Scientists and their contributions to evolution

Timeline created by alan.zhang21
  • SCALE!!

    SCALE!!
    9 centimeters = 100 years. Aprox. 1.1 cm per 10 years. Image: http://www.philgalfond.com/lindgren-loans-and-a-little-advice/ethics-scale/ Some dates are not specific for some publicaition dates. i tried my best to round to the year (not month or day) the works of the scientists published their work.
  • The Father of Taxonomy is born

    The Father of Taxonomy is born
    Carolus birthplace was Sweden.
  • Birth of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon

    Birth of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon
    Born in Paris, France
  • James Hutton is born

    James Hutton is born
    Born in Edinburgh, Scotland
  • Birth of Erasmus Darwin

    Birth of Erasmus Darwin
    Born in England
  • Linnaeus's Systema Naturae

    Linnaeus's Systema Naturae
    Linnaeus published his manuscripts of hierarchial classification (taxonomy), stone, plants and animals. Then the kingdom was divided into class, order, genus, species and varities. He named the organisms using binomail nomenclature. (Latin naming system, Genus species) This became the biological classification that we name and describe organisms.
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Birth

    Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Birth
    Born in France
  • Comte de Buffon writing of Histoire Naturelle

    Comte de Buffon writing of Histoire Naturelle
    Suggested humans and apes shared a common ancestor due to similarities between the two but the species changed over time
  • Birth of Thomas Robert Malthus

    Birth of Thomas Robert Malthus
    Near Guildford, Surrey
  • Georges Baron Cuvier birth

    Georges Baron Cuvier birth
    Born in Paris, France
  • Comte de Buffon's Les Epoques de la Nature

    Comte de Buffon's Les Epoques de la Nature
    Comte de Buffon suggested the Earth was much older than 6000 years
  • Carolus Linnaeus

    Carolus Linnaeus
    Born in Rashult Smaland, Sweden
  • Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism

    Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism
    Formulated by James Hutton, he believed the processes that operate in the present have always operated in the past. Ex: Force that builds and erodes mountains are no different today than they were in the past
  • Buffon's death

    Buffon's death
    Dies in Paris, France
  • Erasmus's theory of evolution

    Erasmus's theory of evolution
    Erasmus never continued his research in evolution, but did mention that organisms had a common ancestor and the concept of natural selection in his novel Zoonomia. These ideas would be later elaborated by Charles Darwin
  • Charles Lyell

    Charles Lyell
    Birth of Charles in Scotland
  • Malthus's An essay on the Principle of Population

    Malthus's  An essay on the Principle of Population
    Thomas Malthus published "An Essay on the Principle of Population". He claimed that an increase in population would eventually diminish the ability of the world to feed itself. We as a human population, may run out of food! Charles Darwin was influenced by Marthus's publication
  • Birth of Mary Anning

    Birth of Mary Anning
    Birthplace: Dorset, England
  • Lamarck "Line of descent" and inheritence of acquired characteristics

    Lamarck
    Line of descent is where species increased in complexity over time until they reached perfection. He also hypothesized organisms gradually became better adapted in their environment. Characteristics that were needed became bigger and stronger (giraffes needed longer necks to reach fruits) are acquired during an organism's lifetime and passed onto their offspring. Charles Darwin acknowledge this idea of inheritance and acknowledged him through his writing.
  • Death of Erasmus

    Death of Erasmus
    Died in Bredsall Priory, England
  • Charles Darwin is born

    Charles Darwin is born
    Born in Shrewsbury, England
  • Cuvier develops science of palentology

    Cuvier develops science of palentology
    Georges Cuvier is credited with the development of palentology (Study of ancient life through examination of fossils). Found that each layer of stratum is characterized by unique group of fossil species. Deeper the stratum, the less similar they are from modern life
  • Theory of Catasrophism

    Theory of Catasrophism
    Through Cuvier's observations, he came up with the theory of Catastrophism where the Earth experienced natural destructive events. Ex: Floods, Volcanos Errupting. These events killed numerous species and allowed neighbouring species to repopulate the area. Catasrophism means species could become extinct
  • Birth of Herbert Spencer, the philosopher

    Birth of Herbert Spencer, the philosopher
    Born in Debryshire, Eng
  • Gregor Mendel birth

    Gregor Mendel birth
    Born in Austria
  • Alfred Russel Wallace is born

    Alfred Russel Wallace is born
    born in Wales
  • Mary Discovers Complete Plesiosaurus

    Mary Discovers Complete Plesiosaurus
    The first Plesiosaurs was discovered by Mary Anning. Georges Cuvier examined Anning's sketch of the reptile to detemine if it was genuine. Cuvier acknowledge made Anning a respectable female scientist.
  • Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism

    Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism
    Based on Hutton's theory of uniformitarinism, Charles Lyell also believed the same processes that occured in the past are the same as todays.
  • Lamarck passes away

    Lamarck passes away
    Paris, France
  • Charles Darwin voyage to Galapagos

    Charles Darwin voyage to Galapagos
    Darwin, began journey to the Galapagos Islands
  • Expedition to Galapagos Islands

    Expedition to Galapagos Islands
    Darwin observed fossils of organisms and resembled organisms that were alive today. Ie: Glyptodont -> Armadillo. Rodents in South America were structurally simiar to one another but were quite different from other rodents in other continents. Galapagos species (finches for example) looked identical but were slightly different between the islands. Each finch was adapted to eating different foods based on the shape and size of the beak.
  • Death of Georges Cuvier

    Death of Georges Cuvier
    Dies in Paris France.
  • Thomas Malthus passes away

    Thomas Malthus passes away
    Passed away in 1834
  • Wallace's travel

    Wallace's travel
    Wallace spent 8 years in Malay Archipelago, from 1854 to 1862. Within those years, he was collecting speciemens for research and sale. In the early 1858, he sent Charles Darwin his ideas that were very similar to Darwin. They issued a join publication that was released in 1854
  • Gregor's experiments

    Gregor's experiments
    Gregor's experiment was done on plants and showed the transmission and evolution of hereidtary traits in plant hybrids. Using peas, He cross fertilized pea plants that had opposite characteristics (ex: tall with short). Afterwards, he analyzed them and reached two conclusions. The Law of Segregation, where dominant and recessive traits are passed on randomly from parent to its offspring. Then the Lawt of Independent Assortment,
  • Gregor's Experiment cont.

    Gregor's Experiment cont.
    The Law of Independent Assortment established traits were passed independtly of other traits from the parent to its offpsring. Mendel proposed that heredity followed basic statiscal laws and even though his experiment worked on peas, he stated that this applies to all living this that had such traits.
  • Herbert Spencer publishes "Progress: Its Law and Cause"

    Herbert Spencer publishes
    The theory of where the develpoment of all of the universe's structures came from a simple homogenity to now the complex differenitiated heterogeneity. He believed this evolution process was a universal law.
  • Darwin and Wallace

    Darwin and Wallace
    According to the two scientists, individuals with traits that help them survive in their environment. The competition for limited resources between individuals of the same species would select for individuals to have favourable traits. Thus, a portion of the population would have these traits and as time passed, they would reproduce and the entire population would have them. (Known as survival of the fittest or natural selection proposed by Charles)
  • Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection

    Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection
    He stated his theory of evolution in his book The Origin of Species. Explained theory of evolution by nnatural selection. (Wallace and Darwin had shared the same idea.) The Animals that are best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce, gradually changing over time thus causing evolution. Suggested humans evolved from apes. Charles Darwin's theory was associated with Malthu's analysis of population growth, but it was also similar to Buffon's theory of common ancestor
  • Charles Lyell Death

    Charles Lyell Death
    Passes away in London
  • Darwin's death

    Darwin's death
    Passes away in england
  • Spencer's death

    Spencer's death
    Died in Brighton, Sussex
  • Ernst Walter Mayr is born

    Ernst Walter Mayr is born
    Born in Kempten, Germany
  • Death of Wallace

    Death of Wallace
    Dorset, England
  • Margulis Lynn Alexander

    Margulis  Lynn Alexander
    Born in Chicago, Illinois
  • Stephen Jay Gould is born

    Stephen Jay Gould is born
    Born and raised in New York City
  • Mayr's book

    Mayr's book
    In Mayr's book, he proposed that when a population of organisms are seperated from the main group of organisms (time or geo), they eventually evolve different traits and can't interbreed. The traits that evolve are dubbed "isolating mechanisms". Mayr also declared that development of many species is what leads to evolutionary process. "There would be no diversity of the organic world, no adaptive radiation, and little evolutionary progress, thus the species is the key to evolution." (Mayr)
  • Niles Eldredge is born

    Niles Eldredge is born
    Niles, a paleontologist is born
  • Margulis's endosymbiotic theory

    Margulis's endosymbiotic theory
    Throughout Lynn's studies, she focused on symbosis. (Two different organisms associate and can be beneficial or unfavourable for an organism) . Tjheorized that eukaryotic cells evolved from symbiosis of bacteria (no nuclei) that lived independtly previously. The mitochondria and chloroplasts share the ancestor of the free living bacteria species.
  • Lynn Marglis's Endosymbiosis Theory Cont.

    Lynn Marglis's Endosymbiosis Theory Cont.
    The theory that Lynn hypothesized was published in her novel but then it was rejected by many. She then elaborated on another book in 1981, "Symbiosis in Cell Evolution", proposing that another symbiotic merger of cells with bacteria, spirochetes (sprial shaped bacteria) She states before evoltuion, the eukaryotic cilia were originally spirochetes and the cytoplasm came from a symbiotic relationship between eubacteria and archaebacteria that evolved
  • Niles and Stephen's concept

    Niles and Stephen's concept
    In 1972, Stephen and Niles both met and came up with a concept called "Punctuated Equilibrium." This idea proposed that species are generally stable for a few million years until its changed by a rapid burst of change. The results are a new species, and they leave few fossils behind.
  • Book: Five Kingdoms

    Book: Five Kingdoms
    In 1982, Lynn collaborated with American biologist Karlene V. Schwartz, articulates the five kingdom classification system. The protist kingdom filled with most of the unicellular organisms on earth along with algae, is rejected as too general. Many of the organisms are usually caterogrized as a protist is placed into one of the other four ikingdoms instead.
  • Stephen Gould passes away

    Stephen Gould passes away
    Passed away in New York, Manhattan
  • Ernst Mayr's Death

    Ernst Mayr's Death
    the "Darwin of the 20th century" passes away
  • Lynn Passes away

    Lynn Passes away
    Lynn Margulis passes away. Rembered for her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles and her contribution to the endosymbtiotic theory
  • Scientists determine age of neanderthals

    Scientists determine age of neanderthals
    Discovery of Neanderthals in the cave of El Sidron Spain, scientist believed the neanderthals were 10 000 years old. Marco Del La Rilssa adjusted the age of the neanderthals because of a contaimination. The bones are actually 45 200 to 51 600 years old.
  • Period: to

    Scientific Contribution to Evolution