he Battle of ChaeroneaThe battle of Chaeronea was against Macedonia lead by Philip II and Greek city-state alliances lead by Athens and Thebes. It was fought near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia. The battle was fought in 338 BCE. Philip II wanted to conquer Greece and since Greece was weakened after the Peloponnesian War. The battle of Chaeronea was significant because it was the first time Greece had been conquered. It also lead Greece into the Hellenistic era.
The Peloponnesian LeagueSparta, a Greek city-state, created the Peloponnesian League to counter the Delian League. The Peloponnesian League was an alliance of Greek city-states that did not agree with the Delian League. It was created around the time of the Peloponnesian War but was not official until 6th Century BCE. The Peloponnesian League is significant because without it the Delian League would have gained even more power and could have hurt Greece. It also was a cause of the Peloponnesian War.
Period:-499 BCEto-449 BCE
The Persian WarsThe Persian Empire tried to conquer Greece 3 times. They wanted revenge because Athenians helped a colony rebel. First, the Greeks won the Battle of Marathon(490 BCE), and Pheidippides ran 26 miles to tell Athens “we won”. At the Battle of Thermopylae(480 BCE) the Persians outnumbered the Greeks and won. Lastly at the Battle of Salamis(480 BCE) the Greeks sank ⅓ of the Persian ships. The war was significant because it liberated Greece, then Athens became powerful, and the Delian League emerged.
Period:-479 BCEto-431 BCE
The Golden AgeThe Golden Age of Athens was when Greece built great monuments, art, theatre, sculptures, philosophy, architecture and literature. It occurred between the Persian Wars and the Peloponnesian war (479-431 BCE). Many famous products came out of this period including; three types of columns, classical art which portrayed ideal beauty, and two different types of theatre; tragedies and comedies.The significance to The Golden Age were the creations that became the building blocks of our civilization.
Period:-478 BCEto-404 BCE
The Delian LeagueAthens created the Delian League (478- 404 BCE) which was an alliance between Greek City-States. The leader of the Delian League was Athens. They created this League so Greece had a common defense against the Persian Empire and their conquering threats. The Delian was significant because it was one of the leading causes to the Peloponnesian War and gave a lot of power and wealth to Athens.
Period:-431 BCEto-404 BCE
The Peloponnesian WarAthens, the Delian League leader became too powerful. Since Greece won the Persian Wars and there were no threats, some city-states wanted to leave due to harsh fees. As a result Athens conquered and enslaved them. Sparta created the Peloponnesian League and war began(431–404 BCE). Athens moved the citizens behind the city's walls for protection, causing a plague, killing 1/3rd of the people. Sparta won, but both cities were weakened. This is significant because it led to Greece being conquered.
Period:-424 BCEto-411 BCE
ThucydidesOne of the greatest historians of all time was a man from Athens, Thucydides (424- 411 BCE). He wrote a very important primary source about the Peloponnesian Wars, called the “History of the Peloponnesian War”. We thank him for this book because it told accurate fact-based analysis about the time period and the war. His writing was very helpful and important because it gave us a lot of very valuable knowledge on the Peloponnesian War that we might not of known.
Period:-323 BCEto-31 BCE
HellenismAlexander the Great's empire had a diverse base of knowledge because it included the Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian empires. The combinations of these ideas created a new culture, Hellenism (323-31 BCE). Alexandria, Egypt was the most important city for the Hellenistic culture; mathematicians, scientists, and philosophers studied there because of the great knowledge it had. Art was also big in Hellenistic culture. They believed in realism, where the art looked natural and less “perfect”.