Timeline created by bkoen
In History
  • G.I. Bill

    G.I. Bill
    The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944, was a law that provided a range of benefits for returning WWII veterans. The goal was to provide rewards for all WWII veterans. Benefits included dedicated payments of tuition and living expenses to attend high school, college or vocational/technical school, low-cost mortgages, as well as one year of unemployment compensation. It was available to all veterans who had been on active duty for at least 90 days and had not been dishonorably discharged.
  • Iron Curtain

    Iron Curtain
    The Iron Curtain was the name for the boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991. A term symbolizing the efforts by the Soviet Union to block itself and its satellite states from open contact with the West and non-Soviet-controlled areas. The east side of the Iron Curtain were the countries that were connected to the Soviet Union and Separate economic and military alliances were developed on the other side.
  • Truman Doctrine

    Truman Doctrine
    The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy created to counter Soviet geopolitical expansion during the Cold War. It was first announced to Congress by Truman on March 12, 1947, and further developed on July 12, 1948, when he pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. Congress appropriated financial aid to support the economies and the militaries of Greece and Turkey. Furthermore, the Truman Doctrine implied American support for other nations threatened by Soviet communism.
  • Marshall Plan

    Marshall Plan
    The Marshall Plan (officially the ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave over $12 billion (approximately $120 billion in current dollar value) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War II. The goals of the United States were to rebuild war-devastated regions, remove trade barriers, modernize industry, make Europe prosperous once more, and prevent the spread of communism.
  • Berlin Airlift

    Berlin Airlift
    During post-WWII Germany, the Soviet Union blocked the Western Allies' railway, road, and canal access to the sectors of Berlin under Western control. In response, Western Allies organized the Berlin airlift (June 26, 1948 – September 30, 1949) to carry supplies to the people of West Berlin. Aircrews from the United States Airforce and British Royal Air Force flew over 200,000 flights in one year, providing to the West Berliners up to 8,893 tons of necessities each day, such as fuel and food.
  • Fair Deal

    Fair Deal
    On January 5, 1949, President Truman announced, in his State of the Union address, his plan for creating a fairer government. In reference to Roosevelt’s New Deal policies, Truman's plans for domestic policy reforms included national health insurance, public housing, civil rights legislation and federal aid to education. He advocated an increase in minimum wage, federal assistance to farmers and an extension of Social Security, as well as requiring anti-discrimination policies in employment.
  • Korean War (The Forgotten War)

    Korean War (The Forgotten War)
    The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the closing days of WWII. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, and liberated Korea north of the 38th parallel. U.S. forces subsequently moved to the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments.
  • News

    The primary source of news in the forties was newspapers and magazines. To view an event, people relied on Movietown News. These news segments played before every movie and were the best way to actually see what went on. In the 1950s, NBC, CBS, and ABC became three major "networks" that appeared on everyone's TV. All of the programming originated, live, in New York and allowed news networks to distribute national events (conflicts) to the rest of the nation through a television screen.
  • Television

    Perhaps no phenomenon shaped American life in the 1950s more than Television. At the end of WWII, the television was a toy for only a few thousand wealthy Americans and 10 years later, nearly two-thirds of American households had a television. The biggest-selling periodical of the decade was TV GUIDE. In a nation once marked by strong regional differences, network television programming blurred these distinctions and helped forge a national popular culture.
  • 2nd Red Scare

    2nd Red Scare
    The second Red Scare popularly known as “McCarthyism” after Senator Joseph McCarthy refers to the fear of communism that permeated American politics, culture, and society from the late 1940s through the 1950s, during the opening phases of the Cold War with the Soviet Union. McCarthy made himself famous by claiming that large numbers of Communists had infiltrated the U.S. State Department. This Scare became a tactic of undermining political opponents by making attacks on their loyalty to the US.
  • TV Shows

    TV Shows
    The 1950's are considered to be the golden age of television as "watching TV" became a new form of entertainment. As news stations and other broadcasts transitioned from radio to this new medium during the 50s, many were watching TV for the first time. Sitcoms and comedies aired on NBC, CBS, and ABC with shows like "I Love Lucy," "The Honeymooners" and "I Married Joan" earning high ratings. Later in the decade, "Westerns," "Bonanza," and "The Lone Ranger" became popular shows.
  • Polio Vaccine

    Polio Vaccine
    Polio vaccines are vaccines used to prevent poliomyelitis (polio). There are two types: one that uses inactivated poliovirus and is given by injection (IPV), and one that uses weakened poliovirus and is given by mouth (OPV). The World Health Organization recommends all children be vaccinated against polio. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most of the world and reduced the number of cases each year from an estimated 350,000 in 1988 to 74 in 2015.
  • Dr. Jonas Salk

    Dr. Jonas Salk
    Jonas Edward Salk was an American medical researcher and virologist. Born in New York City, he attended NYU School of Medicine, later choosing to do medical research instead of becoming a physician. On March 26, 1953, Salk announced on a national radio show that he has successfully tested a vaccine against poliomyelitis, the virus that causes the crippling disease of polio. 1952 was an epidemic year for polio there were an estimated 350,000 cases in 1988 and his vaccine reduced it to 74 in 2015.
  • Albert Sabin

    Albert Sabin
    Albert Bruce Sabin was a polish American who received a medical degree from NYU in 1931. He trained in internal medicine, pathology, and surgery at Bellevue Hospital in New York. During this time, he developed an interest in research, especially in the area of infectious diseases. During WWII, he was a lieutenant colonel and helped develop a vaccine against Japanese encephalitis. In 1953, Sabin developed the oral polio vaccine which played a key role in nearly eradicating the disease.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education
    Brown v. Board of Education(1954), was a landmark the United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Handed down on May 17, 1954, the Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.
  • Space Race

    Space Race
    The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States, for supremacy in spaceflight capability. The Space Race pioneered efforts to launch artificial satellites, unmanned space probes of the Moon, Venus, and Mars, and human spaceflight in low Earth orbit and to the Moon. The technological superiority required for such supremacy was seen as necessary for national security, and symbolic of ideological superiority.
  • Emmett Till Tragedy

    Emmett Till Tragedy
    Emmett Louis Till (July 25, 1941 – August 28, 1955) was an African-American teenager who was lynched in Mississippi at the age of 14 after being falsely accused of flirting with a white woman. The brutality of his murder and the fact that his killers were acquitted drew attention to the long history of violent persecution of African Americans in the United States. Till posthumously became an icon of the Civil Rights Movement.
  • Vietnam War

    Vietnam War
    The Vietnam War was a war that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was officially fought between North Vietnam and the government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese army was supported by the Soviet Union, China and other communist allies and the South Vietnamese army were supported by the United States, South Korea, Australia, Thailand and other anti-communist allies. The war is therefore considered a Cold War-era proxy war.
  • Rosa Parks

    Rosa Parks
    Rosa Louise McCauley Park was an activist in the Civil Rights Movement, whom the United States Congress called "the first lady of civil rights" and "the mother of the freedom movement". On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Due to her brave stance, she received the NAACP's highest award and later became secretary of the local NAACP.
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott

    Montgomery Bus Boycott
    The Montgomery bus boycott, a seminal event in the Civil Rights Movement, was a political and social protest campaign against the policy of racial segregation on the public transit system of Montgomery, Alabama. The campaign started when Rosa Parks, an African-American woman, was arrested for refusing to surrender her seat to a white person. When a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect the United States Supreme Court declared the laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
  • Elvis Presley

    Elvis Presley
    Elvis Aaron Presley was born (January 8, 1935) in Tupelo, Mississippi and moved to Memphis, Tennessee with his family when he was 13 years old. His music career began there in 1954 when he recorded a song with producer Sam Phillips at Sun Records. He was regarded as the leading figure of rock and roll after a series of successful network television appearances and chart-topping records. His energized interpretations of songs and sexually provocative performance style made him enormously popular.
  • Beat Generation

    Beat Generation
    The Beat Generation is a literary movement started by a group of authors whose work explored and influenced American culture and politics in the post-WWII era. The bulk of their work was published and popularized throughout the 1950s. Central elements of Beat culture are a rejection of standard narrative values, spiritual quest, exploration of American and Eastern religions, rejection of materialism, explicit portrayals of the human condition, experimentation with drugs, and sexual liberation.
  • Little Rock 9

    Little Rock 9
    The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African-American students enrolled in Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Eisenhower and the U.S Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Education which declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional.
  • Orvaul Faubus

    Orvaul Faubus
    Orval Eugene Faubus (1910 – 1994) was an American Democratic politician who served as 36th Governor of Arkansas from 1955 to 1967. He is best remembered for his 1957 stand against desegregation of the Little Rock School District during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied a unanimous decision of the U.S. Supreme Court made in the 1954 case Brown v. Board of Education by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to prevent black students from attending Little Rock Central High School.
  • LSD

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), also known as acid, is a psychedelic drug known for its psychological effects. This may include altered awareness of the surroundings, and feelings as well as sensations and images that seem real though they are not. It is used mainly as a recreational drug and for spiritual reasons. LSD is typically either swallowed or held under the tongue. It is often sold on blotter paper, a sugar cube, or gelatin. This drug was mainly used by hippies and counterculture.
  • Sit-Ins

    In 1960, a new tactic was added to the peaceful activists' strategy. Four African American college students walked up to a whites-only lunch counter and sat in whites-only seats at the local Woolworth's store in Greensboro, North Carolina, and asked for coffee. Despite being refused service, threatened, pelted with food or ketchup, or physically attacked students would wait to be served. These actions led to desegregation in public places.
  • New Frontier

    New Frontier
    The term New Frontier was used by presidential candidate John F. Kennedy in his acceptance speech in the 1960 Democratic Debate to inspire America to support him. The frontier is a list of unknown opportunities and unfulfilled hopes and threats. President Kennedy was elected and wanted to raise the minimum wage, relieving overcrowded schools, and believing in cutting taxes for businesses from 90%. He challenged the U.S. to land a man on the moon but Soviets still ahead in space technology.
  • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)

    Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
    The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is a permanent, intergovernmental Organization, created at the Baghdad Conference, by Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela. The OPEC's objective is to co-ordinate and unify petroleum policies among Member Countries, in order to secure fair and stable prices for petroleum producers; an efficient, economic and regular supply of petroleum to consuming nations; and a fair return on capital to those investing in the industry.
  • Peace Corps

    Peace Corps
    The Peace Corps is a volunteer program run by the U.S government. The mission of the Peace Corps includes providing technical assistance, helping people outside the United States to understand American culture, and helping Americans understand the cultures of other countries. The work is usually related to social and economic development. Each Peace Corps Volunteer, is an American citizen, typically with a college degree, who works abroad for a period of two years after three months of training.
  • Freedom Rides

    Freedom Rides
    Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses and trains into the segregated southern United States in 1961 in order to challenge the non-enforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Morgan v. Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that segregated public buses were unconstitutional. The Southern states had ignored the rulings and the federal government did nothing to enforce them. The first Freedom Ride left Washington, D.C. on May 4, 1961.
  • Cuban Missile Crisis

    Cuban Missile Crisis
    The Cuban Missile Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba. An agreement was reached between the Soviets and the U.S that the Soviets would dismantle their offensive weapons in Cuba and return them to the Soviet Union, and the United States would dismantle all U.S.-built missiles in Turkey.
  • George Wallace

    George Wallace
    George Corley Wallace was an American politician and the 45th Governor of Alabama. He was a U.S. Presidential candidate for four consecutive elections, in which he sought the Democratic Party nomination in 1964 and 1972. After these failed elections, he dismissed both Democrats and Republicans as too liberal and ran on the American Independent party. As governor, he tried to stop black students from getting into the University of Alabama but Kennedy brings in troops to make sure students get it.
  • Assassination of John F. Kennedy

    Assassination of John F. Kennedy
    On November 22, 1963, John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was fatally shot in Dallas, Texas while riding in a motorcade in Dallas Dealey Plaza. Fatally shot by Lee Harvey Oswald, he was traveling with his wife, Jacqueline, Texas Governor John Connally, and Connally's wife, Nellie, in a presidential motorcade. A ten-month investigation from November 1963 to September 1964 by the Warren Commission concluded that Oswald acted alone when killing Kennedy and stood trial.
  • Lee Harvey Oswald

    Lee Harvey Oswald
    Lee Harvey Oswald was a former U.S. Marine who assassinated President John F. Kennedy on November 22, 1963. According to four Federal government investigations, Oswald shot and killed Kennedy as the President traveled by motorcade through Dealey Plaza in Dallas, Texas. Following Kennedy's assassination, Oswald was later charged with the murder of Kennedy. He denied shooting anyone and two days later while being transferred from jails, Oswald was fatally shot by Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby.
  • Warren Commission

    Warren Commission
    The Warren Commission was established by President Lyndon B Johnson to investigate the assassination of United States President John F Kennedy. The U.S. Congress passed Senate Joint Resolution 137, mandating the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of evidence concerning the infraction occurring in Dallas November 22, 1963. The final report was presented to President Johnson and concluded that Kennedy was assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald and that Oswald acted entirely alone.
  • Counter Culture

    Counter Culture
    The counterculture youth rejected the cultural standards of their parents, specifically racial segregation and initial widespread support for the Vietnam War. Shocking events of 1968 led disaffected young rebels, hippies, to abandon conventional political activism and embrace the counterculture. A way of life and a set of attitudes opposed to or at variance with the prevailing social norm. They also used LSD and Heroin and renounced material possession.
  • Great Society

    Great Society
    The Great Society was a set of domestic programs in the United States launched by President Lyndon B. Johnson in 1964-1965. The main goal was the elimination of poverty and racial injustice. New major spending programs that addressed education, medical care, rural poverty, and transportation were also created. The program was supported by fellow Democrats in Congress in the 1960s and years following. The Great Society in scope and sweep resembled the New Deal domestic agenda of F.D.R.
  • Earl Warren Supreme Court

    Earl Warren Supreme Court
    Earl Warren was an American jurist and politician, who served as the 30th Governor of California (1943–1953) and later the 14th Chief Justice of the United States (1953–1969). He's best known for the liberal decisions of the so-called Warren Court, which outlawed segregation in public schools and transformed many areas of American law, especially regarding the rights of the accused, ending public-school prayers, and requiring "one man–one vote" rules of apportionment of election districts.
  • Stonewall Riot

    Stonewall Riot
    The Stonewall riots (also referred to as the Stonewall uprising) were a series of spontaneous, violent demonstrations by members of the gay community against a police raid that took place in the early morning hours of June 28, 1969, at the Stonewall Inn, located in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York. They are widely considered to constitute the single most important event leading to the gay liberation movement and the modern fight for LGBT rights in the United States.
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)

    Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an agency of the Federal government which was created for the purpose of protecting human health and the environment by writing and enforcing regulations based on laws passed by Congress. The agency conducts environmental assessments, research, and education. It has the responsibility of maintaining and enforcing national standards under a variety of environmental laws, in consultation with state, tribal, and local governments.
  • Nixon Tapes

    Nixon Tapes
    The Nixon White House tapes are audio recordings of conversations between U.S. President Richard Nixon and Nixon administration officials, Nixon family members, and White House staff, produced between 1971 and 1973. On February 1971, a sound-activated taping system was first installed in the Oval Office, including in Nixon's Oval Office desk, using tape recorders to capture audio transmitted by telephone taps and concealed microphones. The recording system was turned off on July 18, 1973.
  • Watergate Hotel

    Watergate Hotel
    The Watergate complex is a group of five buildings in Washington, D.C. built between 1963 and 1971. In 1972, the headquarters of the Democratic National Committee, located on the sixth floor of Watergate Office Building, was burglarized, documents were photographed, and telephones were wiretapped. The investigation into the burglary revealed that high officials in the Nixon administration had ordered the break-in and then tried to cover up their involvement.
  • Title IX

    Title IX
    Title IX is a comprehensive federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program or activity. The objective of Title IX is to avoid the use of federal money to support sex discrimination in education programs and to provide individual citizens protection against those practices. Title IX applies to all federally funded education programs or activities. Title IX also applies to any training program operated by federal financial assistance.
  • Watergate

    Watergate was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States in the 1970s, following a break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. in 1972 and President Richard Nixon's administration's attempted cover-up of its involvement. When the conspiracy was discovered and investigated by the U.S. Congress, the Nixon administration's resistance to its probes led to a constitutional crisis.
  • Roe v. Wade

    Roe v. Wade
    Roe v. Wade(1973), is a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on the issue of abortion. It was decided simultaneously with a companion case, Doe v. Bolton. The Court ruled that a right to privacy under the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment extended to a woman's decision to have an abortion, but that this right must be balanced against the state's interests in regulating abortions: protecting women's health and protecting the potentiality of human life.
  • Stagflation

    In economics, stagflation, is a situation in which the inflation rate is high, the economic growth rate slows, and unemployment remains steadily high. It raises a dilemma for economic policy, since actions designed to lower inflation may exacerbate unemployment and vice versa. During the 60's and 70's, the U.S. was suffering from 5.3% inflation and 6% unemployment. Refers to the unusual economic situation in which an economy is suffering both from inflation and from stagnation.
  • Endangered Species Act

    Endangered Species Act
    The Endangered Species Act is a US environmental law passed in the 1970s and serves as enacting the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora cities. The (ESA) is designed to protect endangered species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and development untempered by adequate concern and conservation." Congress found that enacting" the ESA "was to halt the trend toward species extinction, whatever the cost."
  • Federal Election Commission (FEC)

    Federal Election Commission (FEC)
    The Federal Election Commission (FEC) is an independent regulatory agency that was founded in 1975 by the United States Congress to regulate the campaign finance in the United States. It was created in a provision of the 1974 amendment to the Federal Election Campaign Act. It describes its duties as "to disclose campaign finance information, to enforce the provisions of the law such as the limits and prohibitions on contributions, and to oversee the public funding of Presidential elections."
  • Video Head System (VHS)

    Video Head System (VHS)
    In the 1950s, magnetic tape video recording became a major contributor to the television industry, via the first commercialized video tape recorders (VTRs). At that time, the devices were used only in expensive professional environments such as television studios and medical imaging. In the 1980s, the (VHS) videotape entered home use, creating the home video industry and changing the economics of the television and movie businesses. The VHS was a cheap and affordable way people could watch TV.
  • Jimmy Carter

    Jimmy Carter
    James Earl Carter (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977-1981. In 2002, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for his work with the Carter Center. Carter was a Democrat who was raised in rural Georgia. He was a peanut farmer who served two terms as a Georgia State Senator from 1963-1967, and one as the Governor of Georgia from 1971-1975. He was elected President in 1976, defeating President Gerald Ford in a close election.
  • Robert Johnson

    Robert Johnson
    Robert Louis Johnson (born April 8, 1946) in Hickory, Mississippi, is an African American entrepreneur, media magnate, executive, philanthropist, and investor. He is the founder of BET, which was sold to Viacom in 2001. He also founded RLJ Companies, a holding company that invests in various business sectors. Johnson is the former majority owner of the Charlotte Bobcats. He also became the first black American billionaire.
  • Election of 1980

    Election of 1980
    The United States presidential election of 1980 was the 49th presidential election. The contest was between the Democratic national ticket of incumbent President Jimmy Carter from Georgia and Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota, and the Republican national ticket of Ronald Reagan, a former Hollywood actor and former Governor from California with his running mate George H.W. Bush, a former Congressman and CIA Director from Texas who would eventually win the presidency eight years ater.
  • Ronald Reagan

    Ronald Reagan
    Born in Tampico, Illinois, on February 6, 1911, Ronald Reagan initially chose a career in entertainment, appearing in more than 50 films. While in Hollywood, he worked as president of the Screen Actor's Guild and met his future wife, Nancy (Davis) Reagan. He later served two terms as governor of California. Originally a liberal Democrat, Reagan ran for the U.S. presidency as a Republican and won two terms, beginning in 1980, ultimately becoming a conservative icon over the ensuing decades.
  • Sandra Day O’Connor

    Sandra Day O’Connor
    Born in El Paso, Texas, on March 26, 1930, Sandra Day O'Connor was elected to two terms in the Arizona state senate. In 1981, Ronald Reagan nominated her to the U.S. Supreme Court. She received unanimous Senate approval, and made history as the first woman justice to serve on the nation's highest court. O'Connor was a key swing vote in many important cases, including the upholding of Roe v. Wade. She retired in 2006 after serving for 24 years.
  • The Strategic Defense Initiative

    The Strategic Defense Initiative
    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), also known as Star Wars, was a program first initiated on March 23, 1983, under President Ronald Reagan. The intent of this program was to develop a sophisticated anti-ballistic missile system in order to prevent missile attacks from other countries, specifically the Soviet Union. With the tension of the Cold War looming overhead, the Strategic Defense Initiative was the United States’ response to possible nuclear attacks from afar.
  • Reagan Doctrine

    Reagan Doctrine
    The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy implemented by the United States under the Reagan Administration to overwhelm the global influence of the Soviet Union in an attempt to end the Cold War. The doctrine was the centerpiece of United States foreign policy from the early 1980s until the end of the Cold War in 1991.The doctrine was designed to diminish Soviet influence in communist governments (Africa, Asia, and Latin America) as part of the administration's overall strategy to end the Cold War.
  • Iran Contra Affair

    Iran Contra Affair
    The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration. The scandal began as an operation to free seven American hostages being held in Lebanon by Hezbollah. It was planned that Israel would ship weapons to Iran, and then the United States would resupply Israel and receive the Israeli payment. They hoped, to fund the Contras in Nicaragua while at the same time negotiating the release of several U.S. hostages.
  • Challenger Explosion

    Challenger Explosion
    In 1986, the American shuttle orbiter Challenger exploded 73 seconds after liftoff, bringing a devastating end to the spacecraft’s 10th mission. The disaster claimed the lives of all seven astronauts aboard the shuttle. It was later determined that two rubber O-rings, which had been designed to separate the sections of the rocket booster, had failed due to cold temperatures on the morning of the launch. The tragedy received extensive media coverage and temporarily suspend all shuttle missions.
  • Oprah Winfrey

    Oprah Winfrey
    Orpah Gail Winfrey (born January 29, 1954) in Kosciusko, Mississippi is an American media proprietor, talk show host, actress, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The Oprah Winfrey Show, which was nationally syndicated from 1986 to 2011 in Chicago, Illinois. Oprah is America's first and only multi-billionaire black women. Several assessments rank her as the most influential woman in the world. She was also awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Barack Obama.
  • Fall of the Berlin Wall

    Fall of the Berlin Wall
    The Berlin Wall was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.Constructed by the German Democratic Republic, starting on 13 August 1961, the Wall completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin until government officials opened it in November 1989. The barrier included guard towers placed along large concrete walls, which circumscribed a wide area that contained anti-vehicle trenches and other defenses.
  • Lionel Sosa

    Lionel Sosa
    Lionel Sosa (born in 1939) in San Antonio, TX, is a Mexican-American advertising and marketing executive. In his twenties, he designed logos, and eventually opened his own graphic design studio. Sosa entered political advertising by supporting John Tower. With Sosa's support, Tower won 37% of the Hispanic vote. The success of Tower's campaign led several national companies like coca-cola, and in 1980 he created Sosa and Associates and it became the largest Hispanic advertising agency in the U.S.
  • Rodney King Incident

    Rodney King Incident
    Rodney Glen King was an African-American taxi driver, who became internationally known after being beaten by Los Angeles Police Department officers. A witness, George Holliday, videotaped much of the beating from his balcony and sent the footage to local news station KTLA. The footage shows four officers surrounding King, several of them striking him repeatedly, while other officers stood by. The incident raised public concern about police treatment of minorities in the United States.
  • Election of 1992

    Election of 1992
    The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election. It was held on Tuesday, November 3, 1992. There were three major candidates: Republican President George H. W. Bush, Democratic Arkansas Governor Bill Clinton, and independent Texas businessman Ross Perot. Bush had alienated much of his conservative base by breaking his 1988 campaign pledge against raising taxes. Clinton won a plurality in the popular vote and a wide Electoral College margin.
  • Ross Perot

    Ross Perot
    Henry Ross Perot (born June 27, 1930) was an independent presidential candidate in 1992 election. Though he had never served as a public official, Perot had experience as the head of several successful corporations. Perot focused his campaign on his plans to balance the federal budget, further economic nationalism, and strengthen the war on drugs. His views were described as "East Texas populism." Supporters saw Perot as a nonpolitical "folk hero", but critics described him as "authoritarian."
  • Bill Clinton

    Bill Clinton
    William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993-2001. Prior to his Presidency, he was the 40th Governor of Arkansas from 1979-1981 and the state's 42nd Governor from 1983-1992. Before that, he served as Arkansas Attorney General from 1977-1979. A member of the Democratic Party, Clinton was ideologically a New Democrat, and many of his policies reflected a centrist "Third Way" political philosophy.
  • George W. Bush

    George W. Bush
    George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who was the 41st President of the United States from 1989-1993 and the 43rd Vice President of the United States from 1981-1989. A member of the U.S. Republican Party, he was previously a congressman, ambassador, and Director of Central Intelligence. He is the oldest living former President and Vice President. Prior to his son's presidency, he was referred to as President Bush after his son he was known as "Bush the Elder".
  • Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy

    Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell Policy
    "Don't ask, don't tell" was the official United States policy on military service by gays, bisexuals, and lesbians, instituted by the Clinton Administration on February 28, 1994. The policy prohibited military personnel from discriminating against or harassing closeted homosexual service members. The policy prohibited people who "demonstrated the intent to engage in homosexual acts" from serving in the armed forces of the U.S because their presence would threaten the high standards of morale.
  • Defense of Marriage Act

    Defense of Marriage Act
    The Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA), enacted September 21, 1996, was a United States federal law that, prior to being ruled unconstitutional, defined marriage for federal purposes as the union of one man and one woman, and allowed states to refuse to recognize same-sex marriages granted under the laws of other states. DOMA's passage did not prevent individual states from recognizing same-sex marriage, but it imposed constraints on the benefits received by all legally married same-sex couples.
  • Lewinsky Affair

    Lewinsky Affair
    The Lewinsky scandal was an American political sex scandal that involved 49-year-old President Bill Clinton and a 22-year-old White House intern, Monica Lewinsky. The sexual relationship took place between 1995 and 1996 and came to light in 1998. Clinton ended a televised speech with the statement that he did not have sexual relations with Lewinsky. Further investigation led to charges of perjury and led to the impeachment of President Clinton in 1998 by the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Ralph Nader

    Ralph Nader
    Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American political activist, author, lecturer, and attorney noted for his involvement in consumer protection, environmentalism, and government reform causes. The 2000 presidential campaign of Ralph Nader, began on February 21, 2000. He cited "a crisis of democracy" as motivation to run. He ran in the 2000 United States presidential election as the nominee of the Green Party. The campaign marked Nader's second presidential bid as the Green nominee.
  • Al Gore

    Al Gore
    The 2000 presidential campaign of Al Gore, the 45th Vice President of the United States under President Bill Clinton, began when he announced his candidacy for the presidency in Carthage, Tennessee (1999). Gore became the Democratic nominee for the 2000 presidential election. Victory in the election would have made Gore the first president to not be born in the 50 states, as well as the first Democrat since the Civil War to succeed another Democrat to the Presidency by election in his own right.
  • No Child Left Behind Education Act

    No Child Left Behind Education Act
    The No Child Left Behind Act was a U.S. Act of Congress that reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act; it included provisions applying to disadvantaged students. It supported standards-based education reform based on the premise that establishing measurable goals could improve individual outcomes in education. The Act required states to develop tests in basic skills. To receive federal school funding states have to give these tests to all students at select grade levels.
  • Patriot Act

    Patriot Act
    The USA Patriot Act was passed by Congress in response to the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. The Act allows federal officials more authority in tracking and intercepting communications, for purposes of law enforcement and foreign intelligence gathering. It gives the Secretary of the Treasury regulatory powers to combat corruption of US financial institutions for foreign money laundering purposes; it more actively works to close our borders to foreign terrorists and remove those within.
  • Hurricane Katrina Disaster

    Hurricane Katrina Disaster
    Hurricane Katrina was the costliest natural disaster and one of the five deadliest hurricanes in the history of the United States. The storm is currently ranked as the third most intense the United States behind the Labor Day hurricane in 1935. Overall, at least 1,245 people died in the hurricane and subsequent floods, making it the deadliest United States hurricane since 1928. Total property damage was estimated at $108 billion, roughly four times the damage brought by Hurricane Andrew in 1992.
  • The Great Recession

    The Great Recession
    The Great Recession was a period of general economic decline observed in world markets from 2000-2010. In terms of overall impact, the International Monetary Fund concluded that it was the worst global recession since WWII. The Great Recession was related to the financial crisis of 2007–2008 and U.S. subprime mortgage crisis of 2007–2009. The Great Recession has resulted in the scarcity of valuable assets in the market economy and the collapse of the financial sector in the world economy.
  • John McCain

    John McCain
    John Sidney McCain is an American politician who currently serves as the senior U.S senator. McCain was a naval aviator, flying ground-attack aircraft from aircraft carriers. In 1981 he retired from the Navy and moved to Arizona, where he entered politics. Elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, McCain served 2 terms as Arizona's senator. McCain then ran for the Republican nomination in 2000 but lost to George W. Bush. He also secured the nomination in 2008 but lost to Barack Obama.
  • Barack Obama

    Barack Obama
    Barack Hussein Obama (born August 4, 1961) in Honolulu, Hawaii, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state. He is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African-American to have served as president, as well as the first born outside the contiguous United States. He previously served in the U.S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004.
  • American Recovery and Reinvestment Act

    American Recovery and Reinvestment Act
    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, known as the Recovery Act, was a stimulus package enacted by the 111th U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Barack Obama in 2009. Developed in response to the Great Recession, the ARRA's primary objective was to save existing jobs and create new ones as soon as possible. Other objectives were to provide temporary relief programs for those most affected by the recession and invest in infrastructure, education, health, and renewable energy.
  • Affordable Care Act

    Affordable Care Act
    The Affordable Care Act, know as "Obamacare," was signed into law by President Barack Obama, and was designed to increase health insurance quality and affordability, lower the uninsured rate by expanding insurance coverage and reduce the costs of healthcare. It introduced mechanisms including mandates, subsidies and insurance exchanges. The law requires insurers to accept all applicants, cover a specific list of conditions and charge the same rates regardless of pre-existing conditions or sex.
  • Hippies

    The 1960’s hippie counterculture movement involved a variety of social concerns and beliefs. The hippies’ primary tenet was that life was about being happy, not about what others thought you should be. Hippies rejected middle-class values, opposed nuclear weapons and the Vietnam War. They embraced aspects of eastern philosophy and sought to find new meaning in life. Drugs such as marijuana and LSD were tightly integrated into their culture as a means to explore altered states of consciousness.
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    The Cold War

    Intense economic, political, military and ideological rivalry between nations, short of military conflict; sustained hostile political policies and an atmosphere of strain between opposed countries.
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    During this time the United Stated was the world's strongest military power. Its economy was booming, and the fruits of this prosperity- new cars, suburban houses and other consumer good- were available to more people than ever before. However, the 1950s were also an era of great conflict. Including the nascent civikl rights movement and the crusade against communism at home and abroad exposed the underlying divisions in American society.
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    Civil Rights

    Was a struggle by African-Americans in the mid-1950's to late 1960's to achieve Civil Rights equal to those of whites, including equal opportunity in employment, housing, and education, as well as the right to vote, the right to equal access to public facilities, and the right to be free of racial discrimination. It was also, a movement for those undergoing discrimination due to sexual preference.
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    It was a decade of extremes, of transformational change, and bizarre contrasts: hippies and black panthers, idealism, and alienation, rebellion, and backlash. For many in the massive post-World War II baby boom generation, it was both the best of times and the worst of times. At the beginning of the 1960's, it was perceived as the dawn of the "golden age" while towards the end it seemed the nation was falling apart.
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    In some ways, the 1970s was a continuation of the 1960s. Women, African Americans, Native Americans, gays, and lesbians and others continued to fight for equality, and many Americans joined the protest against the ongoing war in Vietnam. However, they were a repudiation of the 1960's. A "New Right" mobilized in defense of political conservatism, traditional family roles, and the behavior of President Richard Nixon undermined many people's faith in the good intentions of the federal government.
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    Many Americans embraced a new conservatism in social, economic, and political life during the 1980's characterized by the policies of President Ronald Regan. Often remembered for its materialism and consumerism, the decade also saw the rise of the "yuppie," the explosion of blockbuster movies and the emergence of cable networks like MTV, which introduced new music and launched the careers of many iconic artists.
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    For the most part of the 90's, the nation was at peace. The Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, bringing an end to years of costly military competition. During the 90's the American economy recovered from a recession and grew strong. Inflation and unemployment were low. There were new developments in medicine and technology and technology. The internet began to evolve from a defense project mainly linking researchers into a new way for the world to communicate.
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    The first years of the contemporary time period have thus far been marked by the rise of a global economy and Third World consumerism, mistrust in government, deepening global concern over terrorism, and an increase in power of private enterprise. The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980's also continues into the present. Millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century.