Scientists and their contributions to evolution

Timeline created by alan.zhang21
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
Scale SCALE!! 9 centimeters = 100 years. Aprox. 1.1 cm per 10 years. Image: Some dates are not specific for some publicaition dates. i tried my best to round to the year (not month or day) the works of the scientists published their work.
Linnaeus The Father of Taxonomy is born Carolus birthplace was Sweden.
220px buffon 1707 1788 Birth of Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon Born in Paris, France
Portrait hutton James Hutton is born Born in Edinburgh, Scotland
Erasmus darwin Birth of Erasmus Darwin Born in England
Linnaeus Linnaeus's Systema Naturae Linnaeus published his manuscripts of hierarchial classification (taxonomy), stone, plants and animals. Then the kingdom was divided into class, order, genus, species and varities. He named the organisms using binomail nomenclature. (Latin naming system, Genus species) This became the biological classification that we name and describe organisms.
143985 003 65a4bfa1 Jean-Baptiste Lamarck Birth Born in France
Buffon book Comte de Buffon writing of Histoire Naturelle Suggested humans and apes shared a common ancestor due to similarities between the two but the species changed over time
220px thomas malthus Birth of Thomas Robert Malthus Near Guildford, Surrey
Cuvier Georges Baron Cuvier birth Born in Paris, France
220px buffon 1707 1788 Comte de Buffon's Les Epoques de la Nature Comte de Buffon suggested the Earth was much older than 6000 years
Linnaeus Carolus Linnaeus Born in Rashult Smaland, Sweden
Portrait hutton Hutton's theory of uniformitarianism Formulated by James Hutton, he believed the processes that operate in the present have always operated in the past. Ex: Force that builds and erodes mountains are no different today than they were in the past
220px buffon 1707 1788 Buffon's death Dies in Paris, France
Zoonomia london Erasmus's theory of evolution Erasmus never continued his research in evolution, but did mention that organisms had a common ancestor and the concept of natural selection in his novel Zoonomia. These ideas would be later elaborated by Charles Darwin
10157 003 574dba7a Charles Lyell Birth of Charles in Scotland
220px thomas malthus Malthus's An essay on the Principle of Population Thomas Malthus published "An Essay on the Principle of Population". He claimed that an increase in population would eventually diminish the ability of the world to feed itself. We as a human population, may run out of food! Charles Darwin was influenced by Marthus's publication
Mary anning 4 Birth of Mary Anning Birthplace: Dorset, England
Lamarck giraffes Lamarck "Line of descent" and inheritence of acquired characteristics Line of descent is where species increased in complexity over time until they reached perfection. He also hypothesized organisms gradually became better adapted in their environment. Characteristics that were needed became bigger and stronger (giraffes needed longer necks to reach fruits) are acquired during an organism's lifetime and passed onto their offspring. Charles Darwin acknowledge this idea of inheritance and acknowledged him through his writing.
Erasmus darwin Death of Erasmus Died in Bredsall Priory, England
Darwin charles Charles Darwin is born Born in Shrewsbury, England
Cuvier Cuvier develops science of palentology Georges Cuvier is credited with the development of palentology (Study of ancient life through examination of fossils). Found that each layer of stratum is characterized by unique group of fossil species. Deeper the stratum, the less similar they are from modern life
Cuvier Theory of Catasrophism Through Cuvier's observations, he came up with the theory of Catastrophism where the Earth experienced natural destructive events. Ex: Floods, Volcanos Errupting. These events killed numerous species and allowed neighbouring species to repopulate the area. Catasrophism means species could become extinct
Herbert spencer Birth of Herbert Spencer, the philosopher Born in Debryshire, Eng
Gregor mendel 39282 1 402 Gregor Mendel birth Born in Austria
Wallace Alfred Russel Wallace is born born in Wales
Gastrai2 Mary Discovers Complete Plesiosaurus The first Plesiosaurs was discovered by Mary Anning. Georges Cuvier examined Anning's sketch of the reptile to detemine if it was genuine. Cuvier acknowledge made Anning a respectable female scientist.
10157 003 574dba7a Charles Lyell Uniformitarianism Based on Hutton's theory of uniformitarinism, Charles Lyell also believed the same processes that occured in the past are the same as todays.
143985 003 65a4bfa1 Lamarck passes away Paris, France
Galpsa Charles Darwin voyage to Galapagos Darwin, began journey to the Galapagos Islands
Darwin charles Expedition to Galapagos Islands Darwin observed fossils of organisms and resembled organisms that were alive today. Ie: Glyptodont -> Armadillo. Rodents in South America were structurally simiar to one another but were quite different from other rodents in other continents. Galapagos species (finches for example) looked identical but were slightly different between the islands. Each finch was adapted to eating different foods based on the shape and size of the beak.
Cuvier Death of Georges Cuvier Dies in Paris France.
220px thomas malthus Thomas Malthus passes away Passed away in 1834
Wallace Wallace's travel Wallace spent 8 years in Malay Archipelago, from 1854 to 1862. Within those years, he was collecting speciemens for research and sale. In the early 1858, he sent Charles Darwin his ideas that were very similar to Darwin. They issued a join publication that was released in 1854
Gregor mendel 39282 1 402 Gregor's experiments Gregor's experiment was done on plants and showed the transmission and evolution of hereidtary traits in plant hybrids. Using peas, He cross fertilized pea plants that had opposite characteristics (ex: tall with short). Afterwards, he analyzed them and reached two conclusions. The Law of Segregation, where dominant and recessive traits are passed on randomly from parent to its offspring. Then the Lawt of Independent Assortment,
Gregor mendel 39282 1 402 Gregor's Experiment cont. The Law of Independent Assortment established traits were passed independtly of other traits from the parent to its offpsring. Mendel proposed that heredity followed basic statiscal laws and even though his experiment worked on peas, he stated that this applies to all living this that had such traits.
Herbert spencer Herbert Spencer publishes "Progress: Its Law and Cause" The theory of where the develpoment of all of the universe's structures came from a simple homogenity to now the complex differenitiated heterogeneity. He believed this evolution process was a universal law.
Darwin charles Darwin and Wallace According to the two scientists, individuals with traits that help them survive in their environment. The competition for limited resources between individuals of the same species would select for individuals to have favourable traits. Thus, a portion of the population would have these traits and as time passed, they would reproduce and the entire population would have them. (Known as survival of the fittest or natural selection proposed by Charles)
200px origin of species title page Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection He stated his theory of evolution in his book The Origin of Species. Explained theory of evolution by nnatural selection. (Wallace and Darwin had shared the same idea.) The Animals that are best suited to their environment will survive and reproduce, gradually changing over time thus causing evolution. Suggested humans evolved from apes. Charles Darwin's theory was associated with Malthu's analysis of population growth, but it was also similar to Buffon's theory of common ancestor
10157 003 574dba7a Charles Lyell Death Passes away in London
Darwin charles Darwin's death Passes away in england
Herbert spencer Spencer's death Died in Brighton, Sussex
Ernst mayr Ernst Walter Mayr is born Born in Kempten, Germany
Wallace Death of Wallace Dorset, England
220px lynn margulis Margulis Lynn Alexander Born in Chicago, Illinois
220px stephen jay gould by kathy chapman Stephen Jay Gould is born Born and raised in New York City
Ernst mayr Mayr's book In Mayr's book, he proposed that when a population of organisms are seperated from the main group of organisms (time or geo), they eventually evolve different traits and can't interbreed. The traits that evolve are dubbed "isolating mechanisms". Mayr also declared that development of many species is what leads to evolutionary process. "There would be no diversity of the organic world, no adaptive radiation, and little evolutionary progress, thus the species is the key to evolution." (Mayr)
240x240 bio eldredge Niles Eldredge is born Niles, a paleontologist is born
220px lynn margulis Margulis's endosymbiotic theory Throughout Lynn's studies, she focused on symbosis. (Two different organisms associate and can be beneficial or unfavourable for an organism) . Tjheorized that eukaryotic cells evolved from symbiosis of bacteria (no nuclei) that lived independtly previously. The mitochondria and chloroplasts share the ancestor of the free living bacteria species.
220px lynn margulis Lynn Marglis's Endosymbiosis Theory Cont. The theory that Lynn hypothesized was published in her novel but then it was rejected by many. She then elaborated on another book in 1981, "Symbiosis in Cell Evolution", proposing that another symbiotic merger of cells with bacteria, spirochetes (sprial shaped bacteria) She states before evoltuion, the eukaryotic cilia were originally spirochetes and the cytoplasm came from a symbiotic relationship between eubacteria and archaebacteria that evolved
240x240 bio eldredge Niles and Stephen's concept In 1972, Stephen and Niles both met and came up with a concept called "Punctuated Equilibrium." This idea proposed that species are generally stable for a few million years until its changed by a rapid burst of change. The results are a new species, and they leave few fossils behind.
220px lynn margulis Book: Five Kingdoms In 1982, Lynn collaborated with American biologist Karlene V. Schwartz, articulates the five kingdom classification system. The protist kingdom filled with most of the unicellular organisms on earth along with algae, is rejected as too general. Many of the organisms are usually caterogrized as a protist is placed into one of the other four ikingdoms instead.
220px stephen jay gould by kathy chapman Stephen Gould passes away Passed away in New York, Manhattan
Ernst mayr Ernst Mayr's Death the "Darwin of the 20th century" passes away
220px lynn margulis Lynn Passes away Lynn Margulis passes away. Rembered for her theory on the origin of eukaryotic organelles and her contribution to the endosymbtiotic theory
130402091145 Scientists determine age of neanderthals Discovery of Neanderthals in the cave of El Sidron Spain, scientist believed the neanderthals were 10 000 years old. Marco Del La Rilssa adjusted the age of the neanderthals because of a contaimination. The bones are actually 45 200 to 51 600 years old.
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Scientific Contribution to Evolution