Chinese Dynasties

Timeline created by SavannahToast
In History
  • 583

    Wendi moves capital

    Wendi moves capital
    Wendi moved the capital to the newly built Chang’an named for a previous Han capital city to the northwest. It became the largest city in the world for its day as well as the largest in area of any walled Chinese city. Under the Tang Dynasty it was the most cosmopolitan city.
  • 589

    China is reunified.

    Emperor Wendi (Yang Jian) established the “Three Department” system with Six Ministries: Personnel, Revenue, Rites, War, Justice, and Public Works.
  • 607

    Great Wall renovations

    Great Wall renovations
    Yangdi repaired and added portions to the Great Wall. Over a million men undertook the construction. Working at an exhausting pace, it was completed in 20 days costing many lives.
    Both Wendi and Yangdi extended control over portions of the Silk Road.
  • 609

    Grand Canal Construction

    Grand Canal Construction
    The Grand Canal was built from the Yellow River to Beijing by many thousands of men and, for the first time, of women. The canal was 40 paces across and 2000 km long creating an interconnecting transportation system which aided administrative tasks, defense movements, and movement of agricultural and trade goods. It also established a link between northern and southern China making the two territories economically interdependent.
  • 617

    Yangdi

    Yangdi
    Besides the Great Wall and the Grand Canal, Yangdi built roads, lavish palaces, and other grandiose public works projects costing an immense amount of money and human lives. The peasants were heavily burdened with taxes. To add fuel to their discontent, Yangdi planned and launched three expeditions against northern Korea. Huge revolts broke out throughout northern China. Yangdi fled to his southern capital at Jiangdu where he was assassinated a year later.
  • 630

    Taizong

    Taizong was the first Chinese emperor to control the northern steppe
  • 683

    Empress Wu rises

    Gaozong died. Empress Wu held power as regent through the reigns of her two sons: Zhonzong and Ruizong.
  • 690

    Empress Wu

    Empress Wu
    Empress Wu usurped power for herself and became the only female emperor in Chinese history
  • 745

    Yang Guifei

    Yang Guifei
    Xuanzong fell in love with his son’s concubine, Yang Guifei, abandoning his responsibilities of ruler- ship
  • 884

    Tang destruction

    rebellion destroyed Tang Dynasty
  • 1127

    Nomads invade

    Northern Song dynasty was overrun by nomadic groups such as the Jurchen from Manchuria calling themselves the Jin dynasty.
  • 1215

    The Mongols

    The Mongols
    Mongols under Genghis Khan begin to attack northern frontiers.
    Mongols capture Beijing.
  • 1232

    Destroy Jin

    Southern Song allied with Mongols to destroy Jin.
  • 1279

    End of Song Dynasty

    The Song dynasty valiantly resisted Mongol invasion for 39 years. The dynasty did not concentrate on its military capabilities. Considering the Mongol swift conquests elsewhere, the armies of the Song had a remarkable effect.
  • 1292

    Mongol Control

    Kublai sent a fleet to Java to rebuke the reluctant leader, asserted Mongol control.
  • 1315

    Reinstatement and Improvement

    Reinstatement and Improvement
    The civil service examination was reinstated, but it required that half the degrees be awarded to Mongols and other non-Chinese regardless of their qualifications.
    The Mongols rebuilt the Grand Canal and extended it to Beijing.
  • 1344

    Taizu becomes a monk

    Taizu became a monk at the age of 16 and was sent from his monastery to beg, wandering throughout east-central China.
  • 1352

    Taizu and the Red Turbans

    Taizu joined one of the rebel groups associated with the Red Turbans. Within this band, he rose quickly to command.
  • 1360

    Fall of Yuan Dynasty

    From the1340s - 1360s, the Yuan dynasty was plagued with ineptitude, intrigues, factionalism, military deterioration, the spread of deadly epidemics such as bubonic plague, and neglect of much-needed water programs. These problems led to the decline and defeat of the Yuan dynasty. During this time peasants revolted and civil war raged throughout the empire. Shundi, the last of the Mongol emperors, fled from Beijing to Mongolia to avoid capture.
  • 1368

    Taizu Control

    Taizu gained control of Beijing. The Ming dynasty was never able to defeat the Mongol and unable to expand their empire into inner Asia. It could be described as ordinary, favoring the common man. Taizu had policies that favored the poor over the rich: he confiscated great estates, and then rented these lands to the landless. He abolished slavery and taxed the rich, was a cruel emperor who was extremely anti-intellectual & caused the deaths of many government officials through periodic purges.
  • Fall of the Ming

    Ming emperor commited suicide after rebels took Beijing
  • Manch Hairstyle

    Chinese men required to wear Manchu hairstyle.
  • Sino-French War occurred.

  • Sino-Japanese War occurred.

  • Empress Dowager Cixi

    Empress Dowager Cixi
    Guangxu emperor had attempted needed reforms which the Empress Dowager Cixi suppressed.
  • Boxer Rebellion

    Boxer Rebellion
  • End of Qing Dynasty

    Qing Dynasty was overthrown by revolutionaries.
  • Period:
    1,766 BCE
    to
    1,111 BCE

    Shang Dynasty

  • Period:
    1,111 BCE
    to
    -221 BCE

    Zhou Dynasty

  • Period:
    -221 BCE
    to
    -206 BCE

    Qin Dynasty

  • Period:
    -206 BCE
    to
    221

    Han Dynasty

  • Period:
    221
    to
    581

    Period of Division

  • Period:
    581
    to
    618

    Sui Dynasty

    https://www.ancient.eu/Sui_Dynasty/
    Yang Jian (r. 581-604) reigned as Wendi
    Yang Guang (r. 605-617) reigned as Yangdi
  • Period:
    618
    to
    906

    Tang Dynasty

    https://www.ancient.eu/Tang_Dynasty/
    Gaozu (r. 618-616) born and known as Li Yuan in his lifetime; name of Gaozu given after his death.
    Taizong (r. 626-649) born Li Shimin
    Gaozong (r. 649-683)
    Zhonzong and Ruizong (r. 683-690 sequentially)
    Wu Zhao (Empress Wu) (r. 690-700)
    Xuanzong (r. 712-756),called Ming huang, Brilliant Monarch
  • Period:
    712
    to
    745

    Xuanzong

    Xuanzong ruled very ably: strengthened prestige of court by reducing corruption, abolished the death penalty, pursued vigorous foreign policy, established the Hanlin Academy for the arts which long survived his dynasty: some of the greatest poets (Li Biao and Du Fu ) and greatest painters (Wang Wei and Wu Tao-tzu) flourished during his reign, and invited teachers of newly introduced Tantric school of Buddhism.
  • Period:
    841
    to
    845

    Buddhism suppression

    Massive suppression of Buddhism and other foreign religions occurred: many temples and monasteries were closed, their wealth confiscated by the government, a quarter of a million monks and nuns returned to secular life. This persecution cut China off from contact with Central Asia and India where Buddhism then declined in favor of Islam and other religions. Only Pure Land and Chan schools continued; the other schools did not survive.
  • Period:
    907
    to
    960

    Five Dynasties

    An Lu-shan declared himself emperor, only to be assassinated by his son, who in turn was assassinated. Various warlords competed for power. This time subsequently became known as the period of the Five Dynasties.
  • Period:
    960
    to
    1279

    Song Dynasty

    https://www.ancient.eu/Song_Dynasty/
    Emperors:
    Zhao Kuangyin (r. 960-976) reigned as Taizu Zhou Kuangyi (r. 976-997) reigned as Taizong Zhao Ji (r. 1101-1126) reigned as Huizong Gaozong (r. 1127-1162)
  • Period:
    1260
    to
    1368

    Yuan Dynasty

    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Yuan-dynasty
    Kublai (r. 1260-1294) known posthumously as Shizu Toghun Temur (r.1333-1368) reigned as Shundi Major Historical Events
    Kublai established his capital at Beijing.
    Kublai extended his authority overseas in Sumatra, Ceylon and southern India.
  • Period:
    1274
    to
    1281

    Kublai Conquests

    Kublai sent fleets against Japan. The second attempt was aborted by a typhoon’s destruction of the fleet which the Japanese regarded as the godly intervention of the Kamikaze or divine wind.
    Mongol rule throughout was maintained by military occupation. The Mongols resisted assimilation into Chinese culture by retaining the Mongol language and yearly summer visits to Mongolia.
  • Period:
    1368
    to

    Ming Dynasty

    https://www.britannica.com/topic/Ming-dynasty-Chinese-history
    Zhu Yuanzhang (r.1368-1398) reigned as Hongwu
    Zhu Di (r. 1402-1424) reigned as Yongle
    Zhe Qizhen (r. 1436-1450; restored in 1457-1465) reigned as Zhentong, then as Tianshun
    Guangzong (r. 1573-1620) reigned as Wanli
  • Period:
    1405
    to
    1433

    Yongle and Maritime Power

    Under Yongle, seven expeditions were sent out under Admiral Zheng He to assert Chinese domination. This included collecting tribute. This marked the only time China was the dominant maritime power.
  • Period: to

    Qing Dynasty

    http://www.cpp.edu/~inch/group4/timeline.pdf
    Emperors
    Kangxi (r. 1662-1722)
    Yongzheng (r. 1722-1736)
    Qianlong (r. 1736-95)
    Guangxu (r. 1898) from 1898-1909 Empress Dowager Cixi ruled, having imprisoned her nephew
  • Period: to

    Opium Wars

    Opium War occurred ending with the Nanjing Treaty which gave Hong Kong to Great Britain.
  • Period: to

    Taiping Rebellion

    Taiping Rebellion was a peasant uprising in which a Christian convert called himself the Son of Heaven, identified himself as the younger brother of Christ, collected a huge following, and attempted to overthrow the Qing Dynasty.