First School Museum-St. Louis,MO
-"...portable museum exhibts,stereographs [three-dimensional photographs],slies,films, study prints,charts,and other instructional materials" (Saetter, 1968, p. 89).
Motion Picture Projector and Instructional Films“...the motion picture projector was one of the first media devices used in schools. In the United States, the first catalog of instructional films was published in 1910. Later that year, the public school system of Rochester, New York, became the first to adopt films for regular instructional use” (Reiser, 2017, p. 9).
Department of Visual Instruction (DVI)Three national professional organizations for visual instruction merged in 1932. Leadership consolidated under one organization – DVI. DVI was part of the National Education Association, which is now known as the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) (Reiser, 2017, p. 9).
"Visualizing the Curriculum"-Written in 1937 by Hoban Sr., Hoban Jr., and Zissman.
-Important book on visual instruction.
-Presented hierarchy of media. (Reiser, 2017, p. 9)
-“...part of the value of audiovisual materials is thier ability to present concepts in a concrete manner” (Saettler, 1990).
Behavioral Learning Theory - B. F. Skinner• Learning can be predicted, understood, and explained by observable events.
• Positive reinforcement to encourage learning.
• Empirically based
• Importance of practice in instruction.
• Can observe students prior to instruction to see if they already have desired behavior.
• Learning objectives are defined and provided to students.
• Building block to training approach.
(Driscoll, 2018, pp. 53-54)
ADDIE ISD Model-systematic product development concept.
-process remains one of today’s most effective tolls
-a paradigm that refers to a family of models that share a common underlying structure.
-evolved informally and passed on rather being developed by a single author
-activities typically are not completed in a linear, step-by-step manner, although they may be portrayed this way for initial understanding
note: no set date for ADDIE creation; used beginning of WWII.
"Taxonomy of Educational Objectives"-In 1956, Benjamin Bloom and colleagues publish Taxonomy of Educatioal Objectives.
-Within cognitive domain of learning there are classifications of learning outcomes. There is also a hierarchical relationship.
-Tests should be designed to measure these outcomes. (Reiser, 2017, p. 14)
Sputnik: Impact on Instructional Design Process-US government allocated millions of dollars into improving education in the US, especially in the fields of science and education.
-Training material developed without feedback and trial periods by end users.
-Suggested in 1967 that draft publications should be tried out by the end user and feedback provided before final copy is published.
-Formative and Summative Evaluation (Reiser, 2017, p. 14)
General Systems Theorycharacterized as: (p. 23)
o Systematic: adopt rules and procedures
o Systemic: application of creative problem-solving methods
o Responsive: accepting whatever goals are established as its orientation.
o Interdependent: all elements connected; depend on each other
o Redundant: prevent failure
o Dynamic: can adjust
o Cybernetic: elements communicate among themselves
o Synergistic: system stronger than individual
o Creative: use special human talents and imagination
Constructivism• Collection of views about assumption of learning
• Contrasts sharply with theories on information processing.
• Inside out method
• Research focused on high-level, complex learning goals
• Recommend creation and use of complex learning environments: authentic activities, collaboration and opportunity to engage multiple perspectives on topic, support learners to set own goals and regulate own learning, and reflection
Gagne's Theory of Instruction• Design of instruction tied to what we know about learning.
• Theory based on two foundations: cognitive information processing theory and own observations of effective teaching. Came to comprise three components: taxonomy of learning, internal and external learning conditions, and 9 events of instruction
• Taxonomy includes all three domains: cognitive, affective, psychomotor (his is the only one with all three)
• 5 major categories of learning
• 9 events of instruction
Computers as an Instructional Tool-Computer assisted instruction used by IBM in the 1950s.
-Around 1980, computers made available to the general public. High interest for educational purposes.
-“By January 1983, computers were being used for instrucational purposes in more than 40 percent of all elementry schools and more than 75 percent of all secondary schools” (Reiser, 2017, p. 11, cited from Center for Social Organization of Schools, 1985).
-Computers did not end up revolutionizing instructional field. (Reiser, 2017)
Association for Educational Communication and Technology (AECT) 2008 Educational Technology DefinitionAECT Definiton and Terminology Committee from 2008 produced the most current educational technology definition:
“Educational technology is the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological processes and resources” (Reiser, 2018, p. 4)
Key takeaways are facilitation of learning (students have role in their learning) and performance improvement (not just knowledge but how to apply skills).
Reiser 2017 IDT DefinitionSummarized as follows. IDT is:
ADDIE and management of instructional processes and resources to enhance learning and performance; systematic approaches often used along with media to accomplish goals; research and theory are also important components to leverage (Reiser, 2018, p. 5) Two key components: use of media and systematic instructional design procedures.
Common Instructional Design (ID) CharacteristicsAlmost all ID efforts are:
-Focuses on meaningful performance
-Assumes outcomes are measureable, reliable, and valid
-Is an empirical, iterative, and self-correcting process
-Typically is a team effort
(Branch, 2017, pp. 26-27)
Purpose of Instructional Design Models-Identify what is generic and applicable across multiple contexts; people can visualize the overall process.
-Silvern: influential ID model builder in the 1950s and 60s; worked with military and aerospace industry – resulted in complex and detailed ID model with multiple variations (drew from GST); influenced modern ID models
-Effective ID models account for: students and peers, content, delivery systems, time, goals, instructor; display multiple paths to success.
(Branch, 2017, pp. 27-28)
Successive Approximation Model (SAM)Primary characteristics:
-Opportunities for review, evaluation, and correction during entire process.
-Optimal to produce best possible instruction with limited time and budget
-Sketching and prototypes - used to share ideas visually and assess functionality
-Initial treatment for all content is devised before polishing the treatment for any content.
(Allen & Merrill, 2017, p. 33)
*process model for design and development
School Museums to Media Centers-Few school museums established after early 1900s. Modern day equivelnt could be considerd the district, county, or regional media center (Reiser, 2017, p. 8).
1914-1923: Growth of Visual Instruction Movement“Five national professional organizations for visual instruction were established, five journals focusing on visual instruction began publication, more than twenty teacher-training institutions began offering courses in visual instruction, and at least a dozen large-city school systems developed bureaus of visual education” (Reiser, 2017, p. 9, cited from Saettler, 1990).
WWII: Growth of Audiovisual Instruction in the Military-Audiovisual instruction movement growth in schools slowed.
-Extensive use of audiovisual devices in the military and industry.
-Over four million filmstrips and training films shown to military personnel during last two years of war.
-Military produced large number of training films.
-Industry also used training films to enhance learning. (Reiser, 2017, p. 10)
-My assumption is that there was a need to train mass audiences in limited amount of time to prepare for combat operations.
WWII: Origins of Instructional Design Procedures-Psychologists and educators developed training material and conducted research in support of the military during WWII to include Gagne, Briggs, and Flanagan.
-Identified traits and skills necessary in fields and methods to test them (initial screening tests)
-Robert B. Miller developed detailed task analysis methodology.
-Psychological Principals in System Development details work of early pioneers in this effort (Reiser, 2017, p. 12-13)
1950s: Television's Impact on Audiovisual Movement-1950s – interest in television to deliver instruction grew; tremendous growth from two factors: FCC set aside of educational channels and high level of funding from foundations.
-FCC set aside 242 channels for educational purposes leading to development of public (educational) stations.
-Ford foundation provided estimated $170 million in funding during the 1950s and 60s for educational television.
-Closed-circuit television system project to deliver instruction. (Reiser, 2017, p. 10)
Programmed Instruction Movement-Mid 1950s to mid-1960s.
-B.F. Skinner article “The Science of Learning and the Art of Teach” began the minor movement. Contains Skinner’s ideas “regarding the requirements for increasing human learning and the desired characteristics of effective instructional materials” (Reiser, 2017, p. 13).
-Summary of theory – present instruction in small steps, active learning, do not delay with feedback, self-paced learning (Reiser, 2017, p. 13).
1970s: Instrucational Design Models-Creation of new models to systematically design instruction.
-Several branches of the military adopted an instructional design model in 1975.
-Journal of Instructional Development first published in 1970s. (Reiser, 2017, p. 15)
2002-2017: Rise of Digital Technology-Past 15 years: rapid advances in digital technology (internet) and computers “have led to a rapidly increasing interest in, and use of, these media for instructional purposes” (Reiser, 2017, p. 11).
-This spans all segments of society: K-12, higher education, industry, and business.
-Online education has grown exponentially. Instruction available on numerous platforms (Reiser, 2017).