History of Schools, Schooling, and Curriculum

Timeline created by EDUC614
  • Publishing of Children's Books

    Publishing of Children's Books
    Englishman John Dewey, also known as the Father of Children's Literature, became one of the first publishers of children's books. Previously, printing presses only published books geared towards adults. This made children's books more readily available to the public and provided children with "pleasure reads" rather than moral or religious texts. Newbery made children's literature a sustainable and profitable part of the literary market.
  • Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is published

    Frankenstein by Mary Shelley is published
    The novel Frankenstein is still widely studied in classrooms today, a remarkable feat for a book written 200 years ago.
  • Establishment of first small public library

    Establishment of first small public library
    The first small modern public library funded by taxes was established in 1833 in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The first large modern public library was established in 1848 in Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Carlisle Indian Industrial School

    Carlisle Indian Industrial School
    General Richard Henry Pratt created the Carlisle Indian Industrial School to provide an educational program that would rapidly assimilate the Native Americans into American society. This event took away Native American students' individual identities and cultural practices in the classroom setting.
  • Mark Twain writes "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"

    Mark Twain writes "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn"
    "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn" is important in its exposure of racism in the deep south in the post Civil War era. The novel was immediately banned for calling attention to deep-seeded racism that still existed. The idea of banning books that don't fit into "social curriculum" (the curriculum that education leaders would like to promote) started with "Huckleberry Finn." This novel started the conversation between racism and education and how it connects to curriculum.
  • Reluctant Allies - Psychologists and Education

    Reluctant Allies - Psychologists and Education
    Change in higher education during the 1890s
    pressure to organize learning around post-Darwinian conception of science
    growing acceptance of natural evolution
    innovation and progress became associated with specialization and experimentation Philosophy underwent a change from being exclusively for men with ministerial training to a secular academic profession Psychology separated itself from Philosophy
    began study of mental structures and functions which had relevance for education
  • Discovery of a Virus

    Discovery of a Virus
    Dmitri Ivanovsky was a Russian botanist who was one of the founders of the field of Virology. He discovered the existence of viruses while examining an infectious disease found in tobacco plants. Martinus Beijerinck, a Dutch biologist, discovered that viruses were self-replicating while also studying the tobacco mosaic virus.
  • Booker T. Washington

    Booker T. Washington
    Founder of Tuskegee University in 1895. Clashed with W.E.B. DuBois over avenues of racial uplift. Booker T. Washington believed that African Americans should accept disenfranchisement and social segregation as long as they had access to economic and educational opportunities. He was a proponent of vocational education for all African Americans which was in direct contrast to W.E.B. DuBois demand for equality. https://www.biography.com/people/booker-t-washington-9524663
  • Wilhelm Röntgen Discovers the X-ray

    Wilhelm Röntgen Discovers the X-ray
    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German mechanical engineer and physicist, who produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range known as X-rays on November 8, 1895. This great achievement earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
  • William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education

    William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education
    1896 : William Torrey Harris - US Commissioner of Education
    study of child in school and family was due to the influence of G. Stanley Hall was contrary to his personal philosophy - the belief that study should begin with the analysis of different branches of human learning and how those could be organized into school curricula G. Stanley Hall thought that systematic studies of children would improve educational practice.
  • G. Stanley Hall - Boston Kindergarten Study

    G. Stanley Hall - Boston Kindergarten Study
    G. Stanley Hall thought that systematic studies of children would improve educational practice. In the Boston Kindergarten Study concluded that "“the mind can learn only what is related to other things learned before and that we must start from the knowledge the children really have and develop this as germs.... [support ] “practical educational conclusions of great scope and importance.” New and expansive conception of educational research based upon a broad and synthetic view of education
  • William James and the role of Harvard University

    William James and the role of Harvard University
    Did not believe that all teachers should or could contribute to Child Study. Began career as a physiologist and moved into psychology
    Argued that habits were built through the repetition of acts
    coming together to form consciousness or “stream of thought”, habits made it possible to digest all the diverse stimuli to which one was subject and this human thought and awareness was grounded in biology
  • Charles Eliot - President of Harvard University

    Charles Eliot - President of Harvard University
    Eliot wanted high schools to be linked upward and identified as “feeders” to Harvard. This conflicted with the Mass Board of Ed which wanted HS as a capstone and Normal Schools to be teachers colleges, not universities. Eliot Limited Harvard teacher courses to males. It was his opinion that there was no “science” to teaching.
  • Spanish-American War

    Spanish-American War
    A conflict between the U.S. and Spain after the explosion of the USS Maine. The war built up a militaristic culture amongst American young men who idealized their fathers' Civil War tales and experiences.
  • Lucas Gusher at Spindletop

    Lucas Gusher at Spindletop
    This was the first oil gusher in the United States and it was placed in Beaumont, Texas. This was the first major oil gusher of the Texas Oil Boom.
  • John Dewey

    John Dewey
    One of the first to embrace the study of education.
    Dewey established an experimental school at University of Chicago where the curricular focus was on occupations rather than studies. He believed that “the child comes to school to do; to cook, to sew to work with wood and tools in simple constructive acts; within and about these acts cluster the studies....” Dewey thought that the school’s aim was to allow students to express their individuality and attain control of own power.
  • Edward Thorndike

    Edward Thorndike
    Thorndike formulated ideas that were more suited for the translation into formulas for educational practice. He is considered the "Father" of the measurement movement. Thorndike was a strong proponent of Nature vs. Nurture - learning as defined as making connections between stimuli and responses; focusing on the importance of individual differences based upon inherited traits and characteristics.
    He ultimately believed that “What anyone becomes by education depends on what he is by nature.”
  • W.E.B. DuBois

    W.E.B. DuBois
    W.E.B. Du Bois rose to national prominence when he very publicly opposed Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise," an agreement that asserted that vocational education for blacks was more valuable than social advantages like higher education or political office. Du Bois criticized Washington for not demanding equality for African Americans, as granted by the 14th Amendment. Published Souls of Black Folks in 1903. Founded NAACP. https://www.biography.com/people/web-du-bois-9279924
  • W.E.B DuBois

    W.E.B DuBois
  • Russell Sage Foundation

    Russell Sage Foundation
    Russell Sage Foundation was created in 1907 by Margaret Olivia Sage. The foundation was dedicated to improving the social and living conditions in US social investigation with public advocacy, supporting much of the survey movement's work.
  • Montclair and East Orange NJ School Surveys

    Montclair and East Orange NJ School Surveys
    Movement began in 1911 when Paul Hanus of Harvard surveyed the Montclair NJ schools and E.C. Moore of Yale surveyed the East Orange NJ schools . This became the model of social research
  • First Montessori School Opens In U.S.

    First Montessori School Opens In U.S.
    The first Montessori school opened in Scarborough, NY and many began to follow in other states.
  • Bohr Model

    Bohr Model
    The Bohr model is an atomic model introduced by Niels Bohr and Ernest Rutherford. The model shows the atom as a small, positively charged nucleus surrounded by electrons that travel in circular orbits around the nucleus. The attraction between the subatomic particles is caused by electrostatic forces.
  • National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE)

    National Society for the Study of Education (NSSE)
    Founded in 1914 at Teachers College Columbia University. Published a yearbook dedicated to curriculum construction /development that focused on a variety of methods and approaches available to educators. Teachers were NOT involved
  • Leonard Ayres

    Leonard Ayres
    Ayres was a leader in the survey movement, serving as the chief in the Department of Statistics within the Department of Education. Ayres was a proponent of Thorndike's ideas.
  • Einstein's Theory of Relativity

    Einstein's Theory of Relativity
    Albert Einstein published the theory of relativity, which provides a unified description of gravity as a geometric property of space and time.
  • Emmy Noether and Conservation Law

    Emmy Noether and Conservation Law
    Emmy Noether was a German mathematician known for her contributions to abstract algebra and theoretical physics. She proved her symmetry theorem, which shows that every symmetry in physics has a corresponding conservation law.
  • The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Schools

    The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Schools
    Report on US Secondary schools indicated that there should be growth in 7 areas: health, 3Rs, worth home ownership, vocation, citizenship, worthy use of leisure time, and ethical character.
  • John Franklin Bobbitt

    John Franklin Bobbitt
    Bobbitt believed in the "The Scientific Study of Society - a scientific approach to curriculum. In 1918 he wrote the book, The Curriculum.
    Bobbitt thought curriculum should TRAIN citizens, and should identify objectives of vocations. The ramifications of his ideas were:
    the diversification of curriculum; decoupling of curriculum from traditional academic subjects; and encouragement of educators to claim expertise in their areas.
  • 19th Amendment

    19th Amendment
    Gave women the right to vote. This could effect schools views on educating women so they can be more well informed voters
  • Mass production of children's illustrative texts in color

    Mass production of children's illustrative texts in color
    In the 1920s, children's picture books began to be mass produced in color. The production of children's picture books became an industry of its own. Example books include: The Little Engine that Could, Babar, Curious George, Madeline, etc.
  • Newbery Honor Award

    Newbery Honor Award
    Named after and 18th century children's book publisher, John Newbery, this is an award given by the Association for Library Service to Children to authors who have made significant contributions to children's literature. This award is significant because many Newbery Honor books are the books selected to be taught in the classroom.
  • Teachers College School System

    Teachers College School System
    Founded by Abraham Flexner whose goal was to reform pre-college education. Thought that schools should be organized around four subjects: science, industry, aesthetics and civics - while reading, writing and spelling are the instruments. He, along with James Earl Russell, were among the first to be interested in teachers carrying out experiments. TC School System consisted of: Horace Mann K-12

    Speyer School for neighborhood outreach and Lincoln (K-12) - looking at curricular change.
  • Scopes Trial

    Scopes Trial
    The Scopes Trial was a case in Dayton, Tennessee in which a high school substitute teacher was accused of violating Tennessee's Butler Act which prohibited the teaching of evolution in state-funded schools. Scopes was found guilty, but the verdict was overturned on a technicality. The case brought national attention to the issue of church beliefs in schools.
  • Introduction of the SAT

    Introduction of the SAT
    The first "Scholastic Aptitude Test" is developed by Carl Brigham and given to high schoolers hoping to go to college. It is meant to assess aptitude for learning rather than a mastery of subjects already learned. It is one of the first introductions of a standardized test to measure academic ability, and is a precursor for standardized tests in the K-12 setting. In regard to literature, the SAT tested antonyms, artificial language, analogies, and paragraph reading skills.
  • First publication of the New York Times Bestseller List

    First publication of the New York Times Bestseller List
    The NYT Bestseller List is published weekly, listing the most popular books in the United States at the time. Being on the Bestseller List usually further increases the popularity of a book, bringing it to the attention of the general public. Educators often pull books to study from past editions of the Bestseller List.
  • New Deal

    New Deal
    A Series of federal programs inducted by President Franklin D. Roosevelt in response to the Great Depression, including public work programs and regulations.
  • Edwin Armstrong Develops FM Radio

    Edwin Armstrong Develops FM Radio
    Edwin Howard Armstrong develops frequency modulation (FM) as a solution to the static interference problem that AM radio transmissions had.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act

    Fair Labor Standards Act
    Regulated the use of child labor for those under 18 years of age. Meant that more children were able to attend schools rather than be made to work.
  • World War II

    World War II
    The Second World War that was between the Allies and Axis powers. This event caused the United States to focus more on its military resources than other aspects of its citizens. Most men were drafted to fight which left behind families with the woman becoming the sole provider and caretaker.
  • Japanese Internment Camps

    Japanese Internment Camps
    The Japanese internment policy segregated schools in California and the midwest and led to the creation of schools within the camps. These schools had a unique curriculum to fit the environment.
  • End of WWII/Start of Atomic Age

    End of WWII/Start of Atomic Age
    United States bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki which led to the surrender of Japan. This entered the world into a nuclear age. Argument could be made this impacted peoples education in a shifting view towards rebellion and life is short
  • First Test of Nuclear Bomb

    The United States military tested the first nuclear bomb known as “Trinity” as part of the Manhattan project on July 16, 1945.
  • Ralph W. Tyler

    Ralph W. Tyler
    Wrote the Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. Pushed the movement from “mental measurements” to evaluation. Thought that exams should be designed to indicate the degree to which students are attaining all of the important goals and objectives. Tyler viewed
    testing as a catalyst for improving education. He wrote seminal book on basic principles of curriculum and instruction which became the basis for how lesson plans are created goals, objectives, etc.
  • Brown v. Board of Education

    Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, was a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education. Warren Court's unanimous (9–0) decision stated that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal."
  • Brown vs. Board of Education

    Supreme Court decision declaring state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students and denying black children equal educational opportunities unconstitutional.
  • The Little Rock Nine Federal Escort

    The Little Rock Nine was a group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. They then attended after the intervention of President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
  • Sputnik

    Sputnik is launched and there is a renewed emphasis on education, with a special focus on STEM
  • Bilingual Programs in Miami Public Schools

    Bilingual Programs in Miami Public Schools
    Starting in the 1800s, some states started to incorporate bilingual education into their classrooms at the parents request (anything from German, to Norwegian, to French and Spanish). However, in 1959, schools dedicated to bilingual programs were established in Miami Public Schools.
  • ACT Founded

    ACT Founded
    The American College Testing (ACT) program was founded by Ted McCarrel.
  • The Science of Teaching

    The Science of Teaching
    Nate Gage began to examine the scientific basis of teaching. Produced the first Handbook of Research on Teaching in 1963
  • Martin Luther King I have a Dream Speech

    Martin Luther King I have a Dream Speech
    The famous speech delivered by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington where he calls for an end of racism. This influenced schools to begin to consider more to racially desegregate schools and be more aware of racial tensions in the classrooms.
  • Head Start Act of 1965

    Head Start Act of 1965
    The Head Start Act provided low income families' children early education and nutrition services.
  • The Coleman Report

    The Coleman Report
    Produced in 1966 by James Coleman, the Coleman Report indicated that schools and teachers were powerless to overcome inequities that came from home - "teachers do not matter. The Process-Product Paradigm grew out of the research that resulted from the Coleman Report. This shaped education for the next decade and beyond.
  • First Texas Instruments Calculator

    First Texas Instruments Calculator
    Texas Instruments developed its first electronic hand-held calculator.
  • Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    Apollo 11 Moon Landing
    The first 2 humans landed on the moon on July 21st (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin). It was a U.S. mission and was the fifth manned mission by NASA.
  • First Solar Power Station

    First Solar Power Station
    The Odeillo solar furnace, located in Odeillo, France was constructed.
  • Draft Lottery Drawings

    Draft Lottery Drawings
    United States called men ages 18 to 25 to military service during the Vietnam War.
  • Passage of the 26th Amendment

    Passage of the 26th Amendment
    Decreased the voting age to 18 from 21. This gave younger students added civic responsibility and put added pressure on civics classes to prepare students.
  • First Demonstration of Mobile Phone

    First Demonstration of Mobile Phone
    Motorola demonstrated the first use of a cellular device using a handset weighing 4.4 pounds. The first commercial cellular network was established in Japan in 1979.
  • Home Computers

    Home Computers
    Home computers were released into the market in 1977, but became popular in the 80s. The most common uses for these early computers were video games and word processing.
  • The Publication of the First MLA Handbook

    The Publication of the First MLA Handbook
    The publication of the first MLA handbook set the standard for writing from the view of the modern language association.
  • Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke

    Regents of the Univ. of Cal. v. Bakke
    Upheld use of race in college administration
  • Scholastic begins hosting book fairs

    Scholastic begins hosting book fairs
    Scholastic acquires a book fair company, California School Book Fairs, and begins hosting book fairs in schools. Now, Scholastic hosts book fairs in schools in all 50 states and several other countries apart from the United States. Book Fairs turned shopping for books into a fun activity to look forward to as a break from the school day with classmates and friends.
  • 1989 National Education Summit

    1989 National Education Summit
    President George H. Bush and the nation’s governors held a national Education Summit conference establishing six broad goals to address the issues raised in A Nation at Risk. Their report was titled The National Education Goals Report: Building a Nation of Learners and once again emphasized the development of standards for student performance.
  • Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web

    Tim Berners-Lee invents the World Wide Web
    In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, an Internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing.
  • Berlin Wall Fell (End of Cold War)

    Berlin Wall Fell (End of Cold War)
  • The Americans with Disabilities Act

    The Americans with Disabilities Act
    The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability.
  • 1993 National Council on Education Standards and Testing

    1993 National Council on Education Standards and Testing
    The National Council on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST) was established at the urging of Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander to begin the development of bi-partisan national standards and testing for K-12 education. The effort to develop national consensus standards was ultimately unsuccessful.
  • EOG Administered for the first time

    EOG Administered for the first time
    End of Grade testing for North Carolina. This is NC's main standardized testing used for 3-8th graders.
  • 1994 Goals 2000

    1994 Goals 2000
    President Clinton signed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act, creating a special council to certify national and state content and performance standards, opportunity-to-learn standards, and state assessments.
    The law had many aspects, not least was its aim to “provide a framework for meeting the National Education Goals,” which included ensuring “all children will start school ready to learn,” a high school graduation rate of “at least” 90%, and more to be achieved by the year 2000.
  • Cloning Dolly the Sheep!

    Cloning Dolly the Sheep!
    Dolly (5 July 1996 – 14 February 2003) was a female domestic sheep, and the first mammal cloned from an adult somatic cell, using the process of nuclear transfer
  • 1996 National Educational Summit

    1996 National Educational Summit
    A National Education Summit is held bringing together the governors of more than 40 states as well as national business leaders to support efforts to establish clear academic standards and subject matter content at the state and local levels.
  • First Successful Mission of Mars Rover

    Although several attempts at a Mars Rover landing and transmission had been attempted in the past, 1997 marked the first successful landing and radio transmission from a Mars rover.
  • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published

    Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone was published
    The first installment of the Harry Potter series was published in the UK, soon to become a quick bestseller in children's and young adult fiction. Published in the US in 1998. It has been translated into more than 70 languages and is beloved worldwide. Six more books followed, along with a movie franchise and even theme parks.
  • 1999 National Education Summit

    1999 National Education Summit
    A National Education Summit including governors, educators, and business leaders identifies challenges facing U.S. schools in three areas; improving educator quality, helping all students reach high standards, and strengthening accountability. Agreement is reached to specify how each of their states will deal with the challenges
  • Columbine Shooting

    Columbine Shooting
    A deadly school shooting in Columbine, Colorado that sparked a national discussion about school security.
  • No Child Left Behind

    No Child Left Behind
    The federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is revised and signed into law by President George W. Bush. Re-christened the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act, it calls for extensive implementation of state educational standards addressing national criteria tied to federal funding. The act contains four basic education reform principles: stronger accountability, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on proven teaching methods.
  • Human Genome Project

    Human Genome Project
    This project identified the sequence of nucleotide base pairs that make up human DNA, mapping all the genes in the human genome. Sponsored by several different governments, it was the world’s largest collaborative biological project.
  • No Child Left Behind Act for ESL Learners

    No Child Left Behind Act for ESL Learners
    The "No Child Left Behind Act" of 2001 set high standards for english, math, and writing in schools for all students. What this act doesn't account for are students who are not native english speakers. So ESL students, no matter when they enter the American school system, are held to the same english and literacy standards as native speakers on standardized tests. This act does not take into account the challenges ESL students overcome to keep up.
  • Publishing of NC School Report Cards

    Publishing of NC School Report Cards
    These yearly reports provided a list of North Carolina public school report cards and ranked them against each other.
  • Terrorist Attacks on 9/11

    Terrorist Attacks on 9/11
    Coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States taking place in New York, Washington DC, and Pennsylvania. This event was integrated into the classroom, as well as the biases from teachers, that were brought with it.
  • 2004 Ready or Not: Creating a High School Diploma That Counts Report

    2004 Ready or Not: Creating a High School Diploma That Counts Report
    found that both employers and colleges are demanding more of high school graduates than in the past
  • YouTube was created.

    YouTube was created.
    The online video sharing and viewing community, YouTube, was invented by Steve Chen, Chad Hurley, and Jawed Karim.
  • 2009Common Core Standards

    2009Common Core Standards
    The National Governor’s Association convened a group to develop standards. These are Copyrighted by the NGA Center for Best Practices and the Council of Chief State School Officers and were
    adopted by 42 of 50 States.
  • Barack Obama Becomes President

    Barack Obama Becomes President
    Barack Obama becomes the first African American person to serve as president. This creates more racial tolerance and inclusivity throughout the nation and in schools. It helps to inspire minority students that it is more possible to achieve entering any position and be accepted by all people.
  • Common Core and Cursive Writing

    Common Core and Cursive Writing
    Common Core Standards did not include teaching cursive. The thought was that technology prevalence was increasing and cursive was no longer necessary to teach. With things moving to writing and printing, cursive was no longer seen as essential.
  • Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act of 2010

    Funded federal lunch programs and created new standards for ending child obesity.
  • 2014 Next Generation Science Standards

    2014 Next Generation Science Standards
    The Common Core Standards led to the state's development of first a Framework of Science followed by the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) in 2014.
  • The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA)

    The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is a US law passed in 2015 that governs the United States K–12 public education policy. The law replaced its predecessor, the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB), and modified but did not eliminate provisions relating to the periodic standardized tests given to students. Like the NCLB, ESSA is a reauthorization of the 1965 Elementary and Secondary Education Act, which established the American federal government's expanded role in funding public education.
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    Progressive Era

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    The Testing Movement

    Achievement tests emerged in the 1920s - not geared toward classroom objectives . These tests were standardized; fueled by the development of intelligence tests at the turn of the century. Included
    Alfred Benet and Theodore Simon - 1905 and Lewis Terman- 1916.
    Showed the importance of endowment over training through the Stanford-Binet Test of 1916 - seen as fair. This resulted in an increased reluctance on the heavy reliance on statistics and quantifiable data.
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    The Survey Movement

    The Survey Movement began in 1911 when Paul Hanus of Harvard surveyed the Montclair NJ schools and E.C. Moore of Yale surveyed the East Orange NJ schools becoming the model of social research. The purpose of surveys was to identify and publicize the ways in which all the different elements of a community had changed and what those changes meant in terms of requirements from the community.
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    World War I

    A global conflict originating and centered in Europe between the Allied powers (notably France, Britain, Russia, and eventually the U.S.) and the Central powers (notably Germany and Austria-Hungary). This decreased the number of young men in schools and left families with economic and social hardships that often made education secondary.
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    The Era of Progressive Education

    Period of confirmation of child-centered applications, the importance of real-world applications, the social importance of knowledge and the need to make schools meaningful learning experiences for students. Progressives argued against traditional methods and content in favor of content which was socially relevant, giving the students the tools and knowledge that would allow them to solve problems in their everyday lives - movement towards the teacher as a facilitator
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    The Interwar Years

    Dewey’s ideas began to re-emerge as education as a field began to have multiple voices. There was still a coherence lacking with the greatest confusion found in curriculum due to shifting social priorities and populations. Curriculum interest stimulated by several forces:
    Curriculum was an extension of the reform efforts known as progressive education; Demographic circumstances stimulated curricular interest;growth of population; increase in immigration; and diversification.
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    Great Depression

    The Great Depression was when the stock market crashed with affected the economy in the United States. Many people lost their jobs and were having financial troubles. This event resulted in families needing to rely on their older children to leave school to go to work to help support their families financially.
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    Life Adjustment Movement

    By the mid-1940s, a new educational program called the Life Adjustment Movement emerged from the education community, critiquing secondary schools as "too devoted to an academic curriculum." Public school students would need appropriate high school courses, including math programs, that focused purely on practical problems such as consumer buying, insurance, taxation, and home budgeting, but not on algebra, geometry, or trigonometry.
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    Civil Rights Movement

    Through non-violent protest, the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 60s broke the pattern of public facilities being segregated by race in the South and achieved the most important breakthrough in equal rights legislation since the reconstruction period.
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    Teaching as a black box

    Teaching was seen as a black box. Teacher traits were studied and outcomes demonstrated, but education did not examine what occurred in the classroom
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    Process Product Paradigm Emergence

    A pluralistic worldview that focused on student and teacher behaviors in the classroom. This resulted in a quantification of classroom data. The belief was that if you have a process that you apply with fidelity you will get the same product. The problem that emerged, this does not take CONTEXT into account.
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    Interpretive Models

    Emerged from the Process - Product period when people began to ask questions about what is going on within the classroom. What is happening vs. what was already occurring? People began looking for causal linkages such as: Race, culture, gender, class, identity
    Qualitative studies of the interpretive paradigm described and got at those types of particulars. The problem with this model was its GENERALIZABILITY
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    The Standards Era

    With the emergence of the Nation At Risk, Standards based education became a central focus.
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    Science for All Americans Project 2061

    Became the roadmap for systemic science education reform both at state and national levels , with a focus on "Less is more."
    Resulted in the development of the National Science Education Standards in 1996 by the National Research Council and ultimately the NGSS of 2014.
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    Researchers like Margaret Eishenhart began to focus on student - teacher interactions, specifically looking at how the construction of knowledge related to the larger social picture. Others like Geertz thought that culture needed to be further examined in order to create agency. Robert Floden and others began to examine the effects of teaching to search for causality - the causal connections between teaching and learning, including classrooms.