WebsiteThe Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions were passed by the legislatures of Virginia and Kentucky in response to the Federalist Alien and Sedition Acts which restricted foreign aliens in anticipation of a war with France. They were written by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson. They argued that since the government was created as a compact of the states, they had the right to remove laws that they felt exceeded the power of the Federal government.
Hartford Convention meets during War of 1812
WebsiteThe Hartford Convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut to consider the problems of New England in the War of 1812. 26 Federalists representing New England states met at the convention to discuss possible changes to the Constitution.
WebsiteThe Missouri Compromise was passed by Congress to end the extension of slavery. It was put forward by Henry Clay to allow Missouri to enter the Union as a slave state and Maine to enter the Union as a free state. The Compromise drew an imaginary line at 36 30' north latitude, so the Louisiana Territory would be divided into two areas, one north agaisnt slavery and one south for slavery.
Tariff of Abominations passed
WebsiteThe Tariff of Abominations, which is also called the Tariff of 1828, was a tax on all imported goods. It protected new industries in the North that were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods. The South opposed the Tariff because they had to pay higher prices on goods their region did not produce.
South Carolina Tries to Nullify
WebsiteThe Nullification Crisis was in response to the Tariff of Abominations. South Carolina threatened to separate from the United States if the federal government attempted to collect the tariff duties. It happened during the presidency of Andrew Jackson that South Carolina declared both Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 void within state borders.
Abolition of Slavery Act 1833
Website The Slavery Abolition Act gave all slaves in the British Empire their freedom. The British government paid compensation to the slave owners depending on the number of slaves they had.
Texas declares Independence from Mexico
Website Texas declared independence from Mexico after delegates from the seventeen Mexican municipalities of Texas met at Washington-on-the-Brazos. At the Convention of 1836, men drafted a Declaration of Independence which was approved the next day by 54 delegates from Texas.
James Polk elected
WebsiteJames K. Polk esd the 11th persident of the United States. He was the youngest president at the time. When Polk accepted the Democratic party's nomination for presidency, he was not well known. Therefore, he was not expected to win the presidency against his opponent Henry Clay. During his presidency, Polk declared war on Mexico and signed the Treat of Guadaloupe Hidalgo to end the war.
WebsiteThe Mexican War was between the United States and Mexico. There were many conflicts on border lines. The U.S. wanted to expand across to the Pacific Ocean. The United States offered to purchase California from Mexico, for millions of dollars but they refused. On February 2, 1848, The Treaty of Guadeloupe Hidalgo was signed ending the war. The treaty called for the annexation of the northern portions of Mexico to the United States. In return, the U.S. agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico to pay fo
WebsiteThe Wilmot Proviso was introduced by David Wilmot to try to prevent slavery from spreading into the new territories gained from the Mexican War. The amendment was passed in the House of Representatives but was not passed in the Senate. Congress requested 2 million dollars to resolve the final negotiations of the Mexican-American War.
California enters the Union
Website California entered the Union as a free, nonslavery state under the Compromise of 1850. It entered the union as the 31st state. In January 1848, gold was discovered near Sacramento, and this gold rush fastened California’s admittance to the Union. The newly found gold led to an increase in population and a need for civil government
Fugitive Slave Law enacted
WebsiteThe Fugitive Slave Act was to provide for the return of slaves who escaped from one state into another state or territory. By law, all citizens were supposed to help their federal marshals and their deputies by reporting any slaves who may have escaped.
Publication of Uncle Tom's Cabin
WebsiteThe novel Uncle Tom's Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe and was a significant force in fighting against slavery. While visiting Kentucky, a slave state, she discovered evidence of the condition of slaves. She observed several incidents of the slave trade which helped her to write the anti-slavery book. Over 500,000 copies were sold in the first five years in the United States alone.
Formation of Republican Party
WebsiteThe Republican Party was formed after the Kansas-Nebraska Act was passed. They considered Thomas Jefferson to be one of their leaders because he was influential in keeping slavery out of the Northern territories. The Republicans consisted of free working white men who were opposed to the spread of slavery because they did not want to compete against unpaid labor in Western lands.
Kansas-Nebraska Act passed
WebsiteThe Kansas-Nebraska Act allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. It also repealed the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´. It was strongly supported by pro-slavery southerners who were eager to vote for the territories to be slave states.
"Border Ruffians" attack Lawrence
WebsiteThe Border Ruffian pro-slavery group who wanted Kansas to be admitted into the Union as a free state. More than 800 men from Kansas and Missouri rode to Lawrence and arrested members of the free state government. They continued to destroy newspaper offices, burn and loot homes and shops and destroy the Free State Hotel. The attack resulted in the Republicans to introduce bills to have Kansas as a free state, while the Democrats introduced bills for Kansas to be a slave
Charles Sumner attacked
WebsiteCharles Sumner was attacked by a man named Preston Brooks. Sumner was a Massachusetts senator. That day in the U.S. Senate, the South Carolina congressman viciously attacked senator Charles. Sumner had given a passionate anti-slavery speech three days before, outraging Preston Brooks with the words he used. It took three-and-a-half years for Sumner to fully recover and return back to senate to serve another fifteen years.
Website The Pottawatamie Creek Massacre was led by John Brown, an anti-slavery man who wanted to avenge the sack of Lawrence. He believed that the people involved in the border ruffian attack should face death. At the end of the night, five victims were brutally beaten and killed. The sack of Lawrence and the massacre at Pottawatomie set off a brutal war in Kansas.
Lecompton Constitution passed
WebsiteThe Lecompton Constitutiion determined if the Territory of Kansas would have entered the Union as a slave state. It let voters in Kansas to chose between the "constitution with slavery" and the "constitution with no slavery." Anti-slavery forces boycotted the election and voted the constitution down. It was later sent to Washington and resulted in the people of Kansas to vote on whether to accept a smaller land grant. Kansas voted for no land grant, rejecting the Lecompton Constitution.
Dred Scott decision announced
WebsiteIn 1846, Dred Scott, a Missouri slave sued for his freedom when he was brought into Wisconsin,a free state. In 1850 a Missouri court declared Scott free, but two years later, the Missouri Supreme Court decided to return Scott to slavery. In the Federal courts, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney announed that Dred Scott had no right to sue in federal court as a black man, that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional, and that Congress didn't have the right to exclude slavery from the territories.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates were between Stephen Douglas and Abraham Lincoln during the 1858 campaign for a US Senate seat from Illinois. They debated much about slavery, popular sovereignty and the political status of black people. Although Lincoln lost the Senate race, he ended up beating Douglas for the U.S. Presidency.
Raid at Harper's Ferry
Website The Raid at Harper's Ferry was led by John Brown, and abolisionist who sought to free slaves. John Brown and his men attacked the U.S. Federal Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. He wanted the guns to give to slaves so they could fight for their freedom. He planned that the slaves would rebel and fight against their masters but his plan did not work. He was sent to trial and found guilty, so he was hanged on Decmber 2nd, 1859.
Formation of Constitutional Union Party
Website The Constitutional Union Party was formed after
conflicts between North and South broke down the older parties. They wanted to avoid disunion becuase of the issue over slavery. The party nominated John Bell for president and Edward Everett for vice president.
Election of 1860
Website To chose the Presidential Candidates, the Democrats met in Charlestown, SC. They nominated Stephen Douglas and Herschel V. Johnson for Northern Democratic. John C. Breckinridge and Joseph Lane were for Southern Democratic. For Republicans, they chose Abraham Lincoln and Hannibal Hamlin. The Constitutional Union chose John Bell and Edward Everett. Lincoln polled 40% of the Electoral vote.
Democrats Split in 1860
Website The Democratic Party split mostly due to their disagreements on slavery. Democrats in the north did not support the expansion of slavery while southern democrats did. The Democratic Party split during the election of 1860 with Stephen Douglas as the Northern Democratic Party candidate, and John C. Breckinridge representing the Southern Democratic Party.