Was started in Ohio Valley by George Washington, and turned into a world wide conflict (Seven Years War.) British reinforcements were sent to America, but the French Army was succesfull in defedning the frontier. New leadership and fresh strategies helped the British to win the war.
The Proclamation of 1763
This peice of legislation was issued by King George III in 1763. It stated that no colonists could settle to the West of the Appalachian Mountains. This wasn't to oppress the colonists, it was to establish a healthy relationship with the natives in the present-day central and western parts of the United States. However, the colonists didn't want to be restrained and were angered by this law, and continued moving West despite what the law prohibited.
The Sugar Act
Sugar Act SongThe Sugar Act reduced the tax on molasses.It was originally six pence, but this act made it three. Prime Minister Geirge Grenville made sure the law was strictly enforced. Other goods were taxed including sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric and printed calico.The tax on molasses caused a decline in the rum industry.
The Stamp Act
The American Revolution Britain passed this act putting taxes on things like newspapers, legal documents, and playing cards. This was the first tax forced upon Americans. The strongly resisted, and eventually got it repealed. This gave Americans confidence that they could avoid taxes in the future as well.
The Stamp Act Congress
The Stamp Act Congress conviened in New York City in 1765. There were 27 delegates representing 9 colonies. The men stated their grievances but had little impact on Britain and America.
The Townshend Acts
The Townshend ActsCharles Townshend, chancellor of England, hoped to reduce national debt in Britain by taxing the colonies in America. In order to do this, he and parliament passed the Townshend Acts. These included the New York Restraining Act (after the colonists were forced to provide for British soldiers, NY objected), Customs Service Reorganization (intended to increase revenues), and The Townshend Duty Acts (tax on items "external in nature" such as paint, paper, and glass imported into the colonies.)
British Troops Occupy Boston
British travel to Boston to enforce the Townshend duties and supress radicals. Locals didn't like the constant presence of the British and engaged in multiple street fights. These brawls led to the Boston Massacre.
The Boston Massacre
On this night in Boston, 10 red coats were gaurding a government building when 60 colonists began to argue with them. The crowd taunted the soldiers. The colonists threw snowballs, rocks, and beat the soldiers with clubs. The group provoked the red coats, and the soldiers opened fire on the crowd. There were 11 "innocent" victims.
Townshend Acts Repealed
Britain repealed the Townshend Acts in 1770 because of the rebellions of the colonists. All parts were repealed except for the tax on tea.
The Boston Tea Party
Liberty's Kids CartoonShips couldn't reach the port of boston because of on-going protests. One ship came into the port, and colonists disguised as Natives threw 352 chests of tea over board into the harbour. This angered Parliament, so they issued the Intolerable Acts shortly after.
The Intolerable Acts
Liberty's Kids CartoonIssued by British Prime Minister Lard North after the BostonTea Party. It included:
Impartial Administration of Justice Act which stated that the trials of British officials were to take place in England
Massachusetts Bay Regulating Act which placed restrictions on town meetings
Boston Port Act, closed trade until Boston paid for the tea thrown into the harbour during the Boston Tea Party
Quartering Act, allowed royal troops to stay in houses
Quebec Act, granted religious freedom to Catholics
The Quebec Act
Setting the Stage for the Quebec ActThe Quebec Act created a permanent governement inCanada, which replaced the temporary one established at the time of the Proclamation of 1763. This law also gave French Canadians religous freedom.
The First Continental Congress
12 out of 13 colonies were represented at the First Continental Congress, which met in Philadelphia. There were 55 delegates, including Sam Adams, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, and George Washington. The men met for seven weeks, but they weren't calling for independence. Most of them wanted to reconcile with the British. They wrote appeals to the King and the British people and created the Association, which was a complete boycott of British goods. Said to meet next year if necessary.
The Quartering Act
"Facing" the Quartering ActThis piece of legislation required each colony to provide the basic needs of the royal troops stationed within their boundaries. Specified items included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood, beer or cider, and candles
Battle of Lexington and Concord
The Battle of Concord, MassachusettsThese battles were the first of the American Revolutionary War. The British Army was instructed to capture and destroy American military supplies. Colonists had received word about this in advance and were able to relocate most of their supplies. First shots were fired at Lexington, then some proceeded to Concord to capture supplies. The Patriots were able to fight off the British and watch them retreat to Boston.
The Second Continental Congress
Succeeded the first Continental Congress, and the Second Continental Congress delgates met in Philadelphia again from the thirteen colonies shortly after the Revolutionary War began. This time they manage the war, and gradually moved closer to independence, eventually developing the Declaration of Independence in 1776.
The Battle of Bunker Hill
Battle of Bunker HillOne of the first main battle of the war. Inexperienced colonial soldiers manage to fight off a stron British side for over two hours at Breed's Hill. However, the partiots were soon forced to give up their position on Bunker Hill. Even though they had to partially retreat, the colonists showed that they weren't scared of the powerful British army. More than 1,000 British were left dead or wounded.
Thomas Paine's Common Sense
Liberty's Kids CartoonThomas Paine wrote Common Sense. It became a best-seller and 120,000 copies were sold. His main point was that England, being a small island, shouldn't control the colonies, which were a very large stretch of land. He called for independenc and a republic, and siad government officials should derive authority from the people.
The Declaratory Act
This law delcared Parliament's authority over the colonies and was issued soon after the Stamp Act was repealed. It was meant to justify the repeal of the Stamp Act, and basically stated that Parliament had just as much authority over the colonies as it did in Britain.