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Grand Coulee Dam, Then and Now, A History, A Timeline

Timeline created by ivanjay99 in History
Event Date: Event Title: Event Description:
015 l small square An extreme dry spell in the fall of 1929 led depleted reservoirs to produce only 1/10th of the hydroelectric power needed to supply Seattle and Tacoma. An extreme dry spell in the fall of 1929 led depleted reservoirs to produce only 1/10th of the hydroelectric power needed to supply Seattle and Tacoma. Just two weeks after Wall Street’s Black Monday, Tacoma leaders wrote in a telegrammed plea for assistance “supply insufficient STOP We cannot hold out another week without shutting off inductors which will give great loss in employment and consequent suffering to entire community.” The US Navy agreed to allow the steam power plants on the USS Lexington to be used to supply power to the City of Tacoma. A close-up of the cables that allowed power to be transferred from the Lexington to the Tacoma city power grid. Commandant’s Office Correspondence Files, 1925-1940; 13th Naval District; Records of Naval Districts and Shore Establishments (RG 181)
015 l small square Bonneville Dam was the first of a series of dams built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers along the Columbia River in response to the Corps’ 1932 “308 Report”. Designed to replace a canal and locks that had been in place since 1896, the dam was intended Bonneville Dam was the first of a series of dams built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers along the Columbia River in response to the Corps’ 1932 “308 Report”. Designed to replace a canal and locks that had been in place since 1896, the dam was intended to serve shipping up the river, control flooding, and provide electric power. Construction began in 1933, and the jobs provided helped to lessen the impact of the Great Depression in the area. Although fish ladders were included in the construction plan, it has become clear that, as far a salmon were concerned, this system could not replace the free flowing river. This aerial view was reproduced from a glass slide. (ca. 1941)
Coulee cranes small square Beginning of Construction The Great Depression In Washington StateGovernor Clarance T. Martin and Senator C. Dill marked the beginning of construction of Dam.
Frank banks small square Frank A. Banks Appointed CONSTRUCTING GRAND COULEE DAMFrank A. Banks was appointed Construction Engineer of Grand Coulee Dam.
Getimage%20(1) small square Bids Were Opened ... Bids were opened in Spokane, Washington for the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its two powerplants. Two bids were submitted: MWAK Company for $29,339k,301.50, and Six Companies for $34,555,582.00.
Coulee cranes small square Bids are opened for first phase of construction of the Grand Coulee Dam on June 18, 1934. On June 18, 1934, bids are opened in Spokane for the first phase of construction of Grand Coulee Dam, the centerpiece in a massive project to irrigate the desert in Central Washington with water from the Columbia River. The bid opening was the culmination of a 16-year campaign to replicate in concrete an ice dam that had blocked the Columbia in prehistoric times. Proponents believed the dam would harness “energy that today is wasting itself away day by day” (Wenatchee Daily World, 1918).
Grand coulee dam construction small square Design change On August 4, 1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt visited the construction site and was impressed by the project and its purpose. He gave a speech to workers and spectators, closing with this statement: "I leave here today with the feeling that this work is well undertaken; that we are going ahead with a useful project, and we are going to see it through for the benefit of our country." Soon after his visit, Reclamation was allowed to proceed with the high dam plan but faced the problems of transitioning the design and negotiating an altered contract with MWAK. In , for an additional , MWAK and Six Companies, Inc. agreed to join together as Consolidated Builders Inc. and construct the high dam. Six Companies had just finished the Hoover Dam and was nearing completion of Parker Dam. The new design, chosen and approved by the Reclamation office in Denver, included several improvements, one of which was the irrigation pumping plant.
P01460 small square M.W.A.K. was notified to proceed with construction of the dam. M.W.A.K. was notified to proceed with construction of the dam.
Getimage small square Worker at Coulee crushed to death. - B. M. Layport, 38, an oiler for the MWAK Company here, was killed last night when his clothing became entangled in the rollers of the big conveyor belt, crushing h Worker at Coulee crushed to death. - B. M. Layport, 38, an oiler for the MWAK Company here, was killed last night when his clothing became entangled in the rollers of the big conveyor belt, crushing hGrand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-01-22
Getimage small square State history. Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-01-22 Worker killed at Coulee dam. - When his body was caught between rollers and belt of the Coulee dam conveyor system, B. M. Layport, 38, formerly of Spokane, was killed instantly last night.
Getimage small square State history. Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-01-25 Can't understand how he is alive. - How Marvin Palenuk, 25, of Bremerton, a pile-driver man for the MWAK, escaped with his life after being hit with a 120-foot crane boom, was still the great source o
Getimage small square Torches used to free injured man under huge boom. - How Marvin Palenuk, 25, of Bremerton, a piledriver man for the MWAK, escaped with his life after being hit with a 120-foot crane boom, was still the Torches used to free injured man under huge boom. - How Marvin Palenuk, 25, of Bremerton, a piledriver man for the MWAK, escaped with his life after being hit with a 120-foot crane boom, was still the
Getimage small square State history. Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-01-26 Torches free injured man. - Struck by a falling 120-foot steel boom on one of the big stiff-leg cranes, Marvin Palenuk, 25, was taken to the MWAK hospital yesterday, both arms and one leg broken.P
Getimage small square State history. Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-02-12 Coulee worker killed in accident. - W. R. Burke, 36, Wenatchee, welder's helper, was killed instantly today when the bottom plate of a pile driver used in the coffer dam construction broke loose, drop
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-02-19 Fourth man killed on a Coulee dam job. - Louis Belley, 35, of Synarep, in Okanogan county, was killed instantly yesterday afternoon in the cofferdam area on the west bank of the river, when a load ofFourth man killed on a Coulee dam job. - Louis Belley, 35, of Synarep, in Okanogan county, was killed instantly yesterday afternoon in the cofferdam area on the west bank of the river, when a load of
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-03-25 Crushed under big beam. - Investigation discloses how Ridgway met his death. - An investigation into the death last night of Nelson P. Ridgway, 55, Tacoma, disclosed that Ridgway was lying between two
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-06-12 Tractor crushes Coulee worker. - John Huntsberger, 21, a laborer, died this morning from internal injuries suffered last night when a huge tractor backed over him while he was working on the conveyor
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-06-16 At the Grand Coulee damn site workmen stripping top soil from the gravel pit wear respirators to protect their lungs against an otherwise eventual and inevitable deadly burden of dust.But there s
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-07-06 Rock endangers federal workers. - Traveling more than 200 yards, a 10-pound rock, blasted loose from the west side rock abutment, crashed through the awning on the Bureau of Reclamation field office.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-09-25 Neck is broken, walks to help. - Dexter B. Flecther, 54, is the local "iron man". - Working as a laborer near the cofferdam last night, Fletcher was struck on the neck by a huge piece of clay. Slightl
Getimage%20(3) small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-09-26 Sew ear back on after Coulee mishap. - George Williams, 42, Seattle, lost an ear while at work, but he was "wearing" it again today. - Williams, a workman on the Grand Coulee dam, was working on the c
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-09-26 Two are hurt at Coulee dam. - Victim of an almost similar accident which Tuesday sent Carl Olson, about 50, to the Sacred Heart hospital in Spokane, Ernest Nichols of Osborne yesterday was struck a g
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-09-27 Sew ear back on after Coulee mishap. - George Williams, 42, Seattle, lost an ear while at work, but he was "wearing" it again today. Williams, a workman on the Grand Coulee dam, was working on th
.jpg small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-10-16 251 hurt in month at Coulee. - Two hundred and fifty-one employees of the Mason-Walsh-Atkinson-Kier Company were injured during September, a report of the company revealed today.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-11-06 Skull broken by cable gear. - Cecil Perry, laborer, Seattle, suffered a fractured skull when he was struck by a cable shackle as he worked on the concrete mixing plant today.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-11-23 Dangerous rock jumps road. - MWAK officials were up in arms today after a large rock fell from above the highway grade, down to the area near the concrete plant where a score of men were working.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-11-25 MWAK worker may lose his life. - Fractured skull might cause death of Carl J. Johnson. - Carl J. Johnson, 22-year old MWAK workman, is in critical condition in Mason City hospital today with a fractur
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-12-22 Jackhammer man hurt. - Harold T. Davis, jackhammer man for MWAK, suffered a severe cut on his face and a possibly fractured jaw-bone, when he was struck by fragments of a rock this morning.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1935-12-27 Two men injured by falling clay. - Earl A. Remington, 27, Wenatchee, and George A. Hunter, 40, Kirkland, are in Mason City hospital in a serious condition as a result of an accident in the east shore
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-02-27 Air tank rolls amuck. - A compressed-air tank broke loose, rolled down a 1000-foot slope and threatened the lives of several workmen before it reached bottom and stopped.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-02-25 25th fatality on dam record. - The Grand Coulee dam's 25th fatality, Gerald Coble, 32, San Francisco, was killed as he worked today.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-03-04 Pier snapped by huge floe. - A huge ice floe, traveling alone, snapped one timber pier of the excavation conveyor trestle bridge at the Grand Coulee dam workings today.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-03-07 Air tank "A. W. O. L.". - As working men were unloading a compressed air tank last Wednesday above the west side pit it broke away from them, rolled down a steep 1000-foot slope, threatening the lives
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-03-13 Ice crushed trestle. - A huge ice floe, about 50 feet square and 25 to 30 feet thick, crashed one of the pile-piers of the MWAK conveyor trestle bridge last Tuesday, wrecking it and damaging the bridg
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-04-04 1 killed, 1 hurt at Coulee dam. - Tom Halvorsen, 29, a timber framer on the Grand Coulee dam project, was killed late today when the boom of a crane snapped while lifting timbers near the west cofferd
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-04-06 Coulee claims 20th workman. - One man was dead today and another in critical condition in the hospital as a result of an accident behind the west cofferdam late yesterday.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-03-07 Coulee worker dies of injuries. - James Rayburn, twenty-one. of Asotin, MWAK workman on the Grand Coulee dam, died in Mason City Hospital late last night of injuries suffered while at work Sunday. His
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-04-16 Injured Asotin youth dies in MWAK hospital. - James Rayburn, 21, MWAK laborer, died last night from injuries received Sunday night when a concrete bucket struck him on the head fracturing his skull. H
Getimage small square State history. Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-17 Man with broken neck freed from hospital. - The man who started physicians here when he walked into the Mason City hospital six months ago and announced his neck was broken, was pronounced well today.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-22 Workman battered in Coulee mishap. - George Thallheimer of Mason City suffered a broken jaw bone, lost a number of teeth and had his mouth torn half way to one ear in an accident on the MWAK operation
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-23 Face badly mangled by electric shovel. - With his jaw broken, several teeth gone and his cheek torn, George Thallheimer, MWAK company workman, was in the Mason City hospital today. Company officials r36-05-23
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-29 Recovers from broken neck. - D. B. Fletcher, a laborer at the dam who startled doctors here about six months ago when he walked into Mason City hospital and announced his neck was broken, has been dis
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-29 Two Coulee workers injured by bucket. - Two men were dangerously injured when a four-yard bucket of concrete dropped 20 feet from the suspending hammer-head crane, sideswiping the men.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-05-29 Recovers from broken neck. - D. B. Fletcher, a laborer at the dam who startled doctors here about six months ago when he walked into Mason City hospital and announced his neck was broken, has been dis
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-12 Three dam workmen hurt as bucket falls. - Three Grand Coulee dam workmen were injured today when a loaded concrete bucket dropped on them in the west side pouring operations.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-13 Two Coulee workers injured by bucket. - Two men were dangerously injured when a four-yard bucket of concrete dropped 20 feet from the suspending hammer-head crane, sideswiping the men.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-17 Two Coulee workers injured by bucket. - Two men were dangerously injured when a four-yard bucket of concrete dropped 20 feet from the suspending hammer-head crane, sideswiping the men.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-17 Injured workers making recovery. - Don McDonald, of Bellingham, MWAK workman, who was hit and partially buried by a falling full four-yard bucket, is out of danger of losing one of his legs, the hospi
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-17 Injured by loaded concrete bucket. - Three workmen at Grand Coulee dam were injured Wednesday, last week, when a loaded concrete bucket dropped on them in the west side pouring operations.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-17 Leg of injured man saved by doctors. - Don McDonald of Bellingham MWAK workman who was hit and partially buried in the soft concrete last week, will not lose a leg, Mason City hospital doctors said.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-19 Injured by loaded concrete bucket. - Three workmen at Grand Coulee dam were injured Wednesday, last week, when a loaded concrete bucket dropped on them in the west side pouring operations.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-06-26 To save McDonald's leg. - Don McDonald of Bellingham, Grand Coulee dam worker who was injured by a falling concrete bucket two weeks ago, will not have to have his leg amputated, surgeons at Mason Cit
P01460 small square One million cubic yards of concrete had been placed. Grand Coulee Dam is one of the largest concrete structures in the world. This barricade, which raises the water surface 380 feet above the old riverbed, is 5,223 feet long, 550 feet high, and contains about 12 million cubic yards of concrete. The original dam was modified for the Third Powerplant by construction of a 1,170-foot-long, 201-foot-high forebay dam along the right abutment approximately parallel to the river and at an angle of 64 degrees to the axis of Grand Coulee Dam. The total length of the main dam, forebay dam, and wing dam is 5,223 feet. The spillway of the dam is controlled by 11 drum gates, each 135 feet long, and is capable of spilling 1 million cubic feet of water per second with Lake Roosevelt at fullpool (1290.0 feet above sea level). The dam also contains forty 102- inch-diameter outlet tubes. Within the dam are 8.5 miles of inspection galleries and 2.5 miles of shafts.Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake, the reservoir behind the dam, extends 151 miles northeast to the Canadian border and up the Spokane River, a tributary of the Columbia, to within 37 miles of Spokane. The total storage capacity of the reservoir is about 9.4 million acre-feet, and the active capacity is about 5.2 million acre-feet. The average discharge at Grand Coulee over a period of years is approximately 109,000 cubic feet per second. On June 12, 1948, during an historic Columbia River flood period, the maximum discharge (turbine and spill) recorded was 637,800 cubic feet per second. The annual volume inflow has varied from a minimum of 48.5 million acre-feet to a maximum of 111.8 million acre-feet. The average annual inflow to Lake Roosevelt is 99.3 million acre-feet. The April through July inflow accounts for 65 to 70 percent of the total annual inflow volume.
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-08-18 Big form falls on Coulee man, snuffs out life. - Warren W. Pickle, 20, MWAK foreman, was killed Monday night when struck by a heavy panel of concrete form being loaded on a truck. A cable broke, dropp
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-09-17 25th fatality on dam record. - The Grand Coulee dam's 25th fatality, Gerald Coble, 32, San Francisco, was killed as he worked today.The death was not witnessed but presumably the heavy steel buck
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1936-10-13 Coulee dam death list 26. - The fatality list for more than two years' construction work at Grand Coulee Dam stood at twenty-six today. Thomas Lewis Cosi, 37 years old, formerly of Omak, died yesterda
Getimage%20(1) small square State history. Grand Coulee Dam. Construction. Employment & wages. 1936-10-30 State history. Grand Coulee Dam. Construction. Employment & wages. 1936-10-30
Bpa%201937 small square The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was created in 1937 to market and deliver to homes and businesses the hydroelectric power generated by Bonneville Dam and, later, Grand Coulee Dam. Currently, BPA has more than 15,000 miles of electrical lines, su The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) was created in 1937 to market and deliver to homes and businesses the hydroelectric power generated by Bonneville Dam and, later, Grand Coulee Dam. Currently, BPA has more than 15,000 miles of electrical lines, such as those shown in this image, and 300 substations in the Pacific Northwest. It controls approximately 75 percent of the transmission lines in the region. As of 2006, BPA still provides about half the electricity used in the region. This image was reproduced from a glass slide. (ca. 1946)
175 fdr coulee lg%20(3) small square President Franklin D. Roosevelt's visit to the Grand Coulee Dam construction site, October 2, 1937. (Image courtesy of the University of Washington Library Digital Collection.) President Franklin D. Roosevelt's visit to the Grand Coulee Dam construction site, October 2, 1937. (Image courtesy of the University of Washington Library Digital Collection.)
Getimage small square Grand Coulee dam. Accidents. General. 1937-02-12 Worker on dam dies of injuries. - Simon E. Hovland, 32, a truck spotter in the Grand Coulee dam excavation area, was fatally injured early today by a chunk of clay that fell on him from a truck.
Hoover dam adams small square Safeguarding Hoover Dam during World War IIBy Christine Pfaff As the Great Depression deepened in the early 1930s, a monumental civil engineering project known as the Boulder Canyon Project captured the nation's attention and stirred its imagination.Coming amid widespread poverty and unemployment, the massive project not only provided jobs to thousands of unemployed men but offered some of the most complex engineering challenges ever tackled. Perhaps as important, it asserted America's ability to overcome extreme adversity with technical ingenuity, physical prowess, and unwavering resolve.The project's goal: Build a huge dam— the largest ever built— across the Colorado River on the Nevada-Arizona border to harness the power and riches of the mighty river. Completed in 1936, Hoover Dam,* through the generation of electricity and the orderly dispersal of its waters, fueled the incredible growth of southern California— its large cities, its industrial base, its massive agricultural industry— and created Lake Mead, the world's largest man-made reservoir.The construction saga and tremendous impact of Hoover Dam have been chronicled countless times over the past seventy years. Few people are aware, however, of the measures taken during World War II to maintain the dam's safety and very existence.Tucked among the myriad official government documents housed in the National Archives and Records Administration are a series of plain brown files marked "confidential." They reveal the as-yet-untold and riveting story of the government's efforts during World War II to thwart potential sabotage of one of the nation's most strategic and vulnerable targets— Hoover Dam.At stake was the electrical power it was providing to southern California, home of some of the nation's biggest defense plants, where planes and tanks and other armaments would be built on a round-the-clock basis once America's mighty industrial machine went to war.The concrete in Hoover Dam had barely set when the first uneasy rumblings of a potential war in Europe were felt abroad, but it all seemed far removed from the remote Nevada desert where the world's highest dam had risen from the depths of Black Canyon to straddle the mighty Colorado River.President Herbert C. Hoover, himself an engineer, approved funding for construction of the dam in 1930. The multipurpose structure would store irrigation water, provide flood control, and generate power to fuel the fast-paced growth of southern California. In designing and building the dam, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation engineers were tasked with some of the most difficult engineering challenges ever faced. When the last bucket of concrete was placed in the dam on May 29, 1935, the staggering 660-foot thick base almost equaled its height of 726 feet.Security and law enforcement at the Boulder Dam Project evolved. Aside from the formidable technical and construction challenges, Reclamation was faced with handling safety, security, and law enforcement issues from the outset, since the project was located on lands ceded to the federal government by the state of Nevada. A small ranger force was created, consisting of nine Reclamation employees who were deputized as U.S. Marshals.Early on, concerns centered on policing the Boulder City Reservation, home to the thousands of workers on the project. But after the dam opened, Reclamation's safety and security concerns shifted to the dam and powerhouse, where throngs of eager visitors were guided past gleaming turbines and generators. Reclamation, not in the business of catering to tourists, teamed up with the National Park Service, which took charge of developing the newly created Lake Mead for recreational purposes, leaving Reclamation in charge of tourist facilities at the dam and powerhouse.Protecting Hoover Dam against human as well as natural-caused damage was soon to become a critical issue— and a contentious one at that.As Hitler's violent aggression accelerated in Europe and the Japanese army marched against its neighbors across the Pacific, Reclamation, and even the public, became more sensitive to possible enemy threats to the dam. Many visitors expressed concern about sabotage and wondered what precautions were being taken to prevent it. By 1939, reverberations from the escalating war directly reached remote Hoover Dam.The possible effects on the dam of an emergency situation in the United States were described in a letter dated August 30, 1939, from Reclamation's acting commissioner, Harry W. Bashore, to Solicitor of the Department of the Interior Nathan Margold."It might be necessary to close Boulder Power Plant to the public, and to arrange for special policing of other structures and plants to provide protection from possible saboteurs," Bashore wrote. "At the outset, however, probably an additional watchfulness on the part of our own personnel would be sufficient."The advice was timely. In early October, a ranger observed a German man accompanied by a woman taking large numbers of photographs in the vicinity of the dam. The ranger overheard the man severely reprimanding the woman for spoiling some of the pictures and said that it would necessitate retaking them. The ranger watched for the couple's return without results.Heightened tensions across the country prompted Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes to contact the War Department regarding the advisability of releasing certain printed materials to the public. Secretary of War Harry H. Woodring told Ickes that detailed plans and specifications of large dam structures should be restricted and under no condition be furnished to foreign governments. He also recommended increased security precautions at the federal dams themselves.The War Department believed that personnel working at the dams were the greatest danger and should be carefully scrutinized. Visitors were also potential threats and should not be allowed to carry suitcases, parcels, etc. into the dams.In response to Woodring's letter, Ickes wrote that the distribution of detailed plans and specifications would be restricted as requested. Regarding the suggested investigation of all employees to ensure their reliability and loyalty, he said the department had no funds appropriated for such work. Lastly, Ickes reflected that it would be advisable to apply the army's regulations governing tours of its installations to all federal facilities.Within a few weeks, another report of possible sabotage to Hoover Dam instantly raised security concerns to new levels. On the evening of November 30, 1939, the State Department received word from the U.S. embassy in Mexico of an alleged plot to bomb the intake towers at the dam. German agents discovered in Mexico City were planning the attack in order to paralyze the aviation manufacturing industry located in Los Angeles. This would be accomplished by cutting off power transmission over the dam's high-voltage lines. Two German agents living in Las Vegas, one of them an explosives expert, had reportedly made a dozen trips to the dam to investigate the feasibility of the plan. They intended to attach bombs to the intake towers from a boat, which they would rent under the pretense of a fishing excursion.The State Department immediately contacted Reclamation Commissioner John Page and advised that all navigation on Lake Mead, particularly in the vicinity of the dam, be suspended without delay. Page was told to keep all information regarding the plot highly confidential so as not to reach the public or the press. Reclamation instantly banned all private boats from Black Canyon. Within a few days, the agency announced further restrictions upon employees of and visitors to the dam. Employees would not be allowed to enter the dam except when on duty without special permission and would not be allowed to take anyone else into the dam without specific authorization. To enhance security, Reclamation increased its ranger force by several men, and the National Park Service increased its patrol activities on Lake Mead.The new restrictions led to all sorts of speculation and rumors among employees, the public, and of course, the press. On December 7, 1939, A. E. Cahlan, a columnist for the Las Vegas Evening Review, described some of the rumors circulating, including that of a large net stretched across the lake just above the dam to catch any explosives. The writer reported that Reclamation denied all suggestions of a plot to sabotage the dam and insisted that the extra precautions were merely a response to the uncertain times.Cahlan also shared with his readers a conversation that he had had with Frank Crowe, general superintendent of Six Companies, Inc., the builders of Hoover Dam, when the dam was nearing completion. He had asked the construction supervisor about the possibility of an attack on the dam. Crowe replied: "It can't be done. It's too massive a structure, too well built. Aerial bombs might knock off a few chips of concrete but could not materially damage the structure. And besides, the air currents, and general terrain are such that planes could hardly get close enough to make a direct hit."However, the threats were taken seriously by Reclamation. The day after he received news of the possible sabotage plot, Page consulted with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in regard to the organization and adequacy of Reclamation's police force assigned to protecting the dam and powerhouse. On December 9, 1939, he requested that the FBI send staff to the dam to assess the security in place and make recommendations for improving it.Other precautionary measures were instituted at the dam. Floodlights were installed to illuminate the channel above the intake towers. The rumored wire net was hung from a cable across the lake, making it impossible for boats to get within three hundred feet of the intake towers. All of this was done with the greatest care to minimize disturbance to the visitors.Other suspicious activities at the dam in late December further pointed to possible espionage. One evening, a National Park Service patrol boat was fired on by a rifle from the steep canyon wall. The bullet ricocheted on the water and luckily missed its target. Another night, a car was spotted hastily driving away from the switchyard, which was clearly posted as a no-trespassing zone. These and several similar incidents heightened awareness and precautions even more.In early January 1940, J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, reported to Page on the results of its survey at Hoover Dam. The report addressed physical security deficiencies as well as an assessment of the employees. Among the latter, no subversive activity was noted, and their loyalty was deemed "favorable." The FBI study concluded with thirty-eight recommendations, including increased security patrols at the dam and its vicinity; securely locking off specific areas of the dam; regular inspections for foreign materials that may have been deposited in key locations; and closer scrutiny of individuals, tour groups, packages, and vehicles entering and leaving the dam. The FBI also suggested that heavy metal gates be installed to create manned inspection stations in the roadways leading to the dam from Boulder City on the Nevada side and from Kingman on the Arizona side. Lastly, the FBI proposed that it be invited to conduct a security training school for the rangers and other appropriate personnel. Some of the recommended actions had already been implemented; others were considered good ideas by Reclamation; and a few were questioned as to their practicability.Rumors of sabotage continued to fly in the media, prompting an official press release from John Page on January 9, 1940, in which he stated, "Boulder Dam is perfectly safe. There has been no 'plot' unearthed. Reports that the Bureau of Reclamation is fearful that someone will dynamite the dam are ridiculous. All rumors and reports that visitors are no longer welcome at Boulder Dam are entirely erroneous."Although Reclamation continued to deny to the outside world any concerns about the safety of the dam, within the government it was an entirely different matter. On January 15, 1940, a resolution was submitted to the House of Representatives (H. Res. 356) directing the secretary of state to respond to numerous specific questions regarding the "conspiracy" to bomb Hoover Dam. The resolution was referred to the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, which recommended against passage due to security concerns. Instead, the Department of State furnished the House with information that was "consistent with the public interest."In February 1940, the possible plot to sabotage Hoover Dam resurfaced with more frightening news. The War Department forwarded strictly confidential information to Reclamation that "Life and death orders have been given by Berlin to put L.A. in the black. Two large steam electric stations, one at Long Beach and one at some point below there, are going to be blasted. Last week German sabotage experts departed from Habana, Cuba, going through Miami. They are now residing in Long Beach. Unless quick action is taken, some terminal transformer station somewhere near Boulder Dam and another station in Los Angeles are doomed also to be sabotaged."Discussions intensified within Reclamation to increase security measures at the dam, powerhouse, and Nevada switchyards. Additional gates, barriers, and doors were ordered at various strategic locations, and a scheme was developed to install heavy wire fencing on the surrounding cliffs. In mid-June, the FBI conducted its security training at Hoover Dam for 149 men. The lead trainer, M. E. Gurnea, conjectured that attempts to damage Hoover Dam would occur by stealth and not by force, except in a getaway in the event of discovery. Protective measures should be implemented based on that premise. Gurnea cautioned that the situation would change should the United States enter into the war, at which point additional security in the form of a military guard would be advisable. Gurnea suggested increasing the numbers of rangers patrolling the dam, powerhouse, and switchyard.Despite all the precautionary measures instituted by Reclamation, the Department of the Interior was apprehensive that the potential dangers were beyond its ability to handle. On June 19, 1940, acting Interior Secretary E. K. Burlew wrote to the secretary of war asking that the military furnish armed guards to patrol and protect the project features. The response received from newly appointed Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson was not favorable. On July 18, he wrote: "In the event of a threat of sabotage on a scale that could not be met by the local guards, the Commanding General, 9th Corps Area, has authority to act without reference to the War Department. But no such threat is known to exist now. It would be uneconomical and unsound to dissipate our military strength using troops, which should be training for combat, to perform duties which can be performed efficiently by civilian guards and watchmen."Reclamation then inquired if the War Department would at least be willing to substantially increase the small arms and ammunition for the rangers assigned to guard against sabotage. This request was also denied on the basis that all stocks of government arms and ammunition would be needed to meet the needs of the army. However, the Interior Department obtained clearance to purchase the equipment commercially. Congress also recognized the gravity of the situation, and on May 29, 1940, Senator Patrick McCarran of Nevada introduced a bill (S. 4066) to establish a fortified military post on federal land at or near Boulder Dam to provide adequate protection for the structure against injury or destruction.Subsequent purported sabotage incidents in early July 1940 provoked further anxiety of a possible attack on Hoover and the need for increased vigilance. A Reclamation warehouse at Parker Dam was burned down, and in the ruins, fragments of an "infernal machine" were discovered. At the World's Fair grounds in New York an "infernal machine" hidden in a suitcase exploded, killing two detectives.That summer, two fascinating proposals for protecting the strategic dam were submitted to Reclamation. No longer focused just on small sabotage attempts, both plans addressed direct bomb attacks, reflecting heightened fears. The first came from J. P. Durbin, a concerned resident of California, who had visited the dam frequently during construction and thereafter. Durbin suggested construction of a steel and concrete canopy arched over the narrow canyon to cover the dam facility. Rock and gravel added to the canopy would provide further resistance to damage from bomb attacks.The second proposal was voluntarily submitted to the secretary of the interior by Oskar J.W. Hansen, the Norwegian-born sculptor who had recently completed the now famous pair of huge bronze winged figures at the dam. Hansen conjectured that Hoover Dam would be an easy aerial target for a determined enemy to find and destroy. He further speculated that Hoover Dam would be a first objective and would be prone to attack prior to a declared state of hostilities.He proposed anchoring steel cables into the canyon walls to form a protective grid over the vital parts of the project. These cables would be installed in a staggered formation so they would not all be in the same horizontal plane. The upper cables, which would suffer any initial impact, would have tough armor-plated "shields." Deflected bombs would tumble downward against each successive cable grid and detonate before ever hitting the dam.Hansen sent his proposal to Ickes on July 14, 1940, and asked for a meeting with him to discuss the plan and present sketches and drawings. On September 12, 1940, Hansen got a letter from Page asking for the sketches and drawings as soon as possible.By then a number of incidents had upset Hansen, and he responded in a long letter to Page that he had destroyed the sketches. Also, Hansen had traveled to Washington at his own expense in hopes of meeting with Ickes and was "put off" for three days, then told that Ickes was too busy to see him and was not interested in matters of national defense.Acting Reclamation Commissioner Bashore then sent a telegram to Hansen, urgently requesting the sketches. This time the response from the artist was much terser. He wrote on September 22, 1940: "You folks have some nerve to wire me for my time and efforts" when he was still awaiting a final payment of five hundred dollars from Reclamation. At the end of October 1940, reference is made to awaiting Hansen's recommendations in a letter from Stimson to Ickes. No final report from Hansen was found among the Archives records, and his concept never went beyond words.Although the War Department had been unwilling to provide armed guards or ammunition to assist in the protection of the dam, it did send an army officer there to assess the adequacy of the security in place. In September 1940, Col. E. A. Stockton, Jr., conducted the review and submitted a report. Although Reclamation had done much to strengthen protection of the dam from sabotage, Stockton recommended additional measures. Commissioner Page, upon reviewing the findings, concurred that extra vigilance at Hoover Dam was mandatory: "As I view it, we have a public trust at Boulder Dam greater than that represented by the ordinary public works. The dam is a symbol as well as a vital factor in the water and power supply of the Southwest." Page felt that due to the dam's special significance, the public had a right to visit it, and everything possible should be done to keep it open. More than half a million people visited the dam each year. Page authorized immediate implementation of most of Stockton's suggestions including augmenting the number of rangers (who by then totaled thirty-six), providing them with more effective arms, completing the protective fencing project, constructing a concrete powder house, and installing gates across the main Arizona and Nevada approaches to the dam. Page recommended further study of Stockton's proposal to install a deep submerged net to protect the intake towers from subsurface bombs or torpedoes.In December 1940 the army announced that it planned to establish a cantonment with a force of some eight hundred men in or near Boulder City. Speculation ran high that the purpose of the post was to provide protection for Hoover Dam. Rumors also flew that the army intended to enforce martial law in the community— news that was not well received by the residents or by the Interior Department. Those fears were put to rest when Stimson informed Ickes in January 1941 that the War Department had no plans whatsoever to establish martial law. A few months later, on April 24, an article appeared in the Washington Post with the headline, "Army to Send 850 to Guard Boulder Dam." In fact, the military had no intention of assuming protection of Hoover Dam and the power plant. The new military police camp at Camp Sibert would be used primarily as a training facility. The War Department made it very clear that the military police would not substitute for Reclamation's ranger service but might be available to assist at times. In July 1941 Reclamation and the U.S. Army approved an agreement whereby the latter would patrol the switchyards adjacent to the dam, the Boulder City water system, and other outlying facilities. The army also offered to provide a convoy service to accompany vehicles across the dam. It was understood that the troops might be called away on very short notice.Safeguarding Hoover Dam, Part 2* Both the names Hoover and Boulder have been used for the dam. In 1930, Interior Secretary Ray Wilbur announced that the dam would be called Hoover Dam, and Congress affirmed the name to honor the then-President of the United States. After Roosevelt took office in 1933, the dam, which was actually built in nearby Black Canyon, was frequently called Boulder Dam or Boulder Canyon Dam allegedly because Roosevelt's Interior Secretary, Harold Ickes, did not like Hoover. Therefore, when quoting documents from the time, Boulder Dam is often used. In April 1947, an act of Congress signed by President Truman officially confirmed the name as Hoover Dam.
67 small square Remains of abandoned house Remains of abandoned house
Timeline small square Executive Order 8526--Coordinating the electrical facilities of Grand Coulee Dam Project and Bonneville Project Executive Order 8526--Coordinating the electrical facilities of Grand Coulee Dam Project and Bonneville ProjectSource: The provisions of Executive Order 8526 of Aug. 26, 1940, appear at 5 FR 3390, 3 CFR, 1938-1943 Comp., p. 704, unless otherwise noted.WHEREAS the Bureau of Reclamation is constructing the Grand Coulee Dam Project pursuant to authority delegated under section 2 of the act of August 30, 1935, 49 Stat. 1028, 1039, and in connection therewith will operate and maintain facilities for the generation of electrical power and energy; andWHEREAS the Bonneville Power Administrator is now disposing of power and energy generated at the Bonneville Project; andWHEREAS integration and coordination of the electrical facilities of the two projects will be facilitated by a mutual exchange of the electrical power and energy generated at the Bonneville Project and the Grand Coulee Dam Project and by marketing the power and energy from both projects through a single agency:NOW, THEREFORE, by virtue of the authority vested in me as President of the United States by section 2 of the act of August 30, 1935, supra, and supplementing my letter of January 29, 1936, to the Secretary of the Interior, it is hereby ordered as follows:1. The Bonneville Power Administrator is hereby designated, under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of Energy, as agent for the sale and distribution of electrical power and energy generated at the Grand Coulee Dam Project and not required for operation of that Project, including its irrigation features.2. The Administrator shall construct, operate, and maintain the transmission lines and substations and appurtenant structures and facilities necessary for marketing the power and energy delivered to him from the Grand Coulee Dam Project; except that the Bureau of Reclamation may construct, operate, or maintain such transmission facilities as the Secretary of the Interior, in his discretion, deems necessary or desirable. The Bureau of Reclamation and the Administrator, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, shall agree upon and schedule the installation of additional generators at the Grand Coulee Dam Project.3. The Bureau of Reclamation, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, shall provide the Administrator with a basic schedule of the power and energy to be available to him from the Grand Coulee Dam Project. The Bureau, with the Secretary of the Interior's approval, may revise the schedule from time to time, except that no revision decreasing the amount of power and energy available under an existing schedule shall be effective unless agreed to by the Administrator. The Bureau will make power and energy from the Grand Coulee Dam Project available to the Administrator in accordance with these schedules.4. The Administrator shall market the power and energy delivered to him from the Grand Coulee Dam Project at rates to be fixed by the Secretary of Energy consistently with all applicable provisions of law and allocations of cost determined as provided thereunder. From time to time the Secretary of Energy, consistently with all applicable provisions of law and allocations of cost made pursuant thereto, shall determine the basis on which the Administrator and the Bureau shall compute the returns to be made to the Bureau for power and energy delivered to the Administrator from the Grand Coulee Dam Project pursuant to this order. All receipts collected by the Administrator from transmission and sale of power and energy shall be deposited with the Treasurer of the United States for credit to a special account, subject to allocation by the Secretary of Energy in accordance with the computations above provided for. Upon certification by the Secretary of Energy, the amounts of receipts properly allocable to the Bonneville Project shall be covered into the Treasury of the United States to the credit of miscellaneous receipts subject to the provisions of section 2 of the act of August 20, 1937, 50 Stat. 731, 732. The amounts certified by the Secretary of Energy as being allocable to the Grand Coulee Dam Project shall be covered into the Treasury for credit to the Reclamation Fund to the extent authorized by law.5. In aid of this delegation of authority to the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Energy, the Commissioner of the Bureau of Reclamation and the Bonneville Power Administrator shall, subject to the approval of the Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Energy, and the terms of this order, enter into any and all agreements that are necessary for the interconnection of the Bonneville Project and the Grand Coulee Dam Project and to carry out the provisions of this order.[EO 8526 amended by EO 12038 of Feb. 3, 1978, 43 FR 4957, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 136]
Hoover dam small square Safeguarding Hoover Dam during World War II, Part 2By Christine Pfaff Upon instructions from the President, in February 1941, the Federal Power Commission prepared a secret memorandum outlining measures to be taken to protect the U.S. power supply against hostile acts. The memo also recognized that because of the unlimited number of methods that could be used to sabotage equipment, and the varying circumstances at different power plants, it would be impossible to cover the problems of sabotage and air-raid protection in an exhaustive manner.Following this broad evaluation of security concerns, the Federal Power Commission conducted intensive surveys at major power facilities. In May 1941 the agency completed its assessment of protective measures at Hoover Dam power plant. While the inspecting engineer found the plant "reasonably well protected" by lighting, fencing, a guard force of sixty men, and the natural topography of the deep canyon, he made nineteen recommendations for improving security. The first two were to prohibit visitors from entering the plant and automobiles from parking on the dam or roadway above the power plant. Other suggestions addressed increased lighting, fencing, alarm systems, and other barriers. The final recommendation was to install fog nozzles at various places around the dam, a measure that would later receive substantial scrutiny by Reclamation. Over the next three years, the Federal Power Commission conducted six supplemental reviews of security at Hoover Dam.On September 17, 1941, the secretary of the interior approved "Regulations Governing the Protection of Structures" on Reclamation projects in operation or under construction. Different levels of protection were specified depending on the national, state, or local significance of the facility. Hoover Dam fell under the definition of a Class I structure "of paramount importance to and irreplaceable in operations of national defense by reason of major power supply." The highest level of protection was reserved for these facilities and consisted of "adequate and complete protection of all vulnerable features at all times by a sufficient number of armed guards."Despite the escalating war and the ever-increasing possibility of direct U.S. involvement, visitors continued to be allowed to tour Hoover dam and power plant, although under tighter restrictions.The bombing of Pearl Harbor changed that immediately. On December 7, 1941, E. A. Moritz, director of power at Hoover Dam, sent a telegram to Page stating that "Effective 5 pm today Boulder power plant has been closed to visitors and flood lights extinguished. All persons and cars will be checked in at boundary gates in Nevada and Arizona and cars convoyed across the dam. Request all unauthorized flying over this area be prohibited." The next day, Page closed the dam to all visitors except those on official business. In a press release, he said, "I regret exceedingly that it has been necessary to close this great public work to the public, but the step obviously now is necessary."Also on December 8, Ickes sent a letter to Stimson requesting army assistance in guarding major facilities of the Department of the Interior, in particular Boulder, Grand Coulee, and Shasta dams. He wrote, "I assume that the present conditions constitute circumstances justifying such action by the Army." The army cooperated and established additional posts in Boulder City, at the switchyards, and at a few other key places in the vicinity of the dam. Reclamation officials felt that the dam was still not safe against air attacks, however, and that antiaircraft guns and fighter planes were essential to protect the facility. Although the army did not share Reclamation's concern about the threat of an aerial bomb attack, Stimson wrote to Ickes on March 14, 1942, that he intended to designate Boulder Dam a prohibited zone that would deny right of entry to within one mile of the dam to enemy aliens and "other classes of persons so designated" by the commanding general of the Western Defense Command and Fourth Army. Stimson did not elaborate on whether he intended the military to enforce this prohibition.Just four months later, Moritz registered a complaint that none other than the military was violating safety precautions. On July 6, 1942, Maj. Gen. George S. Patton, Jr., flew dangerously low over the dam at about five hundred feet. Moritz wrote to Chief Engineer S. O. Harper, "It appears that if the Army feels any responsibility for the safety of the project and for continuity of power service, it should be the first to frown upon such hazardous acts." Moritz noted that the local army officers had always cooperated with Reclamation and also did not condone Patton's behavior. Harper forwarded Moritz's letter to the army, adding his own objection to the incident. The lack of adequate control of air traffic over Hoover Dam continued to be an issue between Reclamation and the military over the next year.As in the past, private citizens wrote letters to Reclamation expressing deep concern for the safety of the dam. Chester Versteeg with Pacific Mutual Life Insurance Company provided the following recommendation just days after the attack on Pearl Harbor: "Because of the real danger of one or more enemy suicide planes loaded with powerful explosives following up the gorge of the Colorado River and striking horizontally against and destroying the Power Plants at Boulder Dam, I urge the immediate construction of a strong chain net or group of wire cables approximately 200 yards below the dam and from the river surface to the height of the dam." The sheriff of Nevada City, California, contacted the FBI to express his opinion that Hoover Dam was not properly guarded. His concerns made it to Ickes. Ickes also received notification from FBI Director Hoover that an informant had reported to him a number of safety breaches at the dam. In response, Ickes sent a team to investigate the alleged conditions.During the summer of 1942, Reclamation continued its own exploration of measures to protect the dam from possible air raids. The previous year it had begun to evaluate, with assistance from the Corps of Engineers, the strength of the powerhouse roof against bomb attacks. In 1942, models of the structure were built at the Aberdeen, Maryland, Proving Ground and then fired at to test the vulnerability of the roof. Other Reclamation investigations focused on the possibilities of protection by camouflage and chemical smoke screens.Learning that the army was conducting its own similar studies at Bonneville Dam in Washington State, Reclamation drafted a letter for Ickes to send to Stimson requesting that the army install and maintain "camouflage, smokescreens, and other protective measures at Boulder, Grand Coulee [Washington] and Parker Dams [straddling Arizona and California]." Reclamation officials were becoming increasingly frustrated by the army's unwillingness to clearly state where the protection of Hoover Dam fit into its plans to defend the West Coast in the event of aerial bombardment. The response from the army at the end of October 1942 helped to clarify its position, although it was disappointing to Reclamation: its three major dams of concern were outside a two-hundred-mile radius of the West Coast and therefore would not receive smoke protection. The army did agree to conduct surveys at the three dams to determine requirements for future possible installations. Months would pass before this was completed.In the meantime, as the war raged on, Reclamation's concern for the vulnerability of its facilities continued to mount, prompting the agency to investigate on its own the use of smoke screens and camouflage. In February 1943, a Reclamation engineer, E. H. Heinemann, attended a demonstration of smoke-generating apparatus at the Norfolk, Virginia, Naval Air Station. Circling above the test area in a small plane, Heinemann observed the artificial fog completely envelop and obscure miles of ground. He concluded that the screen was very effective and could be useful in protecting the power installations at Hoover, Grand Coulee, and Parker. That same month, a fascinating report on the usefulness of camouflage to protect Reclamation structures was submitted by "color consultant" Allen T. True. For a second time, one of the artists engaged in the original design of Hoover Dam became involved in safeguarding it. True, a Colorado painter who specialized in depicting Western and Native American themes, had executed the imaginative Indian designs for the terrazzo floors of the powerhouse and lobby of the elevator towers at the top of the dam.During the summer of 1942, True had attended a camouflage training course conducted by the Corps of Engineers in Virginia. From his experiments at Reclamation's Denver laboratories, True concluded that various degrees of camouflage would be effective but only in combination with a smoke screen. To help conceal the dam from planes overhead, True recommended various treatments including "toning down" the dam and spillways by painting them with bold, simple masses of colors in larger areas and darker tones than would seem acceptable. To create the illusion of water above and below the dam being connected, True suggested installing a thin sheet of water on the horizontal planes such as the roofs of the power plant and on the dam roadway.Probably the most intriguing element was the proposal to build a "dummy" dam downstream from the real one as a decoy. The decoy, three-fourths the size of the real one and made of "garnished wire," would be painted various colors and different textures to simulate the concrete and the rocks of the cliffs. True's decoy study never went beyond a fascinating proposal tucked away in a forgotten file. Finally, in the spring of 1943, the War Department's Office of Chemical Warfare Service conducted its study on the feasibility of employing large-area smoke screens to protect Hoover, Grand Coulee, and Parker dams. Allen True was designated to represent Reclamation in carrying out the investigations. After accompanying a representative of the Chemical Warfare Service to the three dams, True wrote a memo to Chief Engineer Harper saying that he felt the trio of structures were the most attractive in the West to bomb because they supplied more than half of all the electric power used by war industries on the West Coast. Planes were still flying over these plants day and night with little or no controls in place. True recommended that Ickes take the matter of adequate protection directly to Stimson.True's suggestion was taken seriously, and matters came to a head when Ickes sent a letter to Stimson on April 26, 1943. He began with, "what we would still like to obtain, is a statement of policy on the part of the War Department as to what assistance we can expect from the Army in the event of enemy air raids." Ickes' concluding paragraph was blunt: "Because the loss of Boulder, Parker, and Grand Coulee power plants would be a fatal blow to war production on the West Coast, because the Department of the Interior does not have the facilities for their protection from air assault, and because there is a need for the coordination of measures for passive defense, I request that the Army assume the entire responsibility for their protection."It took Stimson more than a month to reply. "The importance of these dams as power installations has been fully recognized by the War Department," he wrote. "The threat at this time is considered to be limited to nuisance or sporadic air raids by light airplanes released from submarines, or at most, medium bombers launched from carriers. . . . To make such attacks an impossibility would require a much greater air force on this continent than can properly be spared from offensive action against the enemy." Stimson wrote that the chances of intercepting Japanese bombers en route from the coast to the dam were excellent. His concluding paragraph was equally as straightforward as that of Ickes, "Under the circumstances I believe that the acceptance of the risk involved is justified and that assumption by the Army of responsibility for passive protection of the dams in question is not necessary."For the remainder of the war, Reclamation was on its own in protecting Hoover Dam.More bad news from the military followed. In early September 1943, Reclamation was notified that the small number of army guards stationed at Hoover Dam and the convoy service that the army provided would be discontinued as the soldiers were being shipped elsewhere. Assistance from the FBI was also not forthcoming. In November 1943, J. Edgar Hoover turned down a request from recently appointed Commissioner Bashore that the FBI conduct another survey of the protective measures at Hoover Dam. Bashore had made the appeal following repeated charges by one of the rangers that security at the dam was inadequate due to a number of reasons, including laxness on the part of the ranger staff. By then, it was indeed becoming difficult to recruit competent men; morale was low, and turnover was high due to the shortage of housing, the high cost of living in Boulder City, and the attraction of higher paying jobs in the defense industry.Dismissed by the FBI, Reclamation turned to U.S. Army Intelligence, which conducted a security survey. The report, prepared in January 1944 by Major Owen of the Continuous Security Branch, Ninth Service Command, concluded that many of the ranger's charges, which he made to an array of politicians, including the President and other top officials, were without merit or exaggerated, while others were justified, either wholly or in part. In a letter to Ickes defending Reclamation's continuous efforts to ensure adequate security at Hoover Dam, Bashore wrote, "While I realize the constant danger of sabotage to a project of the importance and vulnerability of Boulder Dam, it is significant that there has been no incident there."Just when it appeared that security matters had calmed down at Hoover Dam, another alleged sabotage plot surfaced. This time the ostensible conspirators were Japanese and Chinese, operating through two Mexican agents. The news reached the press and on April 17, 1944, headlines in the Boulder City Evening Journal announced "Scheme to Dynamite Boulder Dam Nipped by San Diego Federals Today." The FBI had arrested Andres Sanchez, a Mexican laborer, on charges of attempting to wreck a railroad train in southern California. The newspaper recounted that Sanchez admitted to being involved in a plot to dynamite Hoover Dam. Just days later, the FBI Director Hoover wrote to Ickes to notify him that the sabotage plot had been investigated further and found to be entirely fabricated. The FBI informant confessed that there was no truth at all to the rumor of a plan to blow up Hoover Dam.As the war turned in favor of the Allies, the intense security concerns at Hoover Dam lessened. The fear of sabotage abated, and the investigations into the "loyalty and trustworthiness" of project employees were discontinued. Bashore felt strongly that Reclamation facilities should allow visitors, subject to rules based on "facts, reasonable precautions, logic, equity, and practicability." To Bashore, offering the public a firsthand opportunity to view Reclamation projects was of utmost importance to acquaint them with the agency's purposes and accomplishments.As conditions started to return to normal in 1946, the matter of law enforcement was dealt with in a few paragraphs in the project's annual report. Reclamation's ranger force continued to maintain law and order in Boulder City and the vicinity of the dam. A monthly average of twenty-nine rangers and seven watchmen were on duty, patrolling the city, checking traffic, watching for suspicious characters, and maintaining the peace on Bureau of Reclamation lands.The events of September 11, 2001, rekindled fears of attack on Hoover Dam. Newspaper articles reminiscent of those published during World War II raised the specter of possible sabotage and the need for increased security. Once again, safeguarding one of the country's most well-known and recognized landmarks became a matter of national security.Safeguarding Hoover Dam, Part 1Christine Pfaff is a historian with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation in Denver. She researches and writes about water development and irrigation projects throughout the West. Note on the SourcesInformation for this article was almost entirely drawn from records housed at the National Archives and Records Administration - Rocky Mountain Region, Denver, Colorado. See Record Group 115 (Bureau of Reclamation), Entry 7, general correspondence and project (Colorado River Project) correspondence files for the years 1930 - 1945. Reclamation's monthly journal Reclamation Era also provided material on the sequence of events relating to the establishment of law enforcement provisions at Hoover Dam. Information on the artistic achievements of Oskar Hansen and Allen True at Hoover Dam can be found in Reclamation Era (see January and February 1936 volumes for articles on Allen True) and a brochure entitled "Sculptures at Hoover Dam" published by the Bureau of Reclamation in 1978. Learn more about the history of Hoover Dam and the Bureau of Reclamation at www.usbr.gov.The author wishes to thank the NARA staff in Denver; Roy Wingate, records manager in Reclamation's Denver office; and Emme Woodward, museum specialist, and Karen Cowan, both with the Bureau of Reclamation in Boulder City, Nevada, for all their assistance.Part 2By Christine Pfaff
105 small square J.E. Hilton and his publicity director J.E. Hilton and his publicity director
82 small square James E. Hilton and visiting party James E. Hilton and visiting party
79 small square A.F Dorland at NFFE convention banquet. A.F Dorland at NFFE convention banquet.
Timeline small square WORLD’S MIGHTIEST WATERFALL BEGINS WORKING FOR U.S. Text: WORLD’S MIGHTIEST WATERFALL BEGINS WORKING FOR U.S.Narrator: Grand Coulee Dam, newest monument to American engineering genius, and a mighty weapon in the battle of war production. Today the giant power plants, biggest in the world, begin to hum as for the first time the spillways begin to flow. A waterfall higher than Niagara. A million and a half gallons every second. The Columbia River harnessed to irrigate a million acres of farmland, power to turn the wheels of America’s vast new industrial empire of the west.
131 small square Conference group photo Conference group photo
146 small square Visiting Chinese engineers at Grand Coulee Dam Visiting Chinese engineers at Grand Coulee Dam
Timeline small square The Bureau of Reclamation and the Yangtze River Gorge Amidst the turbulence and instability of World War II, the Chinese Governmentapproached the Bureau of Reclamation for assistance in the damming of theYangtze River. From the beginning of the 20th century, the Chinese believedthat harnessing the Yangtze River would be a catalyst for development of amodern China. While the majority of the world was gripped by war, the Departmentof State, Bureau of Reclamation, and the Chinese Government laid thegroundwork for construction of the largest public works projects in China sincethe Great Wall.The Bureau of Reclamation turned to its great dam builder John Lucian“Jack” Savage to fill the request for a hydroelectric power specialist. Savage wasone of the major designersof the Grand Couleeand Hoover Dams, andthe Tennessee Valley Authority(TVA). The Chinesehad done some preliminaryscouting throughthe National ResourceCommission (NRC). TheNRC’s original missionwas to design and implementdefense-related industriesto make Chinamore self-sufficient. It isprobably a safe assumptionthat they completedthe first engineer’s survey.Savage spent most of 1944 overseas in a multinational tour of Afghanistan,India, and China, with the majority of time in China. Upon his return in late 1944,Savage published a work proposal titled “Yangtze Gorge and Tributary Project.”Savage stated in the preface, “The Yangtze Gorge Project is a ‘CLASSIC.’ It willbe of utmost importance to China. It will bring great industrial developments inCentral and Western China. It will bring widespread employment. It will bringhigh standards of living. It will change China from a weak to a strong nation.The Yangtze Gorge Project should be constructed for the benefit of China andthe world at large.”On June 3, 1946, the first project, the Upper Tsing Yuan Tung (U.T.Y.T) Dam,began construction. The dam would sit on one of the smaller tributaries of theYangtze 25 miles north of the confluence of the Upper Tsing and the Yangtze.The NRC planned a 40-foot-high, 650-foot-long dam that contained 700,000cubic feet of masonry. Work was painstaking slow with most of the constructionbeing performed manually by untrained Chinese laborers. The work was conductedin a way very similar to the building of the Great Wall of China. Excavatedbedrock was carried up out of the river valley in handwoven baskets, andthe masonic stone blocks for the foundation of the dam were hand-cut andmoved by laborers into place at the base of the dam. Oftentimes, this was afamily job with the children and elderly doing the lightest work while thestronger members of the family carried the heavier burdens. Approximately1,500 workers were employed on the dam.Eventually the armed conflict of the Chinese Revolution pushed into theYangtze River Valley and Szechwan province, disrupting the construction project.With the outbreak of violence many of the Americans hired by the NRC returnedto the United States, including Savage and other top personnel. Additionally thelong, drawn-out war bankrupted the government of Chiang Kai-shek. The projectofficially halted by August 15, 1947.
187 small square Abandoned farm near Quincy, Wash. Abandoned farm near Quincy, Wash.
188 small square Abandoned farmhouse near Winchester, Wash. Abandoned farmhouse near Winchester, Wash.
247 small square Abandoned farm near Quincy, Wash. Abandoned farm near Quincy, Wash.
254 small square Abandoned farm house and orchard near Quincy, Wash. Abandoned farm house and orchard near Quincy, Wash.
251 small square Abandoned house near Winchester, Wash. Abandoned house near Winchester, Wash.
264 small square Contractors dry batching plant for concrete aggregate mixing Contractors dry batching plant for concrete aggregate mixing
209 small square Concrete aggregate stockpiles at J.G Shotwell's Company near Coulee City for South Coulee Dam Concrete aggregate stockpiles at J.G Shotwell's Company near Coulee City for South Coulee Dam
222 small square Drilling lifter holes at Bacon Tunnel Drilling lifter holes at Bacon Tunnel. Bacon Tunnel, Columbia Basin Project and Grand Coulee Dam project. This picture shows a typical drilling scene on the 10,000 foot Bacon Tunnel, which pierces a basalt barrier. Finished tunnel will be 23 feet in diameter.
259 small square Drilling operations in Bacon Tunnel Drilling operations in Bacon Tunnel
257 small square Inlet end of the Bacon Tunnel cleaned up prior to drilling operations Inlet end of the Bacon Tunnel cleaned up prior to drilling operations
202 small square Cheyenne Mountain Dancers from Colorado Springs School Lloyd Shaw (1890-1958), also known as Dr. Lloyd "Pappy" Shaw, was an educator, and is generally credited with bringing about the broad revival of square dancing in America. He was superintendent/principal/teacher/coach for Cheyenne Mountain Schools, Colorado Springs, Colorado from 1916-1951, and taught folk dancing.He was born in Denver, Colorado, but the family moved to Southern California when he was two years of age. His father was in the real estate business. The family returned to Denver when Shaw was nine years old, and then to Colorado Springs two years later. He graduated from Colorado College in 1913 and married poet, Dorothy Stott Shaw. They had two children— a daughter, Doli, and a son, David,He started teaching biology and sophomore English at Colorado Springs High School, and then became superintendent of the Broadmoor District's Cheyenne Mountain School on the outskirts of Colorado Springs.During his time teaching folk dance he noticed that all the square dancing callers were getting old, and there was no new generation to take over. He also noticed a lack of continuity in the activity in different parts of the country. Shaw came up with a solution that many believe kept the activity from dying out.Shaw traveled the country, and compiled instructions for traditional square dances from different callers all over the country. He documented them, and tried them out on the students he taught. He formed the Cheyenne Mountain Dancers, a high-school exhibition team, which toured the United States in the 1930s and 1940s, appearing in more than 50 major cities.In 1949 the American Academy of Physical Education cited "the Lloyd Shaw Folk Dance Program, as a noteworthy contribution to physical education."He also wrote books and articles, and conducted week-long summer classes for teachers and callers into the 1950s, where he not only taught the dances to other teachers, but taught them also the principles of teaching, and his vision of good dancing.As the popularity of square dancing grew, square dance callers began extracting individual calls from these dances, and attempts at standardised lists were developed. These lists were later adopted by callers, and organisations such as Callerlab and later the American Callers Association formed to manage and promote a universal list and the type of dance leadership that Shaw envisioned.Dr. Lloyd Shaw died of a stroke in 1958. The Lloyd Shaw Foundation was created in 1964 to preserve and promote his approach to square dancing.
266 small square J.B. Hamlin, visiting mechanical engineer, stands atop dam generator J.B. Hamlin, visiting mechanical engineer, stands atop dam generator
260 small square Drilling operations in inlet of Bacon Tunnel Drilling operations in inlet of Bacon Tunnel
265 small square View upstream from inlet of Bacon Tunnel across the Bacon Coulee View upstream from inlet of Bacon Tunnel across the Bacon Coulee
185 small square Bill Wilmot, Editor of Pasco Herald, examines a copy of newspaper fresh off press Bill Wilmot, Editor of Pasco Herald, examines a copy of newspaper fresh off press
263 small square Mrs. G.E. Parks sets type at the Lind Leader weekly newspaper Mrs. G.E. Parks sets type at the Lind Leader weekly newspaper
262 small square Contractor applies asphalt to joint sublateral of Pasco Unit Contractor applies asphalt to joint sublateral of Pasco Unit
274 small square General Electric employees pose for photo following a test of Dam circuit breakers General Electric employees pose for photo following a test of Dam circuit breakers
333 small square A.L. Hales and son try out aluminum fittings for the sprinkler system on their Pasco Unit farm A.L. Hales and son try out aluminum fittings for the sprinkler system on their Pasco Unit farm
334 small square Portable sprinkler pipes examined by H.A. Hales and his father for installation on their Pasco Unit farm Portable sprinkler pipes examined by H.A. Hales and his father for installation on their Pasco Unit farm
282 small square A.L. Hales and son prepare to connect a pump which will provide pressure for irrigation to the Hales farm A.L. Hales and son prepare to connect a pump which will provide pressure for irrigation to the Hales farm
295 small square Howard A. Hales and A.L. Hales pose for photo on adjoining farms on Columbia Irrigation Project lands Howard A. Hales and A.L. Hales pose for photo on adjoining farms on Columbia Irrigation Project lands
283 small square A.L. Hales and son check an aluminum valve for the sprikler irrigation system on the Hales farm A.L. Hales and son check an aluminum valve for the sprikler irrigation system on the Hales farm
330 small square Field of alfalfa receives first irrigation water in Franklin County irrigation district Field of alfalfa receives first irrigation water in Franklin County irrigation district
296 small square Warren Clifford and wife stand near house with adjoining machine shed on farm Warren Clifford and wife stand near house with adjoining machine shed on farm
297 small square Warren Clifford prepares the land on his 150 acre plot on the Pasco Unit of the Columbia Basin Project Warren Clifford prepares the land on his 150 acre plot on the Pasco Unit of the Columbia Basin Project
325 small square Picture shows sprinklers in operation on a field in Franklin County Irrigation District No. 1 Picture shows sprinklers in operation on a field in Franklin County Irrigation District No. 1
331 small square Mrs. Warren Clifford drivers the tractor on their new farm on the Pasco Irrigation Unit Mrs. Warren Clifford drivers the tractor on their new farm on the Pasco Irrigation Unit
332 small square Warren Clifford, the first settler on the Pasco Unit, drives his tractor over his land to prepare for irrigation waters Warren Clifford, the first settler on the Pasco Unit, drives his tractor over his land to prepare for irrigation waters
327 small square Field in the Franklin County Irrigation District of the Columbia Irrigation Project recieving the first waters of irrigation Field in the Franklin County Irrigation District of the Columbia Irrigation Project recieving the first waters of irrigation
285 small square Floating workhouse near Grand Coulee Dam Floating workhouse near Grand Coulee Dam
294 small square Bureau of Reclamation development farm dwelling on Pasco Unit Bureau of Reclamation development farm dwelling on Pasco Unit
289 small square Seeding of wheat on Pasco Unit of Columbia Irrigation Project Seeding of wheat on Pasco Unit of Columbia Irrigation Project
326 small square Bureau of Reclamtion surveyor aids W.F. Gillum in laying out farm ditches on Pasco Unit land Bureau of Reclamtion surveyor aids W.F. Gillum in laying out farm ditches on Pasco Unit land
288 small square Bureau of Reclamation surveyors help Gillum family to lay out farm ditches Bureau of Reclamation surveyors help Gillum family to lay out farm ditches
328 small square Warren Clifford and wife stand near the water delivery point for their Pasco Irrigation Unit farm Warren Clifford and wife stand near the water delivery point for their Pasco Irrigation Unit farm
307 small square An aggregate stockpile is examined and later to be sorted An aggregate stockpile is examined and later to be sorted
371 small square Close up view of the top of transformer on car number PRR 474225 Close up view of the top of transformer on car number PRR 474225
431 small square View of a wheat field near Warden, Wash. struggling against wind erosion View of a wheat field near Warden, Wash. struggling against wind erosion
378 small square Field that was planted last year has lost its topsoil due to wind to reveal black sand underneath Field that was planted last year has lost its topsoil due to wind to reveal black sand underneath
491 small square View of the first concrete pour to the chute section of the Winchester Wasteway Reed-lined Winchester Wasteway, a slough west of Moses Lake and off I-90, carries excess irrigation waters south toward the Columbia. It's a good place for watching waterfowl, rails, songbirds, muskrats, and beavers.
446 small square Photographer H.W. Fuller looks over Lake Roosevelt behind the Grand Coulee Dam Photographer H.W. Fuller looks over Lake Roosevelt behind the Grand Coulee Dam
451 small square View of West Canal after trimming View of West Canal after trimming
Dtc.13.tif small square Rufus Woods and Columbia River Development You are viewing the first page/citation. Full-text access may be available if you are affiliated with a participating library or publisher. Check access options or login if you have an account.- Hide full citationRufus Woods and Columbia River DevelopmentBruce MitchellThe Pacific Northwest QuarterlyVol. 52, No. 4 (Oct., 1961), pp. 139-144 (article consists of 6 pages)Published by: University of WashingtonStable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/40487684
515 small square Photograph of sketch of future location of Third Powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam Photograph of sketch of future location of Third Powerplant at Grand Coulee Dam
Best stator web small square 2nd of 3 700 MW Unites, 3rd Powerplant, Unit 23, Put In Service Here is a rare old photo of the original Raccoon Mtn. stators that were manufactured by Siemens AG in Germany approximately 27 years ago.
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