AP Euro Timeline - Anna Aryal, William Stowe, and Sophia Zappone

Timeline created by Merkel's_dream_team_4_Europ...
  • 1271

    Marco Polo Travels to China

    Marco Polo Travels to China
    Marco Polo was a Venetian explorer who traveled to Asia and became a confidant of Kublai Khan, the Mongol emperor of China. His account of China and his travels provided the western world with its first clear picture of the East's geography, cultures, and customs. Polo's stories of his journeys inspired other Europeans, like Christopher Columbus, to undertake exploratory voyages far from western Europe.
  • 1300

    Little Ice Age

    Little Ice Age
    The Little Ice Age, which began in 1300 and lasted until 1450, ravaged European farmland and caused peasants to become malnourished, leading to the widespread disease and starvation of the Great Famine.
  • 1309

    Babylonian Captivity

    Babylonian Captivity
    From 1309 to 1376, Roman Catholic Popes reigned from Avignon, France rather than the Vatican. Because the clergy became motivated by a pursuit of material wealth rather than faith, the period of the Avignon Papacy caused the Church to lose credibility amongst laypeople, fostering the divide that ultimately resulted in the Great Schism and, later, the Reformation.
  • 1315

    Great Famine

    Great Famine
    Crop failures caused by the Little Ice Age caused widespread starvation in Europe—known as the Great Famine—from 1315 to 1322. This weakened the population of the continent leading into the Black Death.
  • 1337

    The Hundred Years' War

    The Hundred Years' War
    The Hundred Years' War, which was fought from 1337 through 1453, was between England and France. The conflict was mainly caused by disputes over who had the right to rule France, as well as disagreements over territorial holdings at Aquitaine. Notable figures include Joan of Arc, a young girl who rallied the French behind the war effort.
  • 1347

    Arrival of the Black Death in Europe

    Arrival of the Black Death in Europe
    The plague first struck Europe in 1347, eventually killing approximately one-third of the population of the continent. The disease was able to spread quickly due to malnourishment caused by the Great Famine alongside generally poor living conditions and abysmal personal hygiene across Europe.
  • May 21, 1358

    Jacquerie Peasant Uprising

    Jacquerie Peasant Uprising
    On May 21, 1358, widespread unrest among French peasants came to a head with the beginning of the Jacquerie uprising. Over the course of the following month, a mob of disillusioned laypeople ravaged the French countryside, destroying castles and killing nobles. Following their defeat on June 9, the insurgents were executed by the forces of King Charles II.
  • 1378

    Great Schism

    Great Schism
    The 1378-1417 Great Schism was a rift in the Catholic Church; it originated when Urban VI's papacy was met with discontent from high-ranking members of the clergy. Clement VII then took the mantle of the pope, forming his court at Avignon; this threw the Church into turmoil. Efforts to resolve the Schism were originally unsuccessful, throwing a third "pope" into power. While this division within the Church was resolved, it foreshadowed trouble to come.
  • 1381

    English Peasants' Revolt

    English Peasants' Revolt
    Due to debt from the Hundred Years' War, in 1381 the English crown ordered authorities to collect unpaid taxes from laypeople. It also issued the Statute of Laborers, undermining the rights of peasant workers. These two events culminated in the largely unsuccessful English Peasants' Revolt, which did not become the social revolution many desired. It did, however, prevent future poll taxes.
  • 1440

    Invention of the Printing Press

    Invention of the Printing Press
    Johann Gutenberg's invention of the movable-type printing press changed the course of history as it revolutionized the way information could be spread; due to written works becoming more available, literacy increased and people became more informed on intellectual matters. The printing press was an important tool for later movements such as the Reformation.
  • Oct 19, 1469

    Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand

    Marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand
    The marriage of Isabella of Castile to Ferdinand of Aragon was a defining moment in history that unified the Iberian Peninsula and helped to create a new Spanish superpower.
  • 1478

    Beginning of Spanish Inquisition

    Beginning of Spanish Inquisition
    A Papal Inquisition in 15th century Spain that was set to investigate and punish converted Jews and Muslims thought to be insincere.
  • Oct 12, 1492

    Columbus Lands in the Americas

    Columbus Lands in the Americas
    When Columbus landed in the Bahamas, he established the Spanish presence on the islands. He later created the Columbian exchange, which exchanged diseases, crops, livestock, and people across the Atlantic Ocean.
  • 1494

    Invasion of Italy by Charles VII of France

    Invasion of Italy by Charles VII of France
    The invasion of Italy by Charles VII was the start of the Italian wars. The Italian Wars were fought mostly by the Spanish and the French for control of Italy. This resulted in a shift of power in Europe from the Italian Peninsula to northwestern Europe
  • 1494

    Hapsburg-Valois War

    Hapsburg-Valois War
    Often referred to as the Italian Wars, the Hapsburg-Valois Wars were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559. Although it was fought mostly in Italy in at different times involved almost every nation in Europe with France and the Hapsburg family being the primary opponents fighting for power and influence. These wars helped lead to a decline of the power and influence once held by Italian city states and shifted that power towards northwestern Europe.
  • Oct 31, 1517

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses

    Martin Luther writes 95 Theses
    In 1517 Martin Luther who was a professor at the University of Wittenburg published a list of grievances he had with the church relating to the buying and selling of indulgences. This would be the start of what would eventually lead to the Protestant Reformation
  • 1519

    Cortes Conquers Mexica

    Cortes Conquers Mexica
    Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztecs by forming alliances with their enemies. Using the encomienda system to enslave the natives, Cortes destroyed the Aztec empire, aided by European weapons and diseases.
  • 1521

    Diet of Worms

    Diet of Worms
    The Diet of Worms was an imperial diet held in the city of Worms, Germany in the year 1521. It was called by Emperor Charles V where Martin Luther was addressed directly by the Catholic Church which became known as the Edict of Worms.
  • Aug 29, 1526

    Turkish Victory at Mohacs

    Turkish Victory at Mohacs
    The Battle of Mohacs was seen as one of the most important battles of Central European history. The battle was fought in 1526 near the city of Mohacs, the loss of the Hungarians and their Christian allies to the Ottomans led to the Ottoman annexation of Hungary. This is seen as the end of the middle ages in Hungary.
  • Aug 25, 1530

    Reign of Ivan the Terrible

    Reign of Ivan the Terrible
    Ivan IV (also known as Ivan the Terrible) was the son of Ivan the Great. He persecuted the boyars (Russian nobles) he suspected opposed him and replaced them with his own, hand-picked, nobles. Ivan rid Russia of all Mongol power and gained new lands for the country.
  • 1532

    Pizarro Conquers Inca Empire

    Pizarro Conquers Inca Empire
    Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Inca civilization and empire with disease and deadly force. Pizarro claimed their empire for the Spanish, thereby expanding the Spanish overseas empire.
  • 1534

    Henry VIII Ends Papal authority in England

    Henry VIII Ends Papal authority in England
    After many unsuccessful attempts to between Henry VIII of England and Catherine of Aragon to conceive a baby boy Kind Henry asked the Pope for a divorce. The pope rejected his request multiple times and eventually, Henry VIII declared himself the head of religious authority in England and gave himself a divorce so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. This became known as the English Reformation
  • 1543

    Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    A time in European history which started towards the end of the Renaissance which saw the emergence of modern science. I helped transform people's views on society and nature and heavily influenced the Enlightenment.
  • 1545

    Council of Trent

    Council of Trent
    The Council of Trent was a council called by the pope which met from 1545 to 1563 in order to reform the Catholic Church in response to the Protestant Reformation. The council reaffirmed and clarified most of the Church's doctrine and it is seen as the most important moment of the Counter-Reformation
  • Sep 25, 1555

    Peace of Augsburg

    Peace of Augsburg
    The Peace of Augsburg officially ended the Habsburg-Valois wars and recognized Lutheranism under Charles V. The princes of each territory could decide whether Catholicism of Lutheranism was practiced in their realm. This marked the end of religious wars in Germany; however, it was not the beginning of religious tolerance.
  • 1558

    Reign of Elizabeth I

    Reign of Elizabeth I
    Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. She made herself head of England and the Church of England, establishing Protestantism as the official religion. However, her moderate religious policy allowed Catholics to practice their religion in private. Elizabeth I reigned from 1558 until her death on March 24, 1603.
  • Jun 9, 1572

    Reign of Henry IV in France

    Reign of Henry IV in France
    Henry IV was a Protestant who married into the French Catholic royal family. After the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre occurred on his wedding day, King Henry IV converted to Catholicism and issued the Edict of Nantes.
  • Aug 24, 1572

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

    St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre
    French Huguenots were massacred on August 24, 1572, beginning during the unpopular wedding of Protestant Henry of Navarre and Margaret of Valois. The French Catholics were provoked to murder Huguenots due to the Huguenots iconoclasm and vandalism of Catholic churches and icons. The violence and civil war that followed the massacre prompted Henry IV (formerly Henry of Navarre) to convert to Catholicism and issue the Edict of Nantes.
  • England Defeats the Spanish Armada

    England Defeats the Spanish Armada
    Under Elizabeth I, England defeated the Spanish Armada sent by Phillip II of Spain (who had the the blessing of Pope Sixtus V to convert the Protestant country to Catholicism). England's victory prevented the Spanish from Catholicizing the English, and also established England as a major sea power.
  • Edict of Nantes

    Edict of Nantes
    Issued by Henry IV of France who had recently converted to Catholicism, the Edict of Nantes granted liberty of public worship to Huguenots. This prepared the way for French absolutism by prioritizing power and stability over religion and establishing internal peace in France.
  • Rule of Oliver Cromwell

    Rule of Oliver Cromwell
    As leader of Parliament's New Model Army during the English Civil War, he defeated the king's army and established the Protectorate, which was really a military dictatorship disguised as constitutional rule.
  • English Civil War

    English Civil War
    The English Civil War was the result of a conflict between the English Parliament and the monarchy (James I and Charles I). Parliament's New Model Army beat the king's army and installed Oliver Cromwell as the head of the Protectorate, however he was in effect a military dictator.
  • Reign of Louis XIV

    Reign of Louis XIV
    Brought about the age of absolutism in France. He ruled through the Councils of State, which did not include anyone of noble birth, and never called the Estates General. He unified the country with Catholicism by oppressing Protestantism. He made Versailles the center and symbol of his absolute rule, as exhibited by its extravagance and how Louis forced nobles to stay there for part of the year so he could keep an eye on them.
  • English Restoration

    English Restoration
    Oliver Cromwell died, and the monarchy, parliament, and the Anglican Church were restored under English King Charles II. James II took over after Charles, and was unpopular because he appointed Catholics to government positions, as well as granting religious freedom to all.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    Louis XIV issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked the Edict of Nantes which had granted Huguenots the right to practice their religion without fear of state prosecution. Louis used this edict to officially allow the persecution of Huguenots and unify France under Catholicism.
  • Revocation of the Edict of Nantes

    Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
    The Edict of Fontainebleau, also known as the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes, was a decree by King Louis XIV that ended French tolerance for the Huguenots.
  • Glorious Revolution

    Glorious Revolution
    The English Parliament ousted James II because he violated the Test Act and failed to work with Parliament. They instated the Protestant William and Mary without any bloodshed or conflict. This marked the end of divine right monarchy and England established its Bill of Rights, which established the powers of the people and the government.
  • War of Spanish Succession

    War of Spanish Succession
    A major European conflict during the early 18th century that was triggered by the death of the childless Charles II and the question of who should rule in his place. The war eventually ended in 1714 at the Treaty of Utrecht which helped establish a balance of power on the continent.
  • Enlightenment

    Enlightenment
    A cultural movement of intellectuals in the 18th centuries which emphasized reason and individualism. It helped to change the way people thought and viewed society through rational thinking. Its precursor was the Scientific Revolution
  • Great Plague of Marseille

    Great Plague of Marseille
    The last significant outbreak of the bubonic plague in Europe which took place in the French city of Marseille killing 100,000 people in the city and surrounding provinces. It is believed that better sanitation and managment of water supply may have helped make this the last outbreak of the Bubonic Plague in Europe.
  • Reign of Peter the Great

    Reign of Peter the Great
    Peter westernized Russian culture in an attempt to make his nation powerful and successful once again. He also increased state power by forcing all the nobles to work for the central government as well as increasing the service of commoners in factories and mines. Peter furthered education by building schools and universities, and also created a civilian-military bureaucracy where anyone could rise to power.
  • Seven Years War

    Seven Years War
    A global conflict that involved every great power in Europe and spanned over five different continents. The conflict split Europe in half and ended by the Treaty of Paris which gave significant land and power to the British over the French marking the begginning of an era of British dominance.
  • Industrial Revolution Years

    Industrial Revolution Years
    The Industrial Revolution lasted from around 1760 to 1840. It began in England, and marked the beginning of the consumerism, capitalism, and development of cities and technologies that we see today. While the Industrial Revolution improved the efficiency of machines and medicine, the overall living standard of the working class drastically decreased due to the packed, unsanitary, and factory- polluted cities.
  • Reign of Catherine the Great

    Reign of Catherine the Great
    Ruled Russia as Tsarina for 34 years. During her reign, she strengthened the landholding class and she heavily invested in the arts leading to her viewing herself as an enlightened monarch. Her rule helped strengthen Russia but also increased oppression of the peasents under the Rusian system of serfdom.
  • Watt Patents the Steam Engine

    Watt Patents the Steam Engine
    Watt perfected Newcomen's steam engine. Now that the steam engine was efficient in producing energy, it replaced water power and enabled factories to be built anywhere it was convenient. This furthered industrialization by providing almost unlimited power for factories and machines.
  • American Revolution

    American Revolution
    A colonial revolt during the late 18th century in the British Thirteen Colonies fought by colonists seeking to have independence from the British monarchy. The Americans defeated the british with help from their French allies which lead to the creation of the United States of America.
  • Thomas Paine's Common Sense

    Thomas Paine's Common Sense
    A pamphlet which was written and distributed by Thomas Paine which advocated for the independence of the thirteen colonies from the British monarchy even if that meant violence. The pamphlet was widely read and helped to increase the rebellious contempt the colonists had.
  • Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations

    Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations
    A book which was written by the economist Adam Smith that helped change how people viewed economics and made leaders focus on increasing their nations wealth by improving the quality of life for their people.
  • Ratification of United States Constitution

    Ratification of United States Constitution
    The ratification of the US Constitution brought Enlightenment ideas of life, liberty, and property to the forefront of western society. The pursuit of equality and the power that the Constitution placed in the hands of the common people inspired revolutions across Europe. The French Revolution was very much spurred by the success of the American Revolution that was represented by the ratification of a democratic constitution.
  • French Revolution

    French Revolution
    The French Revolution lasted from 1789 through 1799. Throughout this period, various shifts in political power caused continuous strife in France as the common people rebelled against the absolute monarch Louis XVI. Despite the chaotic bloodbath of the Reign of Terror and other violent periods represented by the popularity of the guillotine, the Revolution marked a turning point in history as the power of the people outshone the power of a single king.
  • Storming of the Bastille

    Storming of the Bastille
    The Bastille, a prison in Paris, had become a symbol of the absolute monarch of France, so it only makes sense that it was stormed by an angry mob of peasants who thirsted for the blood of the establishment. The symbolic beginning of the French Revolution, after the storming of the Bastille there was no way that France could return to its previous monarchy without further bloodshed.
  • Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women

    Mary Wollstonecraft's Vindication of the Rights of Women
    In her masterwork, Wollstonecraft demanded equal rights for women and was a strong advocate for coeducation. She believed that such practices would allow women to be better wives, mothers, and citizens and that it would allow them to be more economically independent.
  • Execution of Louis XVI

    Execution of Louis XVI
    Louis XVI was killed by guillotine after being convicted of conspiracy of foreign powers. The debate over whether the monarch should be executed was fierce between the Girondists and the Mountain; the Mountain came out on top and the king was put to death. The event effectively eliminated any remnant of French absolutism.
  • Reign of Terror

    Reign of Terror
    The Reign of Terror, which lasted from September 5, 1793 through July 27, 1794, was a period of deep suspicion in revolutionary France. Anyone accused of being an "enemy of the Revolution" was swiftly and certainly executed by guillotine. As part of this campaign, France was de-Christianized. Maximilien Robespierre and his Committee on Public Safety took nearly total control over the government as a level of martial law was imposed.
  • Napoleon Invades Russia

    Napoleon Invades Russia
    Napoleon attempted to invade Russia with one of the largest forces ever amassed for a military invasion. As Napoleon forced the army to press toward Moscow through a harsh winter, many men died from the cold. The Russians themselves burned Moscow before the French could effectively capture it, forcing a retreat in a terrible military failure on December 12, 1812.
  • Congress of Vienna

    Congress of Vienna
    It was convened by the four European powers that had defeated Napoleon (Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain), and was chaired by the Austrian Metternich. Their goal was to reestablish the balance of power across Europe to ensure a leader like Napoleon would never take power again. The powers restored lands that Napoleon had conquered, as well as divvying up some of the spoils to the victors. Essentially, they wanted to reset Europe to the way it had been before the French Revolution.
  • Reign of Louis XVIII

    Reign of Louis XVIII
    The first Bourbon King on the French throne since 1791. Louis XVIII ruled for slightly less than a decade as a constitutional monarch with less power than previous monarchs. Upon his death the crown passed to his brother.
  • Napoleon Defeated and Exiled

    Napoleon Defeated and Exiled
    Napoleon's defeat at the Battle of Waterloo and subsequent exile to Saint Helena brought forth the definitive end of Napoleon's oppression of the French people and relentless expansionary policies. Napoleon died in exile in 1821 after writing a series of memoirs disparaging those who opposed him. Louis XVIII retained the throne, reinstating the pre-Revolution monarchy.
  • Battle of Waterloo

    Battle of Waterloo
    A battle fought near Waterloo in present day Belgium where the French army led by Napoleon Bonaparte was defeated by the Great Coaltiotn leading to the end of the Napoleonic Wars.
  • Carlsbad Decrees

    Carlsbad Decrees
    A set of reactionary restrictions introduced in the German Confederation that banned nationilst fraternities, removed liberal university proffesors, and expanded censorship of the press.
  • Reign of Charles X

    Reign of Charles X
    The last of the French rulers from the senior branch of House Bourbon, King Charles reigned for almost six years until he was forced to abdicate the throne after the July Revolution and election of Louis Philippe I as the King of France.
  • Stephenson's Rocket

    Stephenson's Rocket
    It was the first modern steam locomotive, which paved the way for faster land travel in transporting goods across countries for sale. Railroads reduced the cost and risk of transporting goods, as well as increasing market size and therefore demand for goods on the market.
  • France Invades Algeria

    France Invades Algeria
    With the conquest of Algeria, French once again became focused on imperial expansion. While at first it seemed clear that the French came out victorious, Algerians fought a war to defend their land from 1831-1847. The French ultimately walked away with the territory.
  • Reign of Louis Philippe

    Reign of Louis Philippe
    Louis of Philippe ruled as the King of France after the abdication of his cousin Charles X. He followed a conservative policy and pursued friendly relations with Britain and the conquest of Algeria. He was however forced to give up the thrown after the deterioation of the French economy and subsequent French Revolution of 1848.
  • British Reform Bill

    British Reform Bill
    The reform bill passed by the Whigs in 1832 brought British politics into a more democratic era. It allowed the House of Commons to emerge as a legislative body more important than the House of Lords. The bill also gave new industrial areas representation.
  • Great Famine in Ireland

    Great Famine in Ireland
    A series of potato crop failures, known as the Great Famine, struck Ireland in 1845, 1846, 1848, and 1851. Because impoverished peasants relied on potatoes for both sustenance and income, they were launched further into poverty due to the blight that stuck the potatoes.
  • The Great Exhibition in London

    The Great Exhibition in London
    London hosted an industrial fair called the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace to celebrate the new era of industry and economy. This was the first international exhibition of manufactured products. The Exhibition was organized to show off the innovations and progress Britain had made to the rest of the world, to celebrate their accomplishments.
  • Cholera Outbreak in London

    Cholera Outbreak in London
    The 1854 Soho outbreak of cholera killed approximately 616 Londoners. The outbreak lead to physician John Snow's theory that cholera is spread through water rather than by air, drastically changing prevention and hygiene measures.
  • Publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species

    Publication of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species
    The theory of evolution published in Darwin's On the Origin of Species radically changed scientific thought. The work was controversial because some construed it as anti-Christian because the theory of evolution inherently contradicts what is stated in the Bible.