1301 Beginning to Reconstruction Timeline

Timeline created by ZackTaylor
  • 20,000 BCE

    Bering Land Bridge

    Bering Land Bridge
    Consisted of three waves, the first land bridge was 27,000 years ago. They had Clovis points and culture with many glaciers. The second wave was 8,000 years ago, they are ancestors of modern southwest natives. Then there was the third wave, which was 5,000 years ago, they are ancestors of the Eskimos.
  • -476 BCE

    Beginning of Dark Ages

    Beginning of Dark Ages
    This was a time period in Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire. It was a "backward time" for Europe since there was no higher learning present and had a weak economy. It was very difficult for peasants and lower class people. There was complete culture and educational domination by the Catholic Church.
  • 476

    Fall of The Roman Empire

    Fall of The Roman Empire
    The Fall of the Roman Empire was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and lost the strengths that had allowed it to have effective control, factors including the effectiveness of the army, the health of the Roman population, the strength of the economy, the competence of the Emperor, and the religious changes of the period. Increasing pressure from barbarians outside Roman culture also contributed greatly to the collapse.
  • 1300

    The Renaissance

    The Renaissance
    The "rebirth" after the Middle Ages in Europe. It was a time period where new innovations were invented such as the printing press and the compass. It was a revival of classical art and intellect influenced by Ancient Greece and Rome. Higher education made a return along with the new innovations introduced in this period
  • 1346

    Black Death

    Black Death
    The Plague was first introduced to Europe when ships had arrived after a journey through the Black Sea. When the ships arrived, most of the sailors were dead and the ones alive were very ill and covered in black boils. The disease was spread through the air, the bite of an infected rat or flea. The disease had killed one-third of the population, which was more than over 20 million people.
  • Aug 3, 1492

    Christopher Columbus

    Christopher Columbus
    As a young boy, he became involved in map making along with his brother. This led to him becoming a rich, well-known man. He then became the first governor of the Indies. He knew that the world was not flat, but round. Columbus believed that he could find a faster route to Asia by going West and ended up discovering what is now called America. Although initially, he'd believed he had reached India due to the natives having dark complexions but this would be later known as the Bahamas
  • 1500

    The Middle Passage

    The Middle Passage
    The Middle Passage was a trade route used to trade slaves. Usually tightly packed onto ships and transported across the Atlantic to the West Indies. The slaves were usually traded for goods or sold, but most died before their arrival to other countries..
  • John Winthrop

    John Winthrop
    Was an English puritan and governor commonly known for being a founder of the Massachusetts Bay Colony in New England. Winthrop wanted to create a pure church and a society that showed the importance of family. He then led puritans from England to America and became a powerful figure in New England.
  • Virginia

    Virginia
    Roanoke was one of the first colonies discovered in the New World. The colonist who had first arrived were suffering and sent some colonist back to England to get more supplies and when they came back, there was no sign of the colonist. John Smith was a soldier and adventurer who negotiated a treaty with local natives. Tobacco was the number one cash crop for Virginia and started spreading across the Chesapeake colonies.This led to slavery increasing in that region.
  • Plymouth Colonies

    Plymouth Colonies
    About 100 Purists had set sail across the ocean on ships. Soon the ship, called the Mayflower, hit Plymouth Rock the place where they would begin a settlement. During their first winter, most of the colonist died. They had then created a document called the Mayflower Compact, which became the basis for their central government.
  • Caribbean Colonies

    Caribbean Colonies
    In the Caribbean Colonies, sugarcane was the main cash crop due to the fertile soil and warm climate. Since they had many plantations, sugar became available in Europe and became a very valuable colony. Because of the amount of sugar they grew, more slaves were needed to work in plantations. Slaves were being directly sent from Africa to the Caribbeans through a route called the Middle Passage
  • Pennsylvania

    Pennsylvania
    Discovered in 1681 by an English Quaker named William Penn. Penn was the son of an entrepreneur and philosopher. When he discovered Pennsylvania, he wanted it to be a place for religious freedom in the New World for Quakers, he then later became the future figure of the Commonwealth. The land was given to Penn, because the King owed him a debt. He then used his wealth to protect the Quakers.
  • The Enlightenment

    The Enlightenment
    It was an intellectual and philosophical movement that had dominated the world. During this period, religion was not really important and there was separation of the church and states. The Enlightenment produced many books, inventions, politics, inventions and scientific discoveries.It gave the 19th century Romanticism.
  • The Salem Witch Trials

    The Salem Witch Trials
    The Salem Witch Trails were prosecutions of women who were accused of being involved with witchcraft in the Massachusetts colony. The first accusation was when a group of girls believed to be cursed and blamed other women for being a witch. Many women were accused, but only about twenty were executed. It is still not clearly known if the two girls that made he accusations were serious or just "playing round".
  • Acts of Union

    Acts of Union
    The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland. It put into effect the terms of the Treaty of Union that had been agreed on 22 July 1706, following negotiation between the two countries. By the two Acts, the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland—which at the time were separate states with separate legislatures, but with the same monarch.
  • Triangular Trade

    Triangular Trade
    The Triangular Trade was a trading system between Europe, Africa, and the 13 colonies. It carried slaves, crops, and manufactured goods. The majority of slaves died on their journey because of the poor conditions and being crammed along with many slaves, feces and dead bodies. Raw materials were traded back to the old world from the new so the process of creating more goods would flow.
  • Scientific Revolution

    Scientific Revolution
    The Scientific Revolution included a range of ideas centered on reason as the primary source of authority. Ideals like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and reasoning. In France, the central doctrines of scientists were individualy practicing certain Scientific methods. The Enlightenment was marked by an emphasis on the scientific method and reductionism, along with increased questioning of religious orthodoxy
  • The Great Awakening

    The Great Awakening
    The Great Awakening was a religious revival that included new ideas and helped make advancements. This had increased the Evangelical Church and gave people a sense of guilt. It brought Christianity to slaves and established authority. It had brought a permanent impact on American Protestantism.
  • Slavery within Lower South

    Slavery within Lower South
    Slavery in the Lower South was an ideal place to grow cotton because of its warm climate and rich soil. Because of that, many slaves were needed and worked on plantations.This led to many people to become wealthier than the people in the North of the free labor of slaves, then turning a profit using the triangular trade to ship thier farmed goods back to the old world.
  • Formation of Militias

    Formation of Militias
    The colonial militias were not trained soldiers, but the Americas found the need of military force because of the British soldiers in the Americas. They received their militia techniques back when they were in England and developed a successful military system. The military required that every male should participate in their military force. They then formed together to maintain a political control in areas there were not part of the British Troops.
  • Treaty of Paris 1763

    Treaty of Paris 1763
    This treaty had ended the French and Indian War, which was a war with many battles between the French and British over the control of North America. The French lost all of their lands in the Americas and the British claimed Quebec and the Ohio Valley, which left the British to be dominant over the colonies. It also gave the British control over forts that had been previously held by the French. The French that were still present were then forced out.
  • Revenue Act (Sugar Act)

    Revenue Act (Sugar Act)
    Under the Revenue Act, it had required colonist to pay six pence on a gallon for the importation of foreign molasses. The purpose of the Sugar Act was to prevent smuggling and to introduce a new type of trade restriction against other countries and help pay off the debt of the wars. This resulted in resentment and divided the relationship between colonist and the British.
  • Stamp Act

    Stamp Act
    The Stamp Act was passed by the British Parliament. It was imposed on all American colonist to make them pay tax on every sheet of paper used. They taxed ships paper, documents, licenses, newspapers and even playing cards.In irder for any leal document or any document to hold some merit, the British seal was needed to be seen on the document in question.
  • The Boston Massacre

    The Boston Massacre
    This event occurred on March 5th, 1770 between a mob of colonist and a group of British soldiers. The massacre began when a bunch of colonist harassed the British soldiers by throwing snowballs with rocks inside them and soon the soldiers fire their guns. Three colonist died instantly while eight were wounded. This event was one of the main events leading up to the Revolutionary War
  • Boston Tea Party

    Boston Tea Party
    This event took place on May 10th, 1773. It was a protest against taxation of the Tea Act from 1773. Samuel Adams and sixty other people dressed up as Indians and got on three ships in the Boston Harbor, drunk. They then dumped chests of tea into the ocean, which outraged the British and passed an act, the Intolerable Act. This event was another main event leading to a major war. The perpetrators of this event would refer to themselves as the "Sons of Liberty"
  • Declaration of Independence

    Declaration of Independence
    The Declaration of Independence was a document used to explain the reason why the colonist wanted to separate from Great Britain. This document had the colonist's goals and ideals for the American Nation and was important part of their democracy. Thomas Jefferson wrote the draft along with five other members. It was then adopted by the congress and on July 4th it became the day for American Independence.
  • Articles of Confederation

    Articles of Confederation
    There were multiple problems with the Articles of Confederation, there were more weaknesses than strengths. It gave no power to the federal government, and Congress could not control taxes or trade. Without an executive or a court system, no one could enforce the laws to the citizens. Being under the Articles of Confederation also made the US go into debt because of no one regulating trade, and they needed every state's approval to pass any laws and amendments.
  • Treaty Of Paris 1783

    Treaty Of Paris 1783
    Was a document signed by the representatives of King George III and the American representative ending the American Revolution. It was discussed between the United States and Great Britain and gave the thirteen colonies the acknowledgment of American Independence and established borders in the new nation. The article was then signed and then ratified by the Continental Congress a few days later.
  • Shays' Rebellion

    Shays' Rebellion
    This event occurred in Massachusetts and is named after Daniel Shay. During this time in Massachusetts, harvesting was bad, there was an economic boom, and farmers were threatened to lose their farms. He lead the rebels because they ere mad about taxes and their debt, but they scared to go to jail and having their homes taken away. Many people were arrested, for being armed. The rebellion put great attention to politicians and showed the clear weakness of the Articles of Confederation.
  • Use of Steamboats

    Use of Steamboats
    Since there was a growth of factories and increasing agricultural production, John Fitch built steamboats to help transport goods. He successfully made a trip on the Delaware River. It had a huge impact on for transportation and made things faster and easier to deliver. The South would really implement the use of them as they were able to get their cotton shipped out faster and up waterways.
  • Northwest Ordinance

    Northwest Ordinance
    The Northwest Ordinance was adopted by the Congress of Confederation. It created the northwest territory, the first territory by the US, it gave them lands beyond the Appalachian mountains, between British north America and the great lakes to the north and the Ohio river to the south. These lands were against slavery.
  • Connecticut Plan

    Connecticut Plan
    The plan's purpose was to help resolve the issue of representation between the smaller and larger states. The Connecticut was a combination of Virginia and New Jersey Plan, which consisted of having the House of Representatives with proportional number of seats to the population, the states would have an equal amount of seats, and there will be a compromise of counting three-fifths of the black population.
  • Election of 1788

    Election of 1788
    During the election of 1788, George Washington became the first president of the United States. During his first term, he had no running mates but his second term John Adams became the first Vice president. As a president, he was very popular and was the first president to lead the army, in a victory over the British. Originally the people wanted him to serve as a king but this idea too was shot down by Washington
  • Executive Branch

    Executive Branch
    The president must be born a citizen of the United States, and must be at least 35 years old by the time he will assume his office. He has important duties, including the role of commander- in-chief of the armed forces, and negotiating treaties with other countries. He also must sign bills that are passed in Congress (and can veto those he doesn't approve). The President's job is complex, so he appoints a cabinet with members who help him lead the nation. Congress must approve his appointments.
  • Judicial Branch

    Judicial Branch
    The federal court system set guidelines for the operation of the U.S. Supreme Court, which at the time had only six total justices (one chief). The Judiciary Act of 1789 also established a federal district court in each state, and in both Kentucky and Maine. In between these two tiers of the judiciary were the U.S. circuit courts, which would serve as the principal trial courts in the federal system. In its earliest years, the Court held nowhere near the stature it would eventually assume.
  • The Great Debate

    The Great Debate
    There were two sides to this debate, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists, the federalist tried to ratify the constitution and the anti-federalist who opposed the constitution. The anti-federalist claimed that it gave the central government too much power and without the bill of rights the people would be at risk of oppression.
  • Legislative Branch

    Legislative Branch
    The legislative branch is one of three branches of the U.S. government and it is the one charged with creating the laws that hold our society together. Article I of the Constitution established Congress, the collective legislative body made up of the Senate and the House.The primary function of these two bodies is to write, debate and pass bills and to send them on to the president for his approval or veto. If the president gives his approval to a bill, it immediately becomes law.
  • Whiskey Rebellion

    Whiskey Rebellion
    It was a revolt of farmers and liquor makers in Pennsylvania. It was meant to pay for the war that had just happened. Until President George Washington confronted the rebellion and sent troops to settle the people down before the uprising started to spread. This was also known to be a test for the new constitution, as under the Articles of Confederation, the government had no such power to do anything about previous rebellions.
  • Bank of United States

    Bank of United States
    The Bank of The United States was the first bank of the United States. It was created to make loans and stabilize currency and economy. It was Hamilton's idea since he thought states should charter banks that could issue money. Hamilton initially made many enemies over this idea from people such as Thomas Jefferson as he thought it should be left to the states as to how their money would be regulated.
  • Bill of Rights

    Bill of Rights
    The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the Constitution. The document was an idea from James Madison, so he created the Bill of Rights to limit the power of the government. It was seen as the symbol of freedom and culture of the American nation.These Rights included Freedom of speech, Right to bear Arms, Due process, Rights to an attorney, States rights among other rights given to each person.
  • Cotton Gin

    Cotton Gin
    A modern mechanical cotton gin was created by American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793. Whitney's gin used a combination of a wire screen and small wire hooks to pull the cotton through, while brushes continuously removed the loose cotton lint. It revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States, but also led to the growth of slavery in the American South as the demand for cotton workers rapidly increased. The invention has been identified factor to the outbreak of the American Civil War.
  • Jay's Treaty

    Jay's Treaty
    It was a treaty that John Jay negotiated for the United States in 1794 with Britain to prevent war. After the Revolutionary War, there were still problems about the interference of American trade by the British and the British properties in American territory. The establishment of a commission to settle border issues between the United States and Canada and last to get a soldiers back that were captured in the revolutionary war.
  • Washington's Farewell Address

    Washington's Farewell Address
    When George Washington resigned from the presidency after his second term, he established Washington's Farewell Address. In the document, George Washington argued about the risks of having political parties and wanted the nation to stay away from long-term alliances with foreign nations, but to only have temporary alliances. MAny did not want to see Washington go, because of his perception as a good leader. The US continued to listen to Washington's Farewell Address, until 1949.
  • Louisiana Purchase

    Louisiana Purchase
    It was the acquisition of land from France in 1803. Jefferson buys Louisiana for less than three cents an acre, which doubles the size of the nation. He buys it because he is afraid Napoleon would back out of the offer even though he has no time to amend the constitution. The money Jefferson uses to buy the territory is then used by France to help finance their war against Britain along with frgiving the U.S for previous debts.
  • Burr-Hamilton Duel

    Burr-Hamilton Duel
    The Burr-Hamilton duel was fought between prominent American politicians Aaron Burr, the sitting Vice President of the United States, and Alexander Hamilton, the former Secretary of the Treasury, at Weehawken, New Jersey.Hamilton was fatally wounded and the Federalist main leader dead. Burr will become an outlaw and have to flee the Uniited States. During this time, he went to Europe and spent a few years there until he would make his return back to the United States.
  • Embargo Act

    Embargo Act
    The embargo was imposed in response to violations of the United States neutrality, in which American merchantmen and their cargo were seized as contraband of war by the belligerent European navies. The British Royal Navy, in particular, resorted to impressment, forcing thousands of American seamen into service on their warships. Britain and France, engaged in the Napoleonic Wars, rationalized the plunder of U.S. shipping as incidental to war. It ended up hurting the US as a whole.
  • War of 1812

    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was between Great Britain and The United States. During the war Britain seizure of American ships and impressment of sailors. American main objective was to annex British and the policy regarding trade, the American war plan was since the Royal Navy was the most powerful, America focused on land campaigns to conquer. The Treaty of Ghent was then signed, and then declared the second war of Independence for the US and the war showed another side of US patriotism.
  • Steam Engine

    Steam Engine
    The use of boiling water to produce mechanical motion goes back over 2000 years, but early devices were not highly practical. A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid. Steam engines are external combustion engines, where the working fluid is separated from the combustion products. Steam engines can be said to have been the moving force behind the Industrial Revolution and saw widespread commercial usedriving machinery in factories and mines;
  • Battle of New Orleans

    Battle of New Orleans
    The Battle of New Orleans was the last major battle of the War of 1812. American combatants, commanded by Major General Andrew Jackson, prevented a much larger British force, commanded by Admiral Alexander Cochrane and General Edward Pakenham, from seizing New Orleans and the vast territory the United States had acquired with the Louisiana Purchase.
    The Treaty of Ghent had been signed on December 24, 1814 but was not ratified by the US Government until February 1815, making the battle post-war.
  • Panic of 1819

    Panic of 1819
    The Panic of 1819 was the first major peacetime financial crisis in the United States followed by a general collapse of the American economy persisting through 1821. The Panic announced the transition of the nation from its colonial commercial status with Europe toward an independent economy, increasingly characterized by the financial and industrial imperatives of central bank monetary policy, making it susceptible to boom and bust cycles.This panic would go down as one of the worse in history.
  • Monroe Doctrine

    Monroe Doctrine
    The Monroe Doctrine was a United States policy of opposing European colonialism in The Americas beginning in 1823. It stated that further efforts by European nations to take control of an independent state in North or South America would be viewed as "the manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."At the same time, the doctrine noted that the U.S. would recognize and not interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries.
  • The Election of 1824

    The Election of 1824
    The Election of 1824 was won by John Quincy Adams for president by the House of Representatives. In the electoral college, the votes were mostly towards Andrew Jackson, but even though Jackson had the most votes (giving him the popular vote), Adams wins in the end because of the House of Representatives. Henry Clay was then appointed the Secretary of State after helping Adams win. Jackson would go on to talk about in the future how he was cheated and refer to it election as the "Corrupt Bargain"
  • Election of 1828

    Election of 1828
    During the election of 1828 Andrew Jackson used a new strategy. John Quincy Adams and Andrew Jackson both ran for president, however Jackson would go on to win the election. This election ended the first party system and started the second party system, and is known as the first modern election. There were many personal attacks during the election, one involving Jackson's wife Rachael, which Jackson would blame Adams' camp for his wife's untimely death.
  • Spoils System

    Spoils System
    In politics and government, a spoils system which is also known as a patronage system, is a practice in which a political party, after winning an election, gives government civil service jobs to its supporters, friends and relatives as a reward for working toward victory, and as an incentive to keep working for the party as opposed to a merit system. Jackson used this system for putting those in power that around and supported him and who followed his ways.
  • Temperance Movement

    Temperance Movement
    It was mainly a movement against drinking any alcoholic beverages. They formed a reform movement called the American Temperance Society to reduce the number of alcoholic beverages people consumed. They then hired a speaker to explain the negative effects of the alcohol and the movement continues throughout the 19th century. This led to less alcohol abuse and even great inventions during the time period.
  • Andrew Jackson

    Andrew Jackson
    Andrew Jackson grew up to be a lawyer and politician during the war of 1812. His bravery in the war gave him fame and turned him into a public figure to the people. He ran for president and lost against John Quincy Adams in the Election of 1824. Four years later, Andrew Jackson ran again for president and became the 7th president and was sworn in March 4,1829 . Jackson did many notable things while in office as the president, such as Indian Removal and his war against the Second Bank of the U.S.
  • Mormons

    Mormons
    Founded by Joseph Smith, who believed Jesus and God told him to restore the true Christian church from a vision he had experienced. He later was told to follow an angel which led Smith to New York where he found golden plates with foreign writings, who only he could translate them. This appealed to farmers and traders. However, in the future, they would be treated poorly and unfair causing them to move out west when the U.S began expanding fully.
  • Second Great Awakening

    Second Great Awakening
    The Second Great Awakening was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement gained momentum by 1800 and after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the late 1850s. The Second Great Awakening reflected Romanticism characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the supernatural. It rejected the skeptical rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment.
  • Lowell Mills

    Lowell Mills
    Francis Cabot Lowell invented the first factory system "where people and machines were all under one roof." A series of mills and factories were built along the Merrimack River. Construction began in 1821, and the mills were at their peak roughly twenty years later. For the first time in the United States, these mills combined the textile processes of spinning and weaving under one roof, essentially eliminating the "putting-out system" in favor of mass production of high-quality cloth.
  • Indian Removal of 1830

    Indian Removal  of 1830
    Jackson hated Indians and assimilated tribes. Where the Cherokee resided, gold was found and they were forced out of their land. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 was then passed which gave the president power to exchange Indian land and the Cherokee become legal. Initially, Jackson gave the Natives a time period in which they could live on their own terms but ultimately, the Cherokees were forced to leave thousands to die to relocate to Oklahoma. The journey was then known as The Trail of Tears.
  • Railroads

    Railroads
    Railroads gradually replace canals as the first-choice mode of transportation infrastructure to champion and build, while canals hold a whip hand on the economy for decades more, but falter on flexible destinations, speed, and where they suffer seasonal stoppages yet service year-round needs. By the 1860s, in any case, where all the important older canals were to be found any canal with functions satisfiable by parallel railways. Railroads would ultimately greatly improve America's economy.
  • Nullification Crisis

    Nullification Crisis
    The Nullification Crisis was a United States sectional political crisis in 1832-33, during the presidency of Andrew Jackson, which involved a confrontation between South Carolina and the federal government. It ensued after South Carolina declared that the federal Tariffs of 1828 and 1832 were unconstitutional and therefore null and void within the sovereign boundaries of the state. South Carolina would go on to cause more trouble in the future, eventually leading to the Civil War.
  • Telegraph

    Telegraph
    It was developed by Samuel Morse and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication. It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse developed a code using his name, that assigned a set of dots and dashes to each letter of the English alphabet and allowed for the simple transmission of complex messages across telegraph lines. This invention improved long distance communication.
  • Abolitionist Movement

    Abolitionist Movement
    The abolitionist movement did not coalesce into a militant crusade until the 1830s. In the previous decade, as much of the North underwent the social disruption associated with the spread of manufacturing and commerce, powerful evangelical religious movements arose to impart spiritual direction to society. By stressing the moral imperative to end sinful practices.The abolitionist movement attempted the immediate emancipation of all slaves and the ending of racial segregation and discrimination.
  • Revivalism

    Revivalism
    Together with several other evangelical leaders, Charles Finney religious views led him to promote social reforms, such as the abolition of slavery and equal education for women and African Americans. Aside from bringing back an importance in faith, Finney taught at Oberlin College of Ohio, which accepted all genders and races. He served as its second president from 1851 to 1866, during which its faculty and students were activists for abolition, the Underground Railroad, and education for all.
  • Transcendentalism

    Transcendentalism
    Transcendentalism was a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.It arose as a reaction to or protest against the general state of intellectualism and spirituality at the time.Transcendentalism emphasizes subjective intuition over objective empiricism. Adherents believe that individuals are capable of generating completely original insights with little attention and deference to past masters.One individual included in this was Edgar Allen Poe
  • The Oregon Trail

    The Oregon Trail
    This was a 2,000 mile pioneer trail that began in Missouri and ended in Oregon. Americans were motivated by the Manifest Destiny and Americans were hit by an economic depression. Most of the pioneers that traveled along the Oregon Trail were farming families that traveled about 5 to 6 months. Many of the pioneers encountered many deaths, and some were even killed by Indians. 1836 was the year in which the first train of migrants set out for the new uncharted territory
  • Panic of 1837

    Panic of 1837
    The Panic of 1837 was a serious economic depression in the United States that began in that year.This panic was marked by the collapse of shaky financing which set off a series of bank failures, it was influenced by Jackson created the Specie Circular by executive order and refused to renew the charter of Second Bank of the United States, leading government funds to be withdrawn from the bank. It is considerded to be as worse if not worse than the Panic of 1819
  • Iron Plow

    Iron Plow
    John Deere was a typical blacksmith and he knew well the back-breaking difficulty of farmers near his home in Grand Detour, Illinois. While plowing, they often interrupted their work to scrape the sticky prairie soil from their cast-iron plows. He envisioned that soil sliding easily off of a highly polished steel moldboard. With steel scarce in the area, Deere acquired a broken steel saw blade, and from it crafted a new type of moldboard plow.
  • First Police Forces

    First Police Forces
    Due to growing cities in the 19th century due to the industrial revolution, something had to be done to regulate the citizens and how they behave. At first, It was both informal and communal, which is referred to as the "Watch," or private-for-profit policing, which is called "The Big Stick”.The watch system was composed of community volunteers whose primary duty was to warn of impending danger. Cities like New York and Boston were the first cites to employ a official police force.
  • Manifest Destiny

    Manifest Destiny
    August 1845 was the first time the phrase for America to expand its territory was used. This term was used for the attitude prevalent during the 19th century period of American expansion that the United States not only could but was destined to, stretch from coast to coast. This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal, and war with Mexico. The United States would go on to complete this goal years later after the addition of states such as Texas, California, and N.M.
  • Mexican-American War

    Mexican-American War
    The Mexican-American War was the first U.S. conflict on another land out of the U.S. The war first started from President James K. Polk who believed the United States needed a manifest destiny to spread to the West coast. A border problem on the Rio Grande began the fighting and there were many victories by the Americans. As the war begins to calm down, Mexico has lost about one-third of their territory, and the U.S. expanded almost as much as it did during the Louisiana Purchase.
  • Wilmot Proviso

    Wilmot Proviso
    The Wilmot Proviso proposed an American law to ban slavery in territory acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War. David Wilmot was the first person to introduce the proviso in the United States House of Representatives. It passed the House but failed in the Senate, but the South had greater representation. It was reintroduced in 1847 but passed the House and failed in the Senate. In 1848, an attempt to make it part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo also failed. Issues regarding slavery remained.
  • Popular Sovereignty

    Popular Sovereignty
    Popular sovereignty, or the sovereignty of the peoples' rule, is part of the seven principles, that the authority of a state and its government is created and sustained by the consent of its people, through their elected representatives, rule by the people, who is the source of all political power. However, in this rendition of the principle, it was used by the southerners to say that the people living in new territories should have a say so if slavery would be present and not the federal gov't.
  • California Gold Rush

    California Gold Rush
    The California Gold Rush began on January 24, 1848, when gold was found by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, California.The news of gold brought some 300,000 people to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.The sudden influx of immigration and gold into the money supply reinvigorated the American economy, and California became one of the few American states to go directly to statehood without first being a territory later due to The Compromise of 1850.
  • Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidaglo

    Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidaglo
    The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was the document that put an end to the Mexican American War, which was signed favoring towards the United States. The Texas territory problem was now solved, and the treaty added about five hundred twenty-five thousand square miles to the United States territory. The Rio Grande was now considered as America's southern boundary. With this plus the land we acquired in the Oregon territory, Manifest Destiny was completed as the U.S now stretched coast to coast.
  • Seneca Falls Convention

    Seneca Falls Convention
    The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It advertised itself as "a convention to discuss the social, civil, and religious condition and rights of woman". Held in Seneca Falls, New York, it spanned two days over July 19–20, 1848. Attracting widespread attention, it was soon followed by other women's rights conventions. The main reason for the convention was to really express the rights that women should be entitiled to for them being human beings.
  • Election of 1848

    Election of 1848
    The United States presidential election of 1848 was the 16th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 7, 1848. It was won by Zachary Taylor of the Whig Party, who ran against former President Martin Van Buren of the newly formed Free Soil Party. President James K. Polk, having achieved all of his major objectives in one term and suffering from declining health, kept his promise not to seek re-election. Zach Taylor had previously served as general in the Mexican War.
  • Compromise of 1850

    Compromise of 1850
    Senator Henry Clay introduced a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850, in an attempt to seek a compromise and avert a crisis between North and South. Basically, It was five separate bills and California enters as a free state. New Mexico and Utah decide on slavery. The Federal government took over Texas debt and the Slave Trade was banned in Washington D.C. In the end, it defused a four year long stalemate that had been going on between the North and South.
  • Fugitive Slave Act

    Fugitive Slave Act
    The Fugitive Slave Act was an act that required the return of runaway slaves. It created commissioners for returning slaves and whites would be jailed for refusing to help. During this time period, Fugitive had no right to trial it was one of the most controversial provisions of the 1850 compromise. However, because of this passing congress, the abolitonists movement became ever more head-strong to elp slaves that have esacped make it into freedom of some type somewhere in the North or Canada.
  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    Kansas-Nebraska Act
    The Kansas Nebraska Act which administrated the popular sovereignty was approved by the Congress, which allowed the countries of Nebraska and Kansas to choose if they wanted to become a slave state or a free state. The act repealed the Compromise of 1820 and was created by Stephen A. Douglas, Abraham Lincoln's opponent. the conflicts between the anti-slavery and the pro-slavery led to a series of violence called the Bleeding Kansas, and soon became a factor in the Civil War.
  • Underground Railroad

    Underground Railroad
    The Underground Railroad was a series of connections between people and places that offered places and help for the runaway slaves. It was most common in the North.The people who ran the underground railroad was ordinary people, farmers, and business owners. Those people guided the slaves in hiding places such as their private homes, churches, and barns. The Fugitive Slave Act made the underground railroad more difficult, so if a runaway slave was found they would be sent back.
  • Election of 1860

    Election of 1860
    Abraham Lincoln was elected as the 16th president of the United States, Republican Abraham Lincoln defeated Southern Democrat John Breckinridge, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas, and the Constitutional Union candidate John Bell. Lincoln only received 40 percent of the popular vote but was able to defeat the three other candidates. Lincoln was a former lawyer who had taught himself to read and write after enduring a rough childhood. He later joined the slavery-sympathetic republican political party.
  • Crittenden Compromise

    Crittenden Compromise
    The Crittenden Compromise was an unsuccessful compromise that was proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden. The was created by the southerners who wanted to avoid any conflict and prevent any further wars. The compromise offered the solution to have eleven of the states to be no longer part of the United States and attempted to have another free-slave demarcation line that was drawn by the Missouri Compromise. But in the end, the Crittenden compromise was rejected by the northerners.
  • Fort Sumter

    Fort Sumter
    The First Battle of Fort Sumter began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate artillery fired on the Union garrison. These were the first shots of the war and continued all day, watched by many civilians in a celebratory spirit. The fort had been cut off from its supply line and surrendered the next day. The Uniontry to retake the fort, but are dogged by a rivalry between army and navy commanders. Although the fort was reduced to rubble, it remained in Confederate hands until end of war
  • Twenty Negro Law

    Twenty Negro Law
    It exempted one male for every twenty slaves on a plantation from the Confederate draft. The point of this law was to have enough white males prevent the slave riot revolts after Abraham Lincoln announced the Emancipation of Proclamation. The law angered many whites who owned less than twenty slaves or none at all. In the North, any man who pays three hundred dollars or finds a substitute to take his place in the war will be exempted. The law only lasted for a couple of years.
  • Clara Barton

    Clara Barton
    Clara Barton, also known as "The American Nightingale", was a nurse who founded the American Red Cross and was hospital nurse in the American Red Cross. Clara Barton barely had medical experience before the war, and she offered her medical help to both Union and Confederate Soldiers. She treated wounds and brought her medical supplies to the frontline. After the war ended she even helped locate thousands of missing soldiers. She continued to work even after the war.
  • Battle of Shiloh

    Battle of Shiloh
    The Battle of Shiloh was also known as the Battle of Pittsburg Landing, was one of the major battles of the American Civil War. The battle started off when the Confederate soldiers launched a surprise attack on the Union soldiers in Tennessee. Even though the Confederate has a minor success, they were later pushed back and resulted in a victory for the Union. The battle had major casualties, with more than twenty-three thousand total deaths.
  • Emancipation Proclamation

    Emancipation Proclamation
    President Abraham Lincoln carefully framed the conflict as concerning the preservation of the Union rather than the abolition of slavery. He personally found the practice of slavery abhorrent, he also knew that neither Northerners nor the residents of the border slave states would support abolition as a war aim. Thousands of slaves fled to join the invading Northern armies, Lincoln was convinced that abolition had become a sound military strategy, so he granted thousands of slaves their freedom.
  • Battle of Gettysburg

    Battle of Gettysburg
    The Battle of Gettysburg is considered the most important engagement of the American Civil War. On July 3, Lee ordered an attack by fewer than 15,000 troops on the enemy’s center at Cemetery Ridge. The assault, known as “Pickett’s Charge,” managed to pierce the Union lines but eventually failed, at the cost of thousands of rebel casualties, and Lee was forced to withdraw his battered army toward Virginia, this would be known as the beginning of the end for the Confederate States of America.
  • Lincoln's 10% Plan

    Lincoln's 10% Plan
    Lincoln's Plan of reconstruction was the 10 percent plan.The plan proposed that the southern states will be able to go back into the Union if they ten percent of voters will swear under the oath of allegiance to the Union. Lincoln believed the south didn't legally separate from the north, so he only asks for forgiveness from the south. He hoped to end the war quickly, fearing that the war would never let the North and the South reunite. His plan successfully made the Confederate South surrender.
  • 13th Amendment

    13th Amendment
    The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution abolished slavery and involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime. It was the first of the three Reconstruction Amendments adopted following the American Civil War. Though the amendment formally abolished slavery throughout the United States, factors such as Black Codes, to subject some black Americans to involuntary labor. In contrast to the other Reconstruction Amendments, the Thirteenth Amendment was rarely cited
  • Appomattox Court House

    Appomattox Court House
    The Battle of Appomattox Court House fought on the morning of April 9, 1865, was one of the last battles of the American Civil War . It was the final engagement of Confederate States Army General-in-Chief, Robert E. Lee, and his Army of Northern Virginia before it surrendered to the Union Army under the Commanding General of the United States, Ulysses S. Grant. Lee, having abandoned the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia. Lee had hoped to regroup with troops in west.
  • KKK

    KKK
    The White Resistance, also known as the KKK was a secret domestic militant organization in the United States. They were best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as terrorists in southern states.They were very violent and participated in lynching to intimidate and oppress African Americans. Jim Crow laws in the South allowed this organization to thrive on tormenting and causing devastating harm to blacks. It is one of the few hate groups from this era to remain in present day.
  • Election of 1868

    Election of 1868
    It was the first presidential election to take place after the American Civil War. As former Confederate states Texas, Mississippi, and Virginia were not yet restored to the Union, their electors could not vote in the election.Andrew Johnson, who succeeded to the presidency in 1865 following the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, was unpopular and failed to receive the nomination. Ulysess S. Grant the former Civil war general, would go on and win the election and take office.
  • Black Friday Scandal

    Black Friday Scandal
    The Black Friday Scandal, also known as the Gold Panic, was the result of the Fisk and Gould scandal when they created a plot to raise the price of the gold market, and then sell their large amount of gold, to sell for profit. It was one the first series of scandals under Grant administration. The only way they could lower the price of gold was by forcing the treasury to sell four million dollars in gold from its reserve, which soon collapsed the markets and many people were financially ruined.
  • 15th Amendment

    15th Amendment
    The Fifteenth Amendment did not allow the federal and state government to deny the citizens right to vote based on their race, color, or their past condition of servitude and was adopted by the Congress. After years of discrimination, the Voting Rights Act finally overcame the legal barriers that denied their rights to vote. However, still, women were not able to participate in voting as they wouldn't be for around one hundred years, and blacks were still targeted by whites at voting stations.
  • Panic of 1873

    Panic of 1873
    The Panic of 1873 was a financial crisis that triggered a depression in Europe and North America. After the Civil War, the US banking system was hit by a banking crisis. The panic first started when Europe's stock market crashed. Investors were selling off their investments form American railroads, and railroads went bankrupt. The biggest bank in New York City, became bankrupt when the railroads started to have problems. It was the worst depression to that point.
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    Beginnings to Exploration

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    English Colonial Societies

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    Colonial America to 1763

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    Constitution

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    New Republic

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    Age of Jefferson-Monroe

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    Age of Jackson

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    Westward Expansion

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    Sectionalism

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    Civil War

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    Reconstruction