European trade with Africa becomes well established
Africa's major source of wealth was their rich mineral resources. The Belgian Congo held unknown wealth in copper and tin. The businesses established cash-crop plantations in order to grow peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber. Because of this the farmers weren't able to grow the foods needed to feed their families.
East India Company collapses due to Sepoy Rebellion; British Raj begins
The East India Company took more than a year to regain their control of the country after the Sepoy Mutiny. The British sent troops to them in order to help them. In 1858, the British government took direct control of India. This is known as the Raj, or the period of time when Britain ruled India during Queen Victoria's reign.
Suez Canal links Mediterranean and Red Seas
Isma'il supported the building of the Suez Canal. It was a human-made canal that cut through the Isthmus of Suez.
Berlin Conference convenes to disscuss terms for African colonization
During the Conference they agreed that any European country can claim land in Africa by notifying other nations of its claim. It had to show and prove that they could control the area. Every country was invited except Africa.
Queen Liliuokalani takes the throne of Hawaii
Queen Liliuokalani called for a new constitution, which increased her power, in 1893. Also, it would restore the political power of the Hawaiians at the expense of the wealthy planters.
Ethiopians defeat the invading Italians at the Battle of Adowa
When Meneklik II, the emperor of Ethiopia during the time period, signed a treaty with the Italians, he found out that there were differences between the two treaties. The one written in Italian had different wording than the one written in the Ethiopian language. Menelik declared war in 1896 and successfully defeated the Italians.
Spanish-American War breaks out; Puerto Rico, Spain, and the Philippines taken from Spain
The Spanish-America war was in 1899.
Boer War in South Africa
The Boer war was between the British and the Boers (Dutch for farmers) and was the first "total" war. Both sides did whatever it took tio win, using guerilla tactics and even using concentration camps.
Most of Africa is under European control
The Europeans used several different tactics in order to gain control of Africa. For example, in Muslim lands, they used economic imperialism and created spheres of influence.