This system of government was based on a written code of laws. The Roman republic included elected officials to govern, checks on power, and the veto.
1st Jan, 1002
460-429 B.C. Age of Pericles
Athenians ruled their city-state through direct democracy.
1st Jan, 1003
360 B.C. Plato published the Republic
Plato's Republic advocates that the state should control all aspects of citizens' lives.
1st Jan, 1004
322 B.C. Aristotle completes Politics
In Politics, Aristotle argues for the idea of RULE OF LAW.
1st Jan, 1215
Magna Carta is adopted
Great Britain adopts the Magna Carta, which is significant because it protected citizens' rights and established rule of law.
Locke proposed the idea that all men have natural rights (life, liberty, property), government should protect those rights, and the people have the right to revolt if the government should fail to protect those natural rights. Most famous work: Two Treatises on Government.
Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Baron
Montesquieu argued for the principle of separation of powers of government. This is to ensure that no person or group would become too powerful or abusive.
English Bill of Rights
Creates specific enumerated rights for British subjects, including the right to petition the government and the right to bear arms.
Rousseau perfected the concept of the social contract. This means submission to the authority of the general will of the people as a whole guarantees individuals against being subordinated to the wills of others and also ensures that they obey themselves because they are, collectively, the authors of the law.
Jefferson was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence. He was a strong advocate of republican government.
Madison is widely considered the "Father of the Constitution." He believed strongly in checks and balances to protect individual rights and protect against abuse of power.
American Revolution, 1775-1783
Declaration of Independence
Known as "The Liberator" who led much of South America to independence from Spain, Bolivar promulgated an authortarian-style central government.
US Constitution is ratified
The US Constitution will be serve as a sort of blueprint for other nations.
French Revolution and Napoleon, 1789-1815
French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen