royal Council reformed

    By Henry IV, who insisted 8 of 12 members must be letrados.
  • Jul 1, 1462

    Joanna la Beltraneja born

    She was the daughter of Henry IV yet the Archbishops of Toledo and Seville claimed she was illegitimate and therefore Henry was impotent and Joanna unfit to be heiress to the throne. The gossip and ambiguity over her parents continues from this point forward
    'Beltraneja' literally means 'daughter of Beltran', as this is the man everyone assumed to be Joanna's father NOT Henry IV
  • Jul 1, 1462

    France occupies Cerdagne and Roussillon

    Regions in Catalonia
  • Jul 1, 1464

    Henry IV sacks Marquis of Villena

    Henry IV sacked his principle minister, the Marquis of Villena, in favour of Beltran de la Cueva (the rumoured father of Joanna). This is a move by Henry to prove that he is by no means impotent, instead potent and powerful. However, he is now missing the money and loyalty that the Marquis had. The Marquis had been authoring the gossip over the illegitimacy of Joanna and would eventually return with company.
  • Sep 1, 1467

    Burning of conversos at Llerena

    Discovery and immediate burning of 2 conversos for practising Judaism - visible proof of the antisemitism that the majority of Castilians held
  • Jul 1, 1468

    Isabella recognised as heir to Castile

    The Marquis of Villena was recalled back into power in the government office. Isabella (Henry's step-sister) was recognised as the heir to Castile, instead of Joanna la Beltraneja - denying her right to be queen through gossip. Henry is back on the throne and Beltran is sacked.
  • Jul 1, 1468

    Alfonso dies

    The king dies of plague. A monarch was still required, one that leads the nobility. Spain never considered to turn into a republic.
  • Jul 1, 1468

    The Archbishop of Toledo condemns the segregation of Old and New Christians

    He made it clear that anyone that is baptised, no matter what religion, is made into a 'new man' and so all Christians were the same. He said the true evil lay in those who sought to divide Christians in refusing to accept either Old Christians or conversos. He forbade any guilds to continue being associated on racial lines under the threat of excommunication (worst thing the Church could do). At this point, however, the split was irretrievable.
  • Oct 19, 1469

    Ferdinand and Isabella (Trastamara cousins) marry

    Ferdinand meets Isabella and they are married within hours. Ferdinand is 17 and Isabella 18. With this, the Marquis changes his opinion of the rightful heir to the Castile throne back to Joanna, who is merely 7 years old. He panics and fears the Archbishop has manipulated him.
    I chooses Ferdinand over Charles, Richard and Alfonso, because Ferdinand brought military strength (with his siege military experts imported from Aragon and a navy) and was skilled in diplomacy & international relations
  • Sep 1, 1470

    Civic riots in Valladoid

    Conversos were attacked by a mob believing that under Isabella's reign, anti-Jewish riots would be legalised. King Henry interceded and much damage was averted.
  • Oct 2, 1470

    Isabella of Aragon/Queen of Portugal born

    Isabella and Ferdinand welcomed their first daughter, Isabella
  • Dec 1, 1471

    Pope ratifies the marriage

    The Pope permisses Ferdinand and Isabella's marriage. They haven't been able to obtain his permission before this point as they are cousins and the marriage is a farce to secure the alliance of Castile and Aragon. The Archbishop handled the marriage in 1469, making it happen without the formal approval of the Pope
  • May 24, 1472

    Charles, duc de Berry, dies

    Son to King Louis XI of France. Could no longer be proposed as a husband to Joanna la Beltraneja so Joanna's claim to the throne shrank as support for Isabella grew
  • Jul 1, 1472

    Pedro VI transfers his support to Ferdinand

    Pedro Gonzalez de Mendoza was consequently awarded with a Cardinalship. By the end of 1472, the entire Mendoza family supported Isabella
  • 1473

    Constable of Castile

    Henry IV awards to the Velasco family - this is not taken away from them during I + F's assault on noble power and they stay in charge of 250+ towns
  • Mar 14, 1473

    Conversos expelled from Cordoba

    First massacre of Conversos. Due to the populace's jealousy of the them holding many important positions in the court and society. After the massacre, a decree was issued prohibiting them from living in Cordoba. This process of jealousy, accusations, massacre and decree led to the accusations of heresy and, finally, to the Inquisition.
  • Jul 1, 1473

    Further support for Isabella

    Both Medina Sidonia and Andre Cabrera declare their support and Cabrera had access to Castile's treasury in Segovia - HUGE advantage for Isabella
  • Jul 1, 1473

    Introduction of the 'Servicio y Montazgo'

    A tax paid to the Crown by sheep farmers
  • Jul 1, 1474

    Nobles own all the land in Castile + finance weak

    Thanks to Henry's impotency, he failed to stand up against the nobles, allowing them to claim all the land in Castile.
    In addition to this, the Crown's funds were in dire straits. Of the 73 million maravedis of revenue expected, only 11 million were received. The rest had been pocketed by tax farmers or simply not collected.
  • Dec 1, 1474

    Isabella extends royal patronage

    On her accession, she did this to entice further support, awarding the Admiral of Castile to Enriquez and the Constable of Castile to Velasco. The Count of Benavente also offered her support
  • Dec 11, 1474

    Henry IV of Castile dies

    Occured against a backdrop of rebellion, conspiracies and daily crimes of violence. Uncertainty over the succession provoked disorder within the kingdom and invited invasion from outside.
    Hereditary succession was unfeasible as the end of Henry's reign was confused by the three conflicting rival claimants to the throne. (J, F and I)
    Furthermore, Henry's reign was plagued by weak kingship, civil war and chaos, so the collapse of law and order on the death of the king had a cumulative quality.
  • Dec 13, 1474

    Isabella coronated

    She fails to alert her husband to her coronation and assumes the position of a king. In the ceremony, she is led through the streets of Segovia by her chief steward holding aloft an unsheathed sword. This appropriation of the phallic symbol of royal authority by a female sovereign had a monumental impact and certified her potency and validity as the ruler of Castile.
  • Jan 1, 1475

    The Marquis submits to Isabella

    In early 1475, the Marquis of Villena submitted to Isabella only to rise again later - he is constantly changing his mind and is conflicted between Joanna and Isabella
  • Jan 15, 1475

    Segovia Agreement

    Signed between Isabella and Ferdinand and showed they were together as one public figure but with Isabella as the senior partner (see mini mm)
  • Jul 1, 1475

    Archbishop submits to Isabella

    The Archbishop of Toledo also sides with Isabella, yet in 1476, he is firmly with Joanna.
  • Mar 1, 1476

    Battle of Toro

    Ferdinand and Isabella defeat King Alfonso of Portugal. He raided Castile in support of Joanna la Beltraneja, who he felt as though the Crown had been stolen from. This was a succession crisis/civil war after Isabella's coronation. But as Alfonso was destroyed, so were Joanna, the Marquis and the Archbishop of Toledo and they were all now viewed as 'traitors'. Isabella consequently calls the first 'Cortes' in Toledo (parliament), consisting of townspeople to represent the towns.
  • Mar 1, 1476

    Ferdinand and Isabella negotiate revenue

    Had to appeal to the towns who were willing to fight noble oppression - continued into Cortes of Madrigal
  • Apr 1, 1476

    Cortes of Madrigal

    The Hermandad of 1190 revived by Isabella to create the 'Santa Hermandad'. This placed hermandades under a unified central control in the form of a council (Junta). The Bishop of Cartagena acted as the representative of the Crown in this. Now, Ferdinand could levy taxes and consult cities easily (1491-2, Crown received 64m maravedis from the Junta). Every settlement was ordered to create a local hermandad. Each hermandad would send a representative to a central assembly (Junta General)
  • Jul 1, 1476

    Juan de Cordoba executed

    Isabella executes Juan de Cordoba for holding the town of Toledo in the name of Joanna la Beltraneja. This is an example of her exercising royal justice as he was seen as a 'traitor'. This was a glimpse of her destroying the opposition and securing her rule further.
  • Jul 1, 1476

    Isabella promises no more taxation

    Isabella visits Extramadura and Andalucia to promise no more taxation. This is a move to keep those who already support her on her side
  • Jul 1, 1476

    Juros first introduced

    Loans to the state that start at an interest of 7%
  • Aug 1, 1476

    Isabella wins over a rebellious mob in Segovia

    Isabella rode quickly from Tordesillas and at the San Juan gate, she was warned not to enter due to danger. She persevered and rode through the gate alongside Count of Benevante and the Cardinal of Spain. She was told by the people that they wanted to get rid of absentee governor de Cabrera. She agreed and directed them to drive out all his possession of the tower, ensuring one of her servants would guard it instead. Her words put an end to the rebellion and minor officials were punished.
  • Nov 15, 1476

    Mastership of Santiago

    Becomes vacant in 1476, leaving 94 estates and a worth of 309,000 ducats without attendance. It equipped 1750+ cavalrymen. There was an intense rivalry for the position of master, John II advised his son Ferdinand to leave it be. The electors of the master met and Isabella famously rode 3 days and 3 nights to get Ferdinand the position. She failed but round up huge support and courage for doing so. Ferdinand eventually succeeded to the post of master in 1499
  • Dec 9, 1476

    Isabella's ride to Cuenca

    Isabella rose to Cuenca from Valladolid over 3 continuous days and nights to secure the Orders of Santiago for Ferdinand. At Cuenca, a mastership had become free (medieval crusading order where knights were kept in a fort - a free mastership is one where the master of the fort had died) and it was Isabella's intention to secure Ferdinand as the new master, gaining knights, land, horses and castles. Unsuccessful yet her piety was noted by her subjects - prepared to put self in danger for Castile.
  • Jul 1, 1477

    Charles, Duke of Burgundy, dies

    Also known as Charles duc de Berg (French)
  • Jul 1, 1477

    Isabella arrives in Seville

    Stayed for 15mths. On her arrival, she receives a personal confessor, Alonso de Hojeda - a Dominican prior. He devoted all his energy to making clear to Isabella that Jews and false converts posed a real threat. As he was by her side the entire trip, he found it easy to manipulate her into pursuing an Inquisition that would not only rid conversos but also give him an immense amount of power. Hojeda's preaching was one of the largest influences on Isabella's decision in asking for an Inquisition.
  • Jun 30, 1478

    Isabella gives birth to Juan

    The birth of Juan (John) gave Castile a male heir and Isabella's legacy could turn into a dynasty once she passed away. In the birth of this child was the opportunity to unite Castile and Aragon under one state under the name of Spain
  • Jun 30, 1478

    Birth of John

    Isabella and Ferdinand's only son and consequent heir to both the Castilian and Aragonese throne.
  • Jul 1, 1478

    2nd Portuguese invasion

    Ferdinand on hand to repel a 2nd invasion and there's little doubt that if the King of Portugal succeeded, the resistance to Isabella would've been much greater
  • Jul 1, 1478

    Archbishop of Toledo calls for improved standards within the Church

    Archbishop was Carillo at the time; shows an awareness within the Church that changes were necessary to improve standards
  • Oct 1, 1478

    Treaty with France

    Declaring peace between the two
  • Oct 1, 1478

    Isabella leaves Seville

    Soon after, Hojeda uncovered evidence of a secret meeting of judaising conversos. This was the proof Isabella demanded to pursue the institution of an inquisition. He presented this to the government and they asked for report on the situation in Seville. The report was supported by the Arch. of Seville and Torquemada, a Dominican prior, and revealed throughout Seville, Andalucia and Castile, conversos were judaising. With this, F and I sent to Rome for the Inquisition.
  • Nov 1, 1478

    The Spanish Inquisition established

    The papal bull was issued by Pope Sixtus IV after he was convinced by Alonso de Hojeda and others that insincere conversos were becoming a great and grave problem and the only way to quell this problem would be the introduction of a full-time Inquisition. He agreed to the prospect and provided for the appointment of 2/3 priests over 40 years of age to be inquisitors and the powers of appointment/dismissal be handed to the Crown.
  • Jul 1, 1479

    War of Succession

    Was won under the rule and army of Isabella
  • Jul 1, 1479

    Ferdinand becomes King of Aragon

    His father, John II, died and he inherited the throne. There was no threat to the throne.
  • Jul 1, 1479

    Joanna la Beltraneja retires to a convent

    Retired to a convent in Portugal after being given the ultimatum of either entering a convent, or marrying Isabella's one-year-old son John when he came of age (and if he then consented). Joanna chose to enter the Convent of Santa Clara in Coimbra, and the ceremony was witnessed by Isabella, who praised her decision. She was not incarcerated in the convent, and was eventually allowed to reside in the Castle of São Jorge in Lisbon.
  • Jul 1, 1479

    Isabella appoints her own nominee

    To the bishopric of Cuenca; challenges the rule that all clerical appointments were in the gift of the Papacy
  • Sep 4, 1479

    The Treaty of Alcacovas

    Signed between the Catholic Monarchs of Castile and Aragon and Afonso and his son, Prince John of Portugal. Put an end to the War of Castilian Succession, which ended with a victory for Isabella and Ferdinand on land and a Portuguese victory on the sea. The 4 signed peace treaties reflected this - Isabella was recognised as Queen of Castile whilst Portugal reached hegemony in the Atlantic Ocean. Isabella gains the Canary Islands but Portuguese continue to control the coast of West Africa.
  • 1480

    Council of Castile formed

  • 1480

    Vasco de Gama finds a new way to India (1480s)

    The Portuguese explorer travels around the coast of Africa, securing a route of spice trade for Portugal - makes them incredibly rich and Columbus felt he had to compete.
  • Jul 1, 1480

    Cortes of Toledo

    First Cortes to be held in Isabella's reign. Introduced the Act of Resumption, which reclaimed half of all revenues lost by Henry IV to the nobility from 1464 onward. Corregidores (local administrative officials) were appointed to each town in Castile, ensuring royal control was dominant. The Royal Council (est.1385) was reformed by Henry in 1459 to ensure 8/12 members were letrados. Isabella in 1480 excluded noble influence completely, stating all 12 must be letrados.
  • Jul 1, 1480

    Decree permits all peasants to leave their lord and freely seek another

  • Jul 1, 1480

    Decree on pastures

    Pastures previously used for arable farming were reverted for use in tending sheep as an initiative to boost the wool trade
  • Sep 27, 1480

    1st inquisitors appointed

    Posts issued to Juan de San Martin and Miguel de Morillo (both Dominicans) as well as Juan Ruiz de Medina, their adviser. With this, the Inquisition came into definitive existence, 2 years after it was initially granted. By mid-October, operations had already begun in Seville.
  • Oct 1, 1480

    Mass exodus of conversos

    The first result of the implementation of the Inquisition was over 4000 households of conversos fleeing Seville, Cordoba and Andalucia. Due to this, commerce severely declined in these areas yet, when informed of this, Isabella looked over this, stating the 'limpieza' (purity) of her land was the most important thing. She stated it was her God-given duty to rid the country of heresy.
  • Feb 6, 1481

    First Auto de Fe in Seville

    6 conversos burnt at the stake for alleged judaising and the sermon at the ceremony was preached by Hojeda
  • Feb 9, 1481

    Hojeda dies

    Only a few days after the first 'auto de fe', he is killed by the plague spreading through Seville. His triumph and power was very short-lived
  • Feb 12, 1481

    Diego de Susan burnt

    One of the most prominent and wealthiest conversos in Seville began to organise an army to resist the Inquistion, which he felt was compromising his authority as Dominicans were sure to become the most powerful men in Castile. Opposing the Inquisition was treason however and Susan's daughter betrayed his plot to the authorities. Susan was worth 10m maravedis and all this went to Isabella when he died - this was equal to the amount the Crown was annually receiving in tax.
  • Jul 1, 1481

    Spain help Naples against a Turkish invasion

    Along with Portugal, they expel Turks from Otranto, Italy
  • Dec 1, 1481

    Granada launches a surprise attack against Zahara

    As part of a reprisal for a Christian raid. The town fell, and the population was enslaved. This attack proved to be a great provocation, and factions in favour of war in Andalusia used it to rally support for a counter-strike, quickly moving to take credit for it, and backed a wider war.
  • Jan 29, 1482

    Pope revokes powers of the initial bull

    Sixtus IV listened to the protests of the Spanish clergy in which they condemned the abuses committed by the inquisitors. In response, he invalidated the powers granted by the initial bull and made it so the inquisitors could only proceed with their work if their bishop permitted them to do so. This placed the inquisitors under the papacy's rule so the Catholic Monarchs no longer received any income from or had any control over the Inquisition.
  • Feb 11, 1482

    Seven more inquisitors appointed

    The papal brief issued by Rome appointed exclusively Dominican friars, including Tomas de Torquemada. This was in firm response to the pope's revoking of the bull. The pope didn't surrender, however, and instead made several firm gestures in favour of conversos.
  • Apr 18, 1482

    Pope issues the 'most extraordinary bull in the history of the Inquisition'

    Accused Ferdinand of only wanting the Inquisition due to his 'lust for wealth' (a deadly sin - serious accusation, closest thing to declaring war on Spain without actually doing so). Professed that F didn't care about the faith side of the Inquisition and condemned the fact that so many 'true and faithful Christians' had been wrongly imprisoned and tortured by the institution. He declared that heretics be entitled to a fair and just trial (first time ever) and appeals be allowed to Rome.
  • May 1, 1482

    Ferdinand protests to Rome

    He wasn't going to let the Pope tske away such a large source of income or control as well as his reputation - he had to be seen as a strong King that held his ground and could not be easily overpowered. The pope's revocation came at a time where there was already a conflict over the Inquisition being installed in Aragon and Ferdinand wanted to quell this as soon as possible - the only way he saw this happening was the redistribution of the Inquisition's control back into his own hands.
  • May 13, 1482

    Ferdinand writes back to the Pope

    The pope's bull was so in favour of converso claims that Ferdinand outrightly suggested that they had some influence over the Pope. He explicitly accused the Pope of being overrun by conversos, because the bull was so unlike anything he would typically write
  • May 14, 1482

    Ferdinand formally takes command at Alhama after its capture

    Sieges were fought in mountainous terrain which did not lend itself to cavalry operations. Abu Hasan attempted to retake Alhama by siege in March, but failed. Reinforcements from the rest of Castile and Aragon averted the possibility of retaking Alhama in April. This seizure and Alhama's subsequent royal endorsement are said to be the formal beginning of the Granada War.
  • Jul 1, 1482

    Cruzada tax introduced

    The Granada war had to be paid for, and Ferdinand and Isabella could not meet the costs themselves. They relied on the cruzada tax granted by Pope Sixtus IV. The tax consisted of a 10% levy on Spanish benefices together with 1/3 of the clergy's revenue from tithes. The tax yielded 808 million maravedis over Isabella's reign but this still didn't cover all the Crown's costs. It was originally granted annually until 1485, but Pope Innocent VIII granted it for the duration of the war.
  • Jul 1, 1482

    Pedro VI becomes Archbishop of Toledo

  • Jul 1, 1482

    New tribunal set up in Cordoba

    An institution to carry out the Inquisition trials and sentence people - representative of how the Inquisition was being legally instituted across Castile, there was no escape from its reach
  • Jul 1, 1482

    Papacy agrees to F + I having the right of patronage

  • 1483

    Council of Inquisition created

  • Jul 1, 1483

    New tribunals at Ciudad Real and Jaen

    Typical of the trials of the Inquisition, many of the prime witnesses were members of the accused's own family. The tribunal at Ciudad Real was only temporary and permanently transferred to Toledo in 1485 but still burnt 52 victims alive and condemned 220 to death in their absence in its first 2 years. In the great auto de fe at Ciudad Real on 23 Feb 1484, 30 people were burnt alive and 40 in effigy
  • Jul 1, 1483

    The 'Suprema' established

    The 'Consejo de la Suprema y General Inquisicion' was a council comprised of 3 ecclesiastics and a president, the Inquisitor General. The first General was Tomas de Torquemada, previously the prior of the Dominican convent of Segovia. He united the Inquisitions of the Spanish crown under a single head. By 1483, the Inquisition had taken firm root in Castile and had been given its imperative administrative organisation.
  • Jul 1, 1483

    Boabdil captured by the Count of Cabra

    Abu Hasan's brother, al-Zagal, defeated a large Christian raiding force in the hills of the Axarquia east of Málaga. However, Boabdil was taken prisoner at Lucena by the Christians who were able to defeat and capture the King of Granada. Resulted in a Trojan Horse understanding between F and Boabdil (F realised that Boabdil secretly intended to overthrow him)
  • Jul 1, 1483

    Annual income totals 52m maravedis

    Almost a 5x increase from 1474
  • Jul 1, 1483

    Alcabala tax comes into force

    Granted 3 years prior at the Cortes of Toledo; yielded 1.25m ducats per year
  • Oct 17, 1483

    Pope suspended the bull and granted another

    He had no other option to concede to Ferdinand to prove he wasn't in fact overrun by conversos. Papal co-operation was then secured by the next papal bull, which appointed Torquemada Inquisitor General of Aragon, Valencia and Catalonia, uniting the Inquisitions of the Spanish crown under a single head. The new tribunal came directly under control of the crown and the only institution whose authority ran in all territories of Spain.
  • 1484

    Great auto de fe at Ciudad Real

    30 burnt alive and 40 in effigy.
  • Mar 1, 1484

    Existing inquisitors removed from Valencia

    2 existing inquisitors represented the revived medieval institution from 1481 but were removed in 1484 after not achieving much. Torquemada appointed 2 new people in their place, who began work in November 1484. There was heavy opposition to this, with people asking that the inquisitors be 'natives of the realm'. Ferdinand stated in response that fueros should never be used to shield heresy.
  • Apr 1, 1484

    Catalonia refuses the new Inquisition

    Despite the medieval Inquisition being moribund. Barcelona received papal permission to have their own local inquisitor in 1461 - Joan Comes. So when the Aragonese Cortes of Tarazona met in 1484, Catalonia didn't send deputies to approve the new Inquisition. In May Torquemada nominated 2 inquisitors for Catalonia & revoked the position of Comes. Catalans exploded into anger, writing to F in protest. Barcalona's legal and Church authorities ruled Comes was the only inquisitor. F stood his ground.
  • May 4, 1484

    Torquemada appoints first 2 inquisitors for Aragon

    They set to work immediately and held their first 'autos de fe' on the 10 May/3 June 1485. The activity of the inquisitors concerned everyone who was loyal to the fueros of Aragon, Old and New Christians alike. Public opposition grew large and F sent a letter to chief nobles/deputies justifying his position but resistance continued.
  • Jun 1, 1484

    Plot of Corpus Christi

    In Toledo, one of the most important converso centres, a plot against the inquisitors was planned for the feast of Corpus Christi. Local conversos were accused of plotting to assassinate the two newly appointed inquisitors. Under the direction of the mayor, Gomez Manrique, six of them were hung, and local Rabbis were commanded to have their communities report any backsliding of Conversos.
  • Jul 1, 1484

    Teruel resistance to the Inquisition

    2 inquisitors were sent to the city from Saragossa to establish a tribunal in the city but they were refused permission to enter the city gates by the magistrates. This set off a long ordeal that ended in fueros being a dead issue by 1485
  • Jul 1, 1484

    Torquemada publishes a new set of guidelines

    28 rules that Catholics could impose on and report about their secretly judaising neighbours.
    (e.g. 'if you see your neighbours are wearing clean and fancy clothes on Saturdays, they are Jews' - Sabbath)
  • Jul 1, 1485

    Revolt in Galicia

    After a revolt broke out in Galicia and both Isabella and Ferdinand travelled to a remote area to deal with the trouble. The Count of Lemos surrendered upon their arrival and Pedro Madruga was executed in 1486.
  • Jul 1, 1485

    Civil war ensued among the Moors

    By this time, much of the west of the kingdom had fallen to Ferdinand
  • Jul 1, 1485

    Cadiz

    I + F take Cadiz from the Marquis of Cadiz but then compensated him with other properties so he was no worse off
  • Sep 15, 1485

    Pedro Arbues killed by conversos

    The inquisitor of Saragossa was stabbed in the back in the city's cathedral by 8 conspirators hired by conversos in protest of the implementation of the Inquisition in the city. Arbues died 2 days later. When it was discovered that the assassins were judaisers, the whole mood of Saragossa and Aragon changed to one of resentment against conversos. Mobs roamed the streets in search of conversos and a national assembly voted to suspend fueros while the search for the assassins continued.
  • Dec 1, 1485

    Catalan counsellors complain to Ferdinand

    As the conflict between Catalonia and the insitution continued, large numbers of conversos migrated from Barcelona. This put the economy of the city at risk. In May 1486, they warned F that the city would be 'totally depopulated and ruined if the Inquisition were introduced'.
  • Dec 28, 1485

    Autos begin in Saragossa

    The murderers of Arbues pay for their crimes in successive 'autos de fe' from 30 June to 15 December 1486. Francisco de Santa Fe, son of the famous converso Jeronimo and a counsellor of the governor of Aragon committed suicide by jumping from a tower and his remains were burnt in the auto of 15 December
  • Feb 1, 1486

    Pope sacks all the existing papal inquisitors in Aragon

    A way around the Catalan problem. The initiative to appoint inquisitors in all towns was handed back to Torquemada, who appointed Alonso de Espina (Dominican prior from Castile ) as Catalonia's new inquisitor. He entered the city in June 1487, still subject to protest from the counsellors. Now the Inquisition was firmly implanted but there were hardly any conversos left for them to accuse - throughout 1488, only 7 victims were burnt and in 1489 only three.
  • Jul 1, 1486

    Count of Lemos

    In a bid to restore royal justice, Isabella and Ferdinand personally visited the Count of Lemos and ordered him to return disputed lands and pay compensation to his victims
  • Jul 1, 1486

    Papacy extends patronage of F + I to Granada

  • Jul 1, 1486

    Peasants allowed to sell their produce with no legal restriction

  • Jul 1, 1487

    Zaragoza council suspended

    After a dispute
  • Jul 1, 1487

    Mastership of Calatrava

    Master died, leaving 51 estates and 135,000 ducats worth vacant. Ferdinand assembled for the election of a new grand master, a Bull from Innocent VIII that invested him with authority to administer the order, and to this decree he compelled the electors to submit. Ferdinand received the mastership for life.
  • 1488

    Non-compliance of Aragonese Cortes

    They refuse to comply with Ferdinand's approval measures
  • Jul 1, 1488

    New tribunal introduced in Mallorca

    Introduced without incident or significant opposition and operations began immediately. The 2 inquisitors found hundreds of cases to keep them occupied from 1488-91. 11 May 1493 saw the burning of 3 people and 47 effigies of absent fugitives.
  • Jul 1, 1488

    Crown wins the right to hear appeals against ecclesiastical decisions

    In Valladolid rather than Rome, meaning the Papacy lost revenue to the Crown
  • Jul 1, 1488

    Portugal reject Columbus

    They refuse to fund his voyage - no need for them to as they have found a way to India and the spice trade around the coast of Africa.
  • Jul 1, 1489

    Council formed to administer orders of masterships

    Within the royal government
  • Jul 1, 1489

    Fall of Baza

    El Zagal submitted to F and I, choosing to be subject to them rather than his hated nephew, Boabdil. Boabdil responded contrary to his agreement with F and I, determined to keep fighting for the remnant of Granada. This spurred Ferdinand on to finish once and for all with the Nasrid kingdoms.
  • Jul 1, 1489

    Treaty of Medina del Campo

    Secured a Spanish-English alliance through the proposed marriage of Catherine of Aragon (daughter of F and I) to Arthur (heir of the English throne)
  • Jul 1, 1489

    Isabella grants Columbus an annual allowance

    Of 12,000 maravedis as well as part of his future conquered lands, despite her committee branding his plan as impractical
  • Oct 3, 1489

    Crown borrows from Aristocracy

    The Crown could only balance its budget by borrowing from the aristocracy and offering them high-interest bonds known as 'juros'
  • 1490

    Resident Spanish ambassadors in European states

    (1490s) States included Rome, Burgundy, Germany and England
  • 1490

    Major islands conquered in the Canary Islands

    (1490s) Islands made a part of Castile, making an advantageous stopping point for Spanish ships travelling to and from the New World.
  • Jun 1, 1490

    Converso accused of stealing the Host

    Benito Garcia was staying in an inn in Astorga when some Old Christians claimed to have found a stolen Host (consecrated unleavened bread of the Mass) in his luggage. People who did this were considered to be inspired by the devil, an accusation commonly made against Jews. This case was taken by the bishop of Astorga and placed into the hands of the Inquisition in Valladolid, which transferred the case to Avila, Torquemada's hometown.
  • Dec 17, 1490

    The 'Holy Child of La Guardia'

    10 conversos and Jews were accused of kidnapping a child, taking them to a cave and crucifying them for ritual purposes. Although no child was ever declared missing and no distraught parents found, they were tortured for over a year. They were declared guilty in Nov 1491 of Host desecration and the taking of the child's heart to use in sorcery. All eight were burned at the stake in the town of Avila on the auto of 14th Nov. The child acquired the name 'Cristobal' (Christ bearer)
  • Jun 10, 1491

    Barcelona auto de fe

    3 people burnt alive and 139 condemned in their absence - a stark difference to the 3 people burnt in the whole of 1488, showing the Inquisition was getting well underway.
  • Jul 1, 1491

    Alcabala tax doubled

    A Castilian sales tax that levied at around 10% (doubled from 5% in 1491). The main source of royal revenue throughout the 15th Century, producing 90% of the royal income. Collected by tax-farmers, since the Crown had no tax official other than on royal estates. In the course of her reign, ordinary tax income rose to 150m maravedis in 1481, 269m in 1496 and 320m in 1510. At the same time, extraordinary tax income rose from 52m in 1483 to 112m in 1504.
  • Oct 1, 1491

    Terms of surrender for the Moors negotiated

    Surrender was a long time coming, with feelings of honourable surrender being dominantly felt in the Moorish camp in 1490. These terms were relaxed, liberal and not enforced.
  • Nov 25, 1491

    Treaty of Granada (Capitulation of Granada)

    Signed between Boabdil, the Sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, ending the Granada War. It provided a short truce, followed by the surrender of the sovereignty of Granada to the Catholic monarchs of Spain. The treaty guaranteed a set of rights to the Moors, including religious tolerance and fair treatment in return for their surrender and capitulation. Stated importantly that 'no Moor shall be obliged to become a Christian against his will'.
  • Jan 2, 1492

    Boabdil surrenders

    Marks the victory of the Catholic Monarchs and Catholicism and the defeat of Granada and Islam. Boabdil presented, in person, the keys of the Alhambra Palace to F and I and the crucifix and royal standard were raised above the highest tower, signalling the victory of the Monarchs.
  • Jan 6, 1492

    Isabella enters Granada

    Picked the holiest day in the Catholic calendar, Epiphany, to enter Granada. Enforced the significance of the win for Catholicism and reinforced her utter devotion to the religion, so much so that it governed and took presidence over her decisions. It is this move that prompts the Pope to award her and F the title of 'the Catholic Monarchs'.
  • Mar 31, 1492

    Expulsion of the Jews

    The Alhambra Decree/Edict of Expulsion was an edict issued by I and F, ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of the same year. Any found within the borders after this time were killed. Some fled to Portugal/N. Africa, some took ship with Columbus and some remained as 'secret Jews'. After his success, Torquemada retired
  • Jul 1, 1492

    Tribunals

    Castile had tribunals at Avila, Cordoba, Jaen, Medina del Campo, Segovia, Siguenza, Toledo and Valladoid. The southern tribunals were far more active than those in the north. In its first 8 years, the Seville tribunal burnt over 700 people and punished over 5000.
  • Jul 1, 1492

    Isabella receives Columbus in the Cordoba Alcazar

    To support his plans after her new-found confidence following Reconquista and the Expulsion of the Jews. She promised Columbus a portion of all the profits and the position of Viceroy General of the newly-conquered lands. She branded him the 'Admiral of the Seas' and ordered the royal treasurer to shuffle funds among royal accounts to fund his voyage.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Discovery of the New World

    Columbus discovers new lands, sailing on behalf of F and I. This discovery would fund the next 100 years of Spanish history with the mounds of silver and other profitable natural resources that could be sold. This rounded off a golden year for Isabella, and to her the incredibly successful year was divine approval for her Catholic devotion
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus makes landfall in the Bahamas

    Marks his discovery of the Americas
  • Nov 1, 1492

    Ferdinand invited Jews back but only as conversos

    He and Isabella recognised their monumental mistake in expelling all Jews. They lost a governing level in society due to the Jews leaving, lost money due to the Jewish population holding all the secrets of the growing wool trade and added to the converso problem by prompting 200,000 Jews to remain in Spain as fake converts to Catholicism.
  • Dec 24, 1492

    Columbus builds Fort Navidad

    In Santa Domingo, marking the 1st establishment of Spanish territory in the New World.
  • 1493

    Boabdil and 6000 Moors leave Granada

    Assistance was given to those who wished to leave and the few Moorish nobles left were given government positions to keep them content.
  • 1493

    Columbus tours from Seville to Barcelona

    Showcases people and raw materials he brought back from his first voyage to the New World. Hailed a hero.
  • Jan 19, 1493

    Treaty of Barcelona

    Signed between France and Aragon. The French give up Cerdagne and Roussillon in order to secure their own frontiers. Also saw the first indication that Spain would wish to take Naples
  • Jul 1, 1493

    Nobles no longer permitted to vote in Royal Council

    All councillors from then on were to be letrados
  • Jul 1, 1493

    Election by lot introduced

  • 1494

    Pope awards 'Catholic Monarchs' title

    Pope Alexander VI grants them the title for their crusading efforts, particularly in Granada.
  • 1494

    Council of Aragon created

  • Jun 7, 1494

    The Tordesillas Line

    Established by a papal bull. All lands west of the line would belong exclusively to Spain in return for converting the natives to Catholicism. Consequently, they received the whole of South America, excluding Brazil.
  • Jul 1, 1494

    Mastership of Alcantara

    Master dies, leaving vacant 38 estates and 115,000 ducats worth. Pope Alexander VI invested Ferdinand with the grand mastership of Alcántara for life.
  • Jul 1, 1494

    Consulado established

    A trading body that granted the wool trade with Flanders and Northern Europe
  • Jul 1, 1494

    French invade Italy

    Leads to renewed conflict between France and Spain
  • 1495

    Council of Military Orders created

  • 1495

    Marriage alliance with the HRE

    Preliminary alliance - included a wedding of I + F's son to Maximilian’s daughter. Anti-French
  • Jan 11, 1495

    Pedro VI, Archbishop of Toledo, dies

    Queen Isabella visited and nursed him on his deathbed in Guadalajara. It is said that he recommended her to choose as his successor the Franciscan Jimenez de Cisneros, a man who had no likeness to himself save in political faculty and devotion to the authority of the Crown.
  • Feb 1, 1495

    France occupy Naples

    Part of First Italian War
  • Jul 1, 1495

    End of Aragonese Hermandad

    Ferdinand suggested introducing the Hermandad into Aragon , first in Huesca in 1487, but popular opposition to the organisation ended int in 1495.
  • Jul 1, 1495

    Cisneros becomes the Archbishop of Toledo

    Succeeds Mendoza and inherits the office of chancellor of Castile along with the diocese (the richest and most powerful in Spain). Immediately gets tid of all the lax, conventual Franciscan houses in favour of the Observants, which attracted intense opposition. By 1498 the reforms were expanded to include not only Franciscans but other mendicant orders as well. The resistance was so fierce that four hundred monks and friars left for Africa with their wives"and converted to Islam.
  • Jul 1, 1496

    Ferdinand joins the Holy League

    Consisted of HRE, Spani, Papacy and Italian states all opposing the French
  • Oct 20, 1496

    Philip marries Joanna the Mad

    Philip is Maximilian's son, so this is seen as an anti-French move. Later gave birth to Charles
  • Jul 1, 1497

    A uniform coinage system introduced

    Across the realms of Spain
  • Oct 4, 1497

    John, son of Isabella, dies

    Leaves Isabella without an heir to continue the would-be family dynasty as he was her only child.
  • 1498

    Small garrisons set up in Africa

    Some trade able to take place, slightly easing the problem of land shortage in Spain
  • Jul 1, 1498

    Barcelona council reform

    Introduced more local families into city politics and listening to the wider public's voice. The townspeople were regularly consulted and helped in improving the local government as well as protecting town's privileges from nobles. When councils were not administrated in her subjects' interests, she intervened
  • Jul 1, 1498

    Hermandad formally dissolved

    Isabella recognised the rural hermandades were becoming increasingly unpopular in the 1490s so formally dissolved them in 1498 as she accepted they were too brutal - shows she took an interest in her people's concerns and acted on them
  • Jul 1, 1498

    Spanish attention turns to North Africa

    Algiers becomes a vassal city (owed its allegiance to Spain) but an attempt to take Djerba, off Tunisia, fails. Only small garrisons set up and some trade able to take place but no permanent colonies established.
  • 1499

    Cisneros visits Granada

    With F + I. At the same time, there is an uprising in the Alpujarras Mountains. Cisneros acts as I's personal confessor and upon finding little evidence of Moor conversion, he pushes Talavera aside and takes charge.
  • 1499

    Amerigo Vespucci arrives in Brazil

  • 1499

    Vespucci discovers the Amazon River

  • Jul 1, 1499

    Ferdinand becomes the Master of Santiago

    When Alfonso de Cárdenas died in 1493, Ferdinand induced the pope to assign to him the administration of the order and the Catholic Monarchs incorporated the Order into the Spanish Crown.
  • Nov 1, 1499

    Uprising in the Alpujarras mountains

    Launched a military response from F and I and, in March 1500, the defeated Moors were given the choice between conversion or emigration, thanks to the influence of the Arch. of Toledo (Ximenes Cisneros) over the Arch. of Granada
  • 1500

    Spanish forces help Venice against the Turks

    Cordoba returns to Naples with new fighting methods and a different troop organisation. Venice successfully regained the St. George castle (capital of Cephalonia) from the Turks. This ensured Spanish possessions in the Mediterranean were protected
  • 1500

    Moors given the option to convert or emigrate

    Cisneros a lot harsher
  • Feb 24, 1500

    Charles V of Spain born

    Son of Joanna the Mad and Philip the Fair, meaning he held a claim to both the Castilian and Aragonese thrones. His paternal grandfather was the emperor Maximilian of Habsburg. He spent his entire childhood in the Netherlands and raised as a renaissance prince in the Burgundian court of Brussels
  • Jul 1, 1500

    Talavera states that Moors should be converted

    He states that Moors in Granada should be converted and used as slaves because they would be 'better Christians'. In contrast to his previous statements in 1491.
  • Jul 1, 1500

    Bishop of Valencia issues a reminder to his clergy

    Reminds them not to 'gamble or fight bulls... in public' - represents the abuses/criticisms of the clergy and church
  • Jul 1, 1500

    Emanuel I marries Maria

    The heir to the Portuguese throne marries I + F's daughter, allowing the Spanish crown to turn their attention elsewhere without fearing a Portuguese invasion
  • Jul 1, 1501

    All land reserved for sheep for an indetermined length of time

    The Mesta owned 3 million sheep at this time
  • 1502

    Gibraltar and Cartagena (1502-3)

    Seized by Ferdinand but the defeated nobles are subsequently compensated showing the monarchs unwillingness to obliterate the nobility entirely. These bases were geographically essential naval bases for Atlantic/Mediterranean control.
  • 1502

    All unconverted Moors expelled

  • Feb 1, 1502

    Pragmatic issued expelling all unconverted Moors

    From Granada and Castile, starkly contrasted to the lenient measures taken against them thus far.
  • 1503

    Encomienda system established

    Initial system of governance in the New World - rushed due to urgency of protecting their newly-conquered territories.
  • Jul 1, 1503

    Tax revenue increases to 26m/year

    From 900,000
  • Jul 1, 1503

    House of Trade established

    'Casa de contratacion' introduced to regulate and control trade with the New World
  • Jul 1, 1503

    Spain win two important victories over French

    At Cerignola, Italy. Led by Cordoba. Triumph for Ferdinand
  • 1504

    Duke of Medina's offer to Philip

    The Duke offers Philip of Burgundy 2000 cavalry and 50,000 ducats to keep Ferdinand out of Spain
  • 1504

    Number of corregidores fallen

    In Cordoba, the number of corregidores had fallen from 100 to 35 by Isabella's death, signifying the gradual loss of royal power and the growth of noble rule.
  • 1504

    Juros equal 112m ducats

  • Jan 31, 1504

    Naples becomes part of the Crown of Aragon

    Treaty of Lyon - result of the Second Italian War. Between Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon. France ceded Naples to Spain and France and Spain defined their respective control of Italian territories. Spain controlled Sicily and southern Italy, giving it control of S. Europe by land and sea.
  • Jul 1, 1504

    Crown income totals 112m maravedis/year

    From 52m in 1483
  • Nov 26, 1504

    Isabella dies

    Decreed Joanna 'the Mad' to be Queen opposed to a foreign husband. Shows how much she valued Castilian inheritance. She further stated that, even though she was queen, Joanna and Philip must obey Ferdinand's order unquestioningly. Should Joanna be 'unwilling or unable to govern', however, Ferdinand should forfeit his title as King and be demoted to 'regent' until Charles became of age (reached 20 years old)
  • Oct 1, 1505

    Ferdinand marries Germaine de Foix of Navarre

    Any children these two had would've had a claim to both the Castilian and Aragonese thrones, but they had none
  • Jun 27, 1506

    Philip negotiates Ferdinand's withdrawal from Castile

    Unhappy with the organisation of Castilian control by Isabella's will, Philip sailed to Spain to claim his wife's inheritance in early 1506. In the negotiation, Ferdinand handed over the Castilian government to his 'most beloved children' and retired to Aragon. The two soon signed another agreement asserting that Joanna was mentally incapable of ruling Castile and should be replaced by Philip. He was King 'regent' for a month.
  • Sep 25, 1506

    Philip I dies and rebellion erupts

    Unexpectedly, of a fever, after less than a month ruling Castile. Ferdinand returned to Castile with Cisneros and an army in 1507 and ruled as governor until his death.
  • 1507

    Andalucian nobles

    Led by the Count of Urena, the nobles ally against Ferdinand. Spain is on the verge of civil war, just as it was in 1474.
  • 1507

    America named after Vespucci

  • 1508

    Ferdinand's assault on the nobles

    F marches south with 4000 men and crushes the revolt against him.
  • 1508

    Alcala University founded

    By Cisneros. Allows for the formation of alumbrado groups and studies focus on new religious ideas and scripture - Erasmus' teachings popular here.
  • 1508

    Traditional Moorish dress and customs prohibited

    Unenforced
  • 1508

    Juan Ponce de Leon discovers Puerto Rico

    On Ferdinand's orders
  • Jul 1, 1508

    Prohibition of Islamic dress and customs

    A pragmatic issued that prohibited the traditional dress and customs of Moors in Granada (and Castile), although this was not enforced
  • Jul 1, 1508

    The Papacy extends patronage to the New World

  • Jul 1, 1508

    Archbishop of Toledo establishes the Alcala University

    Archbishop was Cisneros at the time
  • 1509

    Council of Cruzada created

  • Jun 11, 1509

    CoA marries Henry VIII

    She becomes Queen tenure of England (secures foreign relations with Spain). Costs the Spanish Crown 60m maravedis
  • 1510

    Ferdinand sworn in as regent

    Of Castile
  • 1510

    Mexico and central America

    Explored by Spanish-funded explorers. More established cultures found.
  • 1510

    Oran captured

    As part of the N. African crusade
  • 1511

    Ferdinand calls of N. African crusade

    Believed containment of French interests was much more urgent - France was threatening newly-conquered Naples.
  • 1511

    Inquisition arrives in Granada

    Alongside this, a range of decrees were issued that limited the cultural identity of the Moors.
  • Jul 1, 1511

    The Inquisition arrives in Granada

    The Office of Inquisition arrived in Granada to test the faith of new converts (Moriscos). A range of decrees were issued limiting the cultural identity of Moriscos (e.g. speaking Arabic was forbidden)
  • Jul 1, 1511

    The Consulado established in Bilbao

    Moves the wool trade monopoly from Burgos (moving it north)
  • 1512

    Laws of Burgos introduced

    In the New World as an attempt to introduce government regulation.
  • Jul 1, 1512

    Navarre becomes part of Castile

    Ferdinand acquires the resources to invade Navarre and its fortresses - they all surrender within a few weeks and Castile gains Navarre. Prevents French invasions into Catalonia and Spain generally.
  • 1514

    Ponce de Leon colonises Florida and Bimini

  • Jan 10, 1514

    The Polyglot Bible published

    Written by Cisneros in Hebrew, Latin and Greek for wider study and consumption
  • 1515

    Nobles plan to leave Spain

    Marquis of Priego and other nobles plan to leave Spain and take up service with Charles, but with Ferdinand's death in 1516 there becomes no need to. The noble unrest continued, however, with F's appointment of Cisneros as regent in the intermediate period.
  • 1515

    Subsidy refused by Aragonese Cortes

  • 1515

    Corregidores appointed to 32 towns

    On top of the 54 towns that already had them.
  • 1515

    Conquest of the Caribbean

  • Jul 1, 1515

    Encabezamiento tax replaces the failing Alcabala

  • Jan 23, 1516

    Ferdinand dies

    On this, all his possessions went to Charles, along with the inheritance of the thrones of Castile and Aragon. Cisneros is regent of Castile for Charles (he was only 16) for a short while, ruling in an autocratic fashion and handling the Spanish conquest of Navarre. He soon, however, acceded to Charles' desire to become king.
  • Jan 23, 1516

    Charles becomes the King of Spain

    Upon his accession, he united the two, previously separate, states of Castile and Aragon to form one country - Spain. He was believed to be an 'absentee monarch' due to the number of realms under his control as he was the Holy Roman Emperor. He spent around 17 years of his reign in Spain but also had the longest absence from the country (14 years).
  • Jan 24, 1516

    Cisneros acts as regent

    Until Charles visits Spain. The Duke of Infantado and the Count of La Coruna vied to discredit Cisneros and replace him with Ferdinand I, Charles' younger brother.
  • Jul 1, 1516

    Juros

    By 1516, the Crown was paying out one third of its annual revenue in juros, thanks to its fall into debt overseen by Isabella
  • Jul 1, 1516

    Financial reform collapsed

    After both Isabella and Ferdinand's deaths, power went to the nobility as there was no longer a Hermandad to prevent corruption and uphold the Catholic Monarch's established rule. This extensive and massive fraud led to bankruptcy.
  • Jul 1, 1516

    Crown income increases to 131m maravedis/year

    From 112m in 1504 (+20m in 12 years)
  • 1517

    Council of War created

    Remodelled in 1522.
  • 1517

    Luther's 95 Theses published

    Sparked the Protestant Reformation
  • Mar 7, 1517

    Maria, F + I's daughter, dies

    This severs foreign relations with Portugal as her husband, the King of Portugal, marries Eleanor of Austria after her.
  • Sep 18, 1517

    Charles visits Spain for the first time

    He lands on the coast of Asturias, having never visited Spain before.
  • Nov 4, 1517

    Charles meets with his mother, Joanna

    He met his mother in Tordesillas where he obtained confirmation of his royal rights but, in accordance with the demands of his Castilian advisers, he jointly signed his name with his mother in official documents.
  • Nov 8, 1517

    Cisneros dies

    General Inquisitor Torquemada intermediately regent until Charles arrives
  • 1518

    Valladolid Cortes

    Here, negotiations with Charles were held due to the irregularity of Charles assuming the royal title while his mother, the legitimate queen, was alive. In the end Charles was accepted under the following conditions: he would learn to speak Castilian; he would not appoint foreigners; and he would respect the rights of his mother, Queen Joanna. After this, Charles departed to the crown of Aragon and was finally recognized as king of Aragon jointly with his mother.
  • 1519

    Alumbrados denunciated

    As a group who directly rejected Orthodox Christianity.
  • 1519

    Subsidio granted papally to Charles

    Through this, he received the right to levy a fixed proportion of Church income across Spain.
  • Jun 28, 1519

    Charles elected Holy Roman Emperor

    Claim stemmed from paternal grandfather, Maximilian. Beat Francis I to the title = angry. Gained control of Swiss confederation, Milan, Germany etc.
  • 1520

    Hernan Cortes conquers Mexico

  • 1520

    Charles made King of Germany

    Comes alongside his HRE title
  • 1520

    Suleyman the Magnificent becomes Sultan of Ottoman Empire

    Increases Turkish/Islamic pressure in Euroope and threatens Hungary and Habsburg provinces
  • 1520

    Juan Luis Vives' parents burnt

    (1520s) Condemned as conversos/judaisers by the Inquisition. Vives is permanently exiled
  • 1521

    Charles annexes Tournai

    Part of extending territory in the Netherlands
  • 1521

    Lutheran books enter Spain

    On the Flanders route
  • 1521

    Adrian of Utrecht bans Lutheran texts

    As Genereal Inquisitor, he also seals the ports in a bid to prevent the circulation of such 'heretical' literature. The books continue to arrive but the Inquisition remains vigilant
  • 1521

    Diet of Worms

    An imperial diet - assembly of the whole Empire. Charles called Martin Luther to this, promising him safe conduct if he would appear. Initially dismissing Luther's theses as "an argument between monks", he later outlawed Luther and his followers in that same year but was tied up with other concerns and unable to take action against Protestantism.
  • 1522

    Gattinara begins reform of Spain's administration

    By this point, it had become clear that the existing government was inadequate to cope with the new demands being imposed on it
  • 1522

    Council of Castile reformed

    By Gattinara
  • 1522

    Council of State formed

    Created to advise the monarch on Spanish and German affairs. Comprised of the Archbishop of Toledo, Duke of Alba, Gattinara and Los Cobos in 1526.
  • 1522

    Spanish ships become the first to circumnavigate the globe

  • Jul 1, 1522

    Repayment of juros equals 36%

    36% repayment of total revenue
  • Jan 1, 1523

    Masterships

    In 1523, every single mastership belonged to the Crown
  • 1523

    Council of Finance created

    By Gattinara
  • 1523

    Charles receives right to present to all Spanish bishoprics

    From Pope Adrian VI (i.e. Adrian of Utrecht). Through this, he receives a great degree of control over the Church and it remains a chief source of income.
  • 1523

    Servicio granted by the Cortes

    At a sum of 400,000 ducats over 3 years.
  • Jul 1, 1523

    Papal bull for masterships

    Under Charles V, a papal bull from the Pope (Adrian IV) permitted all 3 masterships (Santiago, Calatrava and Alcantara) to be permanently vested in the Crown of Spain. This confirmation made the Orders branches of government and secured the Catholic Monarchs the total revenues of the Orders.
  • 1524

    Council of Indies created

    By Gattinara
  • 1525

    Alonso Manrique issues an 'edict of error'

    As General Inquisitor in the new Lutheran context, he issues this against the emerging groups of 'alumbrados'. First move against the groups since their denunciation in 1519.
  • 1525

    Isabel de la Cruz and Alcaraz arrested

    The first alumbrados to be arrested
  • Feb 24, 1525

    Battle of Pavia

    Most decisive engagement during the first episode of the Habsburg-Valois conflict. Charles victorious, Francis taken prisoner and Spanish supremacy in Italy secured
  • Jul 1, 1525

    Moors to be forcibly converted

    Charles decrees that Moors should be forcibly converted as a consequence of the Germania Revolt
  • 1526

    Battle of Mohacs

    Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia killed and Charles' brother, Ferdinand, takes the thrones. Turkish danger becomes the Habsburgs' foremost concern on land.
  • 1526

    Charles marries Isabella

    Daughter of King Emmanuel of Portugal. Isabella acted as regent in Spain in his absence until her death in 1539.
  • 1526

    Erasmus' 'Enchiridion' translated into Spanish

    Translator: "Everyone has the Enchiridion in Spanish."
  • Jul 1, 1526

    Moriscos agree to baptisms

    The Morisco leaders agree to baptisms for 40,000 ducats and on the basis that they would not be prosecuted by the Inquisition for 40 years.
  • 1527

    Valladolid debate

    This concluded that Erasmus' teachings were not heretical. However, some judges found it difficult to differentiate between Erasmus' and Luther's terachings (both appeared to threaten the Spanish church)
  • 1527

    Spain departs from the Erasmian court

    Humanist support in high places begins to fade
  • May 6, 1527

    Sack of Rome

    Charles' Spanish and German troops march against Pope Clement VII for entering the League of Cognac (alliance with France against him)
  • 1528

    Pedro Juan Oliver excluded from chair in Valencia

    A humanist - efforts to suppress humanist ideas were not just confined to Castile
  • Jul 1, 1528

    Inquisition not permitted to prosecute Moriscos

    The Aragonese Cortes successfully petitioned to Charles to agree to this until the Moriscos had been officially instructed in the Catholic faith (likely to take a long time)
  • 1529

    Hacienda system introduced

    Dictated ownerships of commercial estates in the New World.
  • 1529

    Treaty of Zaragoza

    Secured Castilian influence in parts of Asia
  • 1529

    Isabel de la Cruz and Alcaraz appear in auto de fe

  • 1529

    Hernandez and Ortiz arrested

    (Alumbrados) Hernandez implicates Tovar and Vergara as Lutheran to defend herself (the only way to escape the persecution of the Inquisition)
  • 1529

    Rodrigo Manrique expelled from Spain

    General Inquisitor's son expelled for being in contact with Vives and Vergara. Alonso consequently falls out of favour - no humanist support remained in high places
  • 1529

    Juan Valdes publishes 'Dialogue of a Christian Doctrine'

  • Aug 3, 1529

    Treaty of Cambrai

    Ends a short war between Charles and Francis. Charles renounces his claim to Burgundy and Francis renounces his claims to Milan and Naples.
  • 1530

    2 Lutherans burned

    One of which is Juan Lopez
  • 1530

    Juan Valdes flees Spain

    To avoid an Inquisition trial after the publication of his controversial 'Dialogue of a Christian Man'.
  • 1530

    Military orders provide 146,000 ducats a year

  • 1532

    Maria de Cazalla taken into custody

  • 1533

    Francisco Pizarro conquers Peru

  • 1533

    Vergara arrested

    Later sent to a monastery after disavowing his 'errors' in a 1535 auto
  • 1533

    Rodrigo Manrique writes to Vives

    On the subject of his arrest - 'silence has been imposed on the learned'
  • 1533

    Last letter of Erasmus to Spain

    Too dangerous to be in contact with anyone in Spain afterwards, as the Inquisition begins to clamp down more heavily on presumed heretics
  • 1533

    Vives released by Charles

    Vives was Charles' chaplain, and was made bishop of the Canary Islands by him
  • 1534

    Maria de Cazalla appears in an auto de fe

    Saved by Inquisitor General, Alonso Manrique. No alumbrados died in prison/burned under Manrique's Inquisition
  • 1535

    Charles becomes Duchy of Milan

  • 1535

    Charles resumes Ferdinand's N. African conquest

    Captures La Goulette and Tunis in an attempt to repel Barbarossa, admiral of the Ottoman fleet.
  • 1538

    Alonso Manrique dies

    Signalled the death of the protector of Erasmus in Spain. There were no mass burning in Charles' Spain before this
  • 1539

    Isabella, Charles' wife, dies

    Philip assumes her position as Spanish regent
  • 1540

    Vives dies

    Signified the end of strong Spanish academic influence - humanist and academic influences dying out and the remainders silenced
  • 1542

    Charles attempt to colonise the Philippines

  • Nov 20, 1542

    New Laws issued

    Created to prevent the exploitation and mistreatment of the indigenous peoples of the Americas by the encomenderos, grants of labor of a particular group of Indians, by strictly limiting their power and dominion
  • 1543

    Consulado created

    Controlled goods shipped to the New World; worked in conjunction with the House of Trade.
  • 1543

    Artois, Utrecht, Groningen and Gelderland annexed

    Contributing to Dutch land
  • Jul 1, 1543

    Juros repayment rises to 68% of total revenue

    Charles only complies with the payments because it feeds the Spanish people
  • 1545

    Mine at Potosi, Peru discovered

  • 1546

    Mine at Zacatecas, Mexico discovered

  • 1546

    Fernando Valdes appointed Inquisitor General

    (NOT Juan Valdes) A 'ruthless careerist who saw heresy everywhere' - much more brutal than his predecessor and mass burnings took place on an unprecedented scale
  • 1548

    Netherlands organised into one administrative unit

    Previously autonomously governed states.
  • Jul 1, 1548

    Cortes complain to Charles

    They complain that the wealth of the Indies has drained into foreign hands with no benefit to the Spanish economy. This is because the increased bullion supply attracted foreign merchants who exchanged their goods for cash instead of Spanish products, which was of no benefit.
  • 1550

    6 audiencias established

    In the New World; advised by the Council of Indies.
  • 1550

    Salamanca/Valladolid debate

    1550-1. First moral debate in European history to discuss the rights and treatment of a colonized people by colonizers
  • 1550

    Repartimiento system replaces Encomienda

    Mainly due to the widespread unpopularity and cruelty of the initial system.
  • Jul 1, 1552

    Genoese bankers charge Charles 67.4% in the repayment of juros

  • 1553

    Charles attempts to take Metz from France

    Disaster - Burgundry ends up surrendering to Valois forces and Charles is subsequently defeated in his struggle for Western European hegemony
  • Jul 25, 1554

    Marriage between Mary Tudor and Philip II

    Charles arranged. Philip becomes King of England
  • 1555

    Council of Italy created

  • 1555

    A Huguenot captures Havana for 26 days

    Philip consequently places Pedro Menendez in charge of New World security
  • Jan 16, 1556

    Charles abdicates as King of Spain

    This is due to his deteriorating mental and physical health. His son, Philip, succeeds him.
  • Jul 1, 1556

    Alcabala tax accounts for only 1/4 of total revenue

  • Jul 1, 1556

    Juros interest reaches 86%

  • 1557

    Protestant Carlos de Seso exposed in Valladolid

    (Influenced by Valdes) A wave of arrests followed
  • 1557

    Sevilian Protestant community exposed

    Small group of 130 people; the Cazalla family arrested as is Ponce de Leon for introducing books from Geneva
  • 1557

    Germans permitted to purchase Spanish lands, office etc.

    In order to settle Spanish debt.
  • 1557

    Philip declares state bankruptcy

    His first move as King of Spain - indicative of the financial crisis and level of debt crippling the country at this point in time.
  • Jul 1, 1557

    All 3 military orders go to German bankers

    In order to pay for Spain's juros. Lost revenue for the Spanish crown.
  • 1558

    Charles' statement on heretics

    'All heretics should suffer a death penalty'
  • Nov 17, 1558

    Mary Tudor dies

    Philip loses his claim to the English throne
  • 1559

    Index of banned books expands

    Valdes' initiative. Listed and prosecuted under the Inquisition. Only used in Castile.
  • 1559

    Spaniards studying abroad called back to Castile

    Valdes' order. Widely ignored and unable to be enforced.
  • Apr 3, 1559

    Treaty of Cateau Cambresis

    Ends Habsburg-Valois conflict, signed between Philip and Henry II. Confirmed Spain's direct control of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and indirectly (through dominance of the rulers of Tuscany, Genoa, and other minor states) of northern Italy.
  • Jul 1, 1561

    Poverty

    10% of Valladolid's 6600 households were poverty-stricken to the extent that they were completely reliant on public funds
  • Jul 1, 1563

    Further restrictions placed on Moriscos

    In Granada; attempts to disarm the population
  • 1565

    Valdes 'sacked by Philip

    Too brutal and too much power
  • Jul 1, 1565

    Concerns over a Fifth Column

    Arab pirates had defeated Spanish troops at Orgiba and the Otomas had besieged Malta
  • Jul 1, 1566

    Revolt in the Spanish Netherlands

    Concerns of a Morisco threat within the Spanish mainland
  • Jul 1, 1567

    New decree banning Morisco liberties

    Stopped Moriscos speaking, reading and writing in Arabic as well as banning their dress, literature and traditional rites
  • Jul 1, 1568

    Revolt erupts in Granada

    Stemmed from the Alpujarras and, at its height, involved 4000 Turks with rumours that Valencian Moriscos would join the Moorish effort
  • Jul 1, 1570

    Philip regains order of the Moriscos

  • Jul 1, 1571

    80,000 Moriscos deported

    Under Philip's order
  • Corzo dies

    Leaves 1.5m ducats
  • Period:
    Jun 5, 1465
    to
    Jul 5, 1468

    The Farce of Avila

    Henry IV was ceremonially deposed (replaced) by the senior nobility of Castile and Alfonso (Henry's brother) pronounced king. There were now 2 kings and this event was known as the 'Farce of Avila' (everyone thought it was ridiculous)
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1465
    to
    Jul 1, 1468

    Civil Disturbances

    Civil disturbances arose as the aristocrats of Spain resented Henry IV's impotency, following the Farce of Avila and throughout Alfonso's reign
  • Period:
    1474
    to
    1516

    Aragonese Cortes meets just 7 times

    In the whole reign of F + I
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1474
    to
    Jul 1, 1476

    The Peripatetic Monarchs

    The Catholic Monarchs travel from town to town without a base or castle, touring Castile to gain support of civilians. Showing they are potent monarchs that are concerned for their people.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1476
    to
    Jul 1, 1478

    Isabella sends out a privateering ship a year

    In order to intercept Portuguese ships as they returned home with goods from West Africa
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1478
    to
    Jul 1, 1496

    Conquest of the Canary Islands

    The Catholic Monarchs armed and part financed the conquest of the islands not yet subjugated: Gran Canaria, La Palma and Tenerife. This conquest ended with the defeat of Tenerife and the integration of the Canaries Archipelago into the Kingdom of Castile.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1479
    to
    Jul 1, 1480

    Spain assists the 'Knight Hospitallers'

    When Rhodes is besieged by the Turks (Catholicism vs Islam).
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1481
    to
    Jul 1, 1482

    Isabella and Ferdinand toured Castile

    Shwoing off their new-born son, John, and continuing their peripatetic reign.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1481
    to
    Jul 1, 1488

    Converso victims of the Inquisition

    Between 1481 and 1488, an estimated 700 men and women were burned at the stake, 5000 were forced to "repent" and approximately 3000 families fled
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1482
    to
    Jul 1, 1492

    The Granada War

    The Capitulation of Granada - 'Reconquista'. The crusade against Moors/Muslims in Granada. After 10 years, on January 2, 1492 King Boabdil surrendered, marking success for Castile and Aragon and defeat for Granada and all Moors in Spain.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1482
    to
    Jul 1, 1487

    Aragon left unvisited for 5 years by Ferdinand

    Ferdinand spent a total of less than 3 years in his kingdom of Aragon, instead focussing on Castile with Isabella. Furthermore, he spent 4 in Catalonia and 6 months in Valencia.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1482
    to
    Jul 1, 1498

    No Cortes met

    In 16 years, no Cortes met as Isabella relied on the Hermandad to supply troops and money. Showed it wasn't a regular part of the government and that there had been an improvement in Castilian economic affairs.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1482
    to
    Jul 1, 1504

    Military costs rise

    Annual costs quadruple from 20 million maravedis to 80 million maravedis - it didn't help that the monarchs weren't particularly frugal with their spending.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1488
    to
    Jul 1, 1493

    War with Brittany

    Won under Isabella
  • Period:
    1492
    to
    1499

    Program for Moors in Granada

    Generous under Talavera (the 1st Archbishop of Granada) as he did not believe in forced conversion, opting for gentle persuasion instead.
  • Period:
    Oct 1, 1494
    to
    Apr 1, 1498

    First Italian War

    Charles VIII of France against the Holy Roman Empire, Spain, and an alliance of Italian powers led by Pope Alexander VI. During this, Spanish forces under the control of Cordoba attempt to take Naples but their light cavalry was at a large disadvantage compared to the heavily-armed French one - consequently, they did not achieve as much as initially hoped.
  • Period:
    1495
    to
    1497

    Spanish forces attempt to challenge French garrison

    That occupied Naples
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1495
    to
    Jul 1, 1504

    War with Naples

    Won under Isabella
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1495
    to
    Jul 1, 1504

    Military expenses total 500m maravedis

    Costs total 80m/year, totalling 2/3 of all the Crown's income (increased 4x since 1482)
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1498
    to
    Jul 1, 1506

    Castilian Cortes met 16 times

    On average, only twice a year for 8 years as the Cortes was only consulted when the Crown faced political and financial crisis and support (i.e. money) from the people of Castile was needed
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1499
    to
    Jul 1, 1504

    Second Italian War

    Fought primarily by Louis XII of France and Ferdinand II of Aragon, with the participation of several Italian powers. In the aftermath of the First Italian War, Louis was determined to press his claim on the thrones of Milan and Naples.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1502
    to
    Jul 1, 1509

    Bad harvests

    In response to this, the Crown undertook price-fixing measures that were unlikely to help the producer. Grain had to be imported, discouraging farming
  • Period:
    Dec 1, 1504
    to
    Jul 1, 1509

    Cisneros' North African Crusade

    Pope Alexander VI blessed an African crusade in 1494 (after the success of Reconquista) and the continuation of the cruzada to pay for it. Upon Isabella's death, Cisneros embarks on a North African crusade in honour of her. The land obtained through this mission was given to the Castilian nobility (reverse of the Act of Resumption)
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1509
    to
    Jul 1, 1516

    War with Milan

    Won
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1511
    to
    Jul 1, 1550

    Wheat prices rise by 44%

    In Valladolid
  • Period:
    1515
    to
    1551

    Foreign goods on the Spanish market

    They pour onto the market, competing with native manufacturers. The Cortes petition 12 times on the matter.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1516
    to
    Jul 1, 1556

    Crown receives 11.9m ducats from American bullion

  • Period:
    1517
    to
    1520

    Charles in Spain

    (3 years)
  • Period:
    1517
    to
    1556

    Charles' reign of Spain

    He spent just under 16 years in Spain, Abdicated in 1556.
  • Period:
    1518
    to
    1523

    Adrian of Utrecht Inquisitor General

    After the leadership of Cisneros.
  • Period:
    1519
    to
    1580

    Population of New Spain dies out

    1519: 22m
    1568: 2.65m
    1580: 1.90m
  • Period:
    1520
    to
    1522

    Adrian of Utrecht regent

    Whilst Charles in the Netherlands and at the 1521 Diet of Worms. Had to deal with the Revolt of the Comuneros. Banned 'heretical' (Protestant) books in this role.
  • Period:
    Apr 16, 1520
    to
    Oct 25, 1521

    War of the Comuneros

    An uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521. On April 23, 1521, after nearly a year of rebellion, the reorganized supporters of the emperor struck a crippling blow to the comuneros at the Battle of Villalar. The following day, rebel leaders Juan de Padilla, Juan Bravo, and Francisco Maldonado were beheaded. The army of the comuneros fell apart.
  • Period:
    1521
    to
    1559

    Habsburg-Valois Conflict

    Between Spain and Frances, Charles and Francis I, later Philip and Henry II. Revolves mostly around Italian ambitions and territorial claims - biggest rivalry over Milan.
  • Period:
    1522
    to
    1529

    Charles' longest stay in Spain

    7 years - forming bureaucratization and settling the country after the War of Comuneros. After this, he is never continuously in Spain again.
  • Period:
    1523
    to
    1538

    Alonso Manrique as Inquisitor General

    Sympathetic towards humanists as studied himself at Alcala. Shadow of doubt over the tenability of his position due to his son's communications with disgraced Vives and Vergara.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1523
    to
    Jul 1, 1556

    Income from the Cortes triples

    From 130k ducats/year to 410k ducats/year
  • Period:
    1530
    to
    1539

    Influx of silver/bullion pours into Spain

    From the New World. All goes towards paying for juros.
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1530
    to
    Jul 1, 1555

    Rents increase by 80%

  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1530
    to
    Jul 1, 1580

    Castilian population increases by 50%

    Approx. 8 million; leads to an inflation of prices
  • Period:
    1533
    to
    1535

    Charles in Spain

    2 years
  • Period:
    1536
    to
    1538

    Charles in Spain

    1 1/2 years
  • Period:
    1538
    to
    1539

    Charles in Spain

    1 year
  • Period:
    1540
    to
    1549

    Mining gets underway

    In the New World
  • Period:
    1541
    to
    1543

    Charles in Spain

    1 1/2 years. After 1543, Charles didn't visit Spain again until his abdication in Sept 1556. For these 13 years, he was embroiled in the German civil war.
  • Period:
    1543
    to
    1545

    Orders for the transfer of all state papers

    And the turning over of all documents in officials' possession to the central archive at Simancas.
  • Period:
    1548
    to
    1563

    86 Spanish ships lost on Atlantic route

    Hijacked by Francis Drake etc. Thousands of tonnes of silver lost.
  • Period:
    1559
    to
    1562

    Series of spectacular autos

    Many Protestants are burned. Philip returns to Spain in 1559 and is horrified by the state of the Inquisition under Valdes - established a totalitarian rule and outgrown his power
  • Period:
    Jul 1, 1568
    to
    Jul 1, 1570

    Further uprisings in Granada

    Morisco fuelled