|Event Date:||Event Title:||Event Description:|
|Birth date of Noah Webster.||Noah Webster was unsatisfied with English textbooks of the day, and published the book A Grammatical Institute of the English Language that consisted of three volumes: a spelling book, a grammar book, and a reader. It was later renamed the American Spelling Book and often called the Blue-Backed Speller. These publications were active from 1783 to 1785 and established American English in American education.|
|*The Bill of Rights is passed by the first Congress of the new United States.||The Bill of Rights is created, passed, signed and added to the U.S. Constitution. Although education is not mentioned, the Tenth Amendment establishes that education becomes a function of the state rather than the federal government.
*timeline arrangement based on event's year of inception, not exact date *timeline arrangement based on event's year of inception
|Birth date of Horace “Father of Education” Mann.||The first Secretary of Education in 1837, he established the Board of Education. Mann targeted public school problems and concerns by creating better and safer learning environments. He convinced the state to double its school budgets and raise teacher salaries. His plans for education reformation included increased the daily attendance for a school year, and began teacher training programs. Mann set the standard for education reform.|
|Birth date of Catharine Esther Beecher born.||An American educator, Catherine Esther Beecher was known for her opinions on women’s education as well as her support for children's education. She was the founder of the first all-female academy, Hartford Female Seminary in 1827.|
|Birth date of Thomas Gallaudet.||Thomas Gallaudet had his own health problems and established The American School for the Deaf with Laurent Clerc, a deaf teacher from Europe. Gallaudet is known for the pioneering of deaf education in the United States. He helped influence the establishment of Gallaudet University, "the world leader in liberal education and career development for deaf and hard of hearing undergraduate students."|
|The Freedmen’s Bureau Bill||The Freedmen’s Bureau Bill was originally set-up by President Abraham Lincoln in 1865 for the Army. A year later, The Freedmen’s Bureau Bill was passed over President Andrew Johnson’s veto and became law. It was a major factor in Reconstruction Era (after the Civil War) establishing more schools and providing relief to freed slaves and poor communities of all races in the south. This became the start of public education for all races and economic classes.|
|*The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is founded.||The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is founded. It is an American labor union founded in 1916 that represent the economic, social and professional interests of classroom teachers. It has since then expanded to benefitting other departments within the education field. *timeline arrangement based on event's year of inception, not exact date *January 1st is not the exact date|
|Challenging the teaching of evolution in schools.||“The Monkey Trial” known as Tennessee vs. John Scopes is the first trial of many trials to follow that challenges the teaching of evolution in schools. This captures national attention as John Scopes, a high school biology teacher, is charged with the crime of teaching evolution. The trial ends in Scopes' conviction. The evolution versus creationism controversy persists to this day.|
|The creation of the SAT examination.||The Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) was first administered to potential college students and was based on the Army Alpha test. It tested students understanding of definitions, arithmetic, classification, artificial language, antonyms, number series, analogies, logical inference, and paragraph reading. This was the first standardized testing used to measure student qualifications for college entrance.|
|*Congress authorizes the Works Progress Administration||As a result of The Great Depression of 1929 (when the U.S. economy is devastated and public education funding suffers greatly, resulting in school closings, teacher layoffs, and lower salaries) Congress authorizes the Works Progress Administration to put the unemployed to work on public projects, including the construction of hundreds of school buildings.
*timeline arrangement based on event's year of inception, not exact date
|G.I. Bill (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act) was created.||The G.I. Bill officially known as the Servicemen’s Readjustment Act was signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt. Because many men and women enlisted in the armed services, dropping out of school, the Labor Department estimated a high unemploment rate upon their return. The G.I. Bill allowed veterans to attend colleges or universities, nearly doubling the college population. Many would become teachers. This act provided tuition, subsistence, books and supplies, equipment, and counseling services.|
|Start of Baby Boom and school population growth.||Kathleen Casey Wilkens is born, the first of nearly 78 million baby boomers, beginning a generation that results in an increased school population growth and massive social change within the next twenty years.|
|Brown v. Board of Education (Topeka, Kansas)||Brown Vs. Board of Education reverses the Plessy vs. Ferguson Act of 1896. The U.S. Supreme Court announced its decision in The Brown v. Board of Education case that "separate educational facilities are inherently unequal." This case was actually a combination of five cases from different parts of the country. It is a historic first step in the long journey toward equality in U.S. education.|
|Little Rock 9 at Central High School (Arkansas)||Federal troops enforce integration in Little Rock, Arkansas as the Little Rock 9 enroll at Central High School. This event is the most recognized struggle for integration as the Arkansas governor tried various preventive measures to prevent integration. It was a struggle for all involved, state challenging federal decisions. Four of the nine returned the following school year under police protection.|
|The Civil Rights At becomes law||The Civil Rights Act becomes law prohibiting discrimination based on race, color, sex, religion or national origin. It supported women’s rights, enforced desegregation in all states, and enforcing the Civil Rights Act of 1875 into law.|
|The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is passed.||The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is passed. Part of Lyndon Johnson's "War on Poverty," it provides federal funds to help low-income students, which results in the initiation of educational programs such as Title I and bilingual education increasing additional assistance for students who have academic needs.|
|Title IX: Education Amendment outlaw discrimination based on sex||Title IX, Education Amendments of 1972
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 becomes law. Though many people associate this law only with girl's and women's participation in sports, Title IX prohibits discrimination based on sex in all aspects of education.
|Linking Juvenile Delinquency to Learning Disabilities||"The Link Between Learning Disabilities and Juvenile Delinquency: Current Theory and Knowledge" was published. As stated in its article, "Data analysis is noted to have found the case for the 'learning disabilities/juvenile delinquency link' to be not strongly documented, but suggestive." Thus, programs and organizations were created to prevent delinquency.|
|A Nation At Risk||The report of the National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk, calls for sweeping reforms in public education and teacher training. It recognized that as other countries sought advancement and improvement in education, the U.S. was far behind, thus pushing to change the American education system to "catch up" with the times.|
|First Teacher to head to Space||Christa McAuliffe was the first civilian and teacher-astronaut to head to space. Her mission was tragically cut short as the Space Shuttle Challenger explodes 73 seconds after its launch. Christine McAuliffe opened new doors and opportunities for teachers to think outside the box of education.|
|Proposition 187||As a backlash to illegal immigration, California voters pass Proposition 187, denying benefits, including public education, to undocumented aliens in California. It was the start in the Affirmative Action movement. It is challenged by the ACLU and other groups and eventually overturned.|
|No Child Left Behind Act||This law calls for all students, including students with disabilities, to be proficient in math and reading by the year 2014. The controversial No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) is approved by Congress and signed into law by President George W. Bush. The law, which reauthorizes the ESEA of 1965, holds schools accountable for student achievement. The 1968 Bilingual Education Act, also know as Title VII, becomes law and repealed by the NCLB.|
|Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)||The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) "is a law ensuring services to children with disabilities throughout the nation. IDEA governs how states and public agencies provide early intervention, special education and related services to eligible infants, toddlers, children and youth with disabilities. Infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families receive early intervention services under IDEA."|
|Obama Administration Starts $4.35 Billion "Race to the Top" Competition||President Obama, U.S. Secretary of Education Duncan Announce National Competition to Advance School Reform
Obama Administration Starts $4.35 Billion "Race to the Top" Competition, Pledges a Total of $10 Billion for Reforms.
President Barack Obama and U.S. Secretary of Education Arne Duncan today announced that states leading the way on school reform will be eligible to compete for $4.35 billion in Race to the Top competitive grants to support education reform and innovation in classrooms.