M. von Frey and M. Gruber (Leipzig) build and use the first artificial heart-lung apparatus for organ perfusion studies. Their device relies on a thin film of blood and included heating and cooling chambers, manometers, and sampling outlets, which permits monitoring of temperature, pressure, and blood gases during perfusion.
First hemodialysis of 5 patients
G. Haas (Germany) performs first clinical hemodialysis of 5 patients, using a modification of the Hopkins artificial kidney.
Heparin used for the first time
Heparin is used for the first time in human patients by Gordon Murray of Toronto.
Stationary drum artificial kidney developed by G. Murray