|Event Date:||Event Title:||Event Description:|
|First President of the United States was elected.||George Washington was elected as the first President of the United States. He served two terms and refused to run for a third. Before becoming president, Washington was Commander in Chief for the Continental Army; where he led America to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War. Washington's suscess in the military led to the unanimous choice of selecting him as the first president.|
|Jay Treaty signed.||Jay Treaty
In November of 1794, George Washington signed the Jay Treaty. This was a treaty between the United States and Great Britain which ended the American Revolution and allowed for peaceful trade.
|John Adams elected President.||John Adams, the second President of the United States, was elected in March of 1797. Adams was born April 13, 1743 in Braintree, Massachusetts. Prior to becoming president, Adams was an important figure in the American Revolution and helped to draft the United States Declaration of Independence.|
|Alien and Sedition Acts signed.||Alien and Sedition Act
In 1798, four bills were signed which were said to protect the United States from "alien citizens of enemy powers." The four bills that make up the Alien and Sedition Act are the Naturalization Act, the Alien Friends Act, the Alien Enemies Act, and the Sedition Act. (The Sedition Act was later denounced by Thomas Jefferson.)
|Thomas Jefferson elected President of the United States.||The third President of the United States was Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743 in Albemarle County, Virginia. Jefferson's extensive accomplishments prior to presidency include writhing the United States Declaration of Independence, being Governor of Virginia, and being the first United States Secretary of State. Jefferson was also the "co-founder and leader of the Democratic- Republican Party."|
|Louisiana Purchase was signed.||Louisiana Purchase Perhaps one of Thomas Jefferson's greatest accomplishments during his presidency was the signing of the Louisiana Purchase. This treaty was an agreement between France and the United States in which the U.S purchased 828,800 square miles of territory. This purchase, which includes 14 present day states and two Canadian provinces, doubled the size of United States.|
|James Madison elected President of the U.S.||James Madison was born March 6, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia. Madison's many accomplishments include serving in the United States Congress, serving in the House of Representatives, being the main author of the United States Constitution, and is considered the "father of the Bill of Rights."|
|War of 1812||War of 1812During the presidency of James Madison, war was declared between the United States and the British Empire. This war became known as the War of 1812. The Americans declared war with the British Empire because of a desire to expand into the Northwest Territory and because of trade problems resulting from Britain's war against France. "The Star-Spangled Banner" was written during one of the battles in Baltimore.|
|War of 1812 ended.||The War of 1812 ended with President James Madison signing the Treaty of Ghent.|
|James Monroe elected President of U.S.||James Monroe was born April 28, 1758, in Westmoreland County, Virginia. Monroe's predidency was known as the "Era of Good Feeling." Before becoming President, Monroe was a Major in the American Revolutionary War and a member of the Continental Congress. Other roles held by Monroe include Secretary of State and Secretary of War during the War of 1812.|
|Monroe Doctrine introduced to the U.S.||Monroe DoctrineThe Monroe Doctrine was issued during James Monroe's seventh annual State of the Union Address. "The Monroe Doctrine asserted that the Western Hemisphere was not to be further colonized by European countries but that the United States would neither interfere with existing European colonies nor meddle in the internal concerns of European countries." (Wikipedia). The Monroe Doctrine lasted for nearly two centuries with only minor variations.|
|John Quincy Adams elected President.||John Q. Adams was born July 11, 1767, in Braintree, Massachusetts. John Q. Adams was the son of the 2nd President, John Adams. Before becoming President of the U.S., Adams served in the Senate and the House of Representatives. Adams had many enemies in the political world, and he failed to win a second term as President (the first President to serve a single term since his father).|
|Andrew Jackson elected President of U.S.||Andrew Jackson was born March 15, 1767, in Waxhaw settlement, South Carolina. Prior to becoming President, Jackson served as a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention and later became its U.S. Representative. Jackson also served as a commander in the Tennessee militia during the War of 1812 (which is when he earned his nickname of Old Hickory). Jackson also served in the Seminole Wars.|
|Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act.||Indian Removal Act
The Indian Removal Act was very much supported in the South, but was controversial elsewhere. The removal of the Indians was supposed to be voluntary, but unfortunatly pressure and force were used to make the Native American tribes sign the treaties. This led to the "Trail of Tears', in which the Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their homes.
|Martin Van Buren elected President.||Martin Van Buren was born December 5, 1782, in Kinderhook, New York. Before becoming President, Van Buren served as Vice President and Secretary of State. He was involved in building the Jacksonian Democracy and vowed to follow in Andrew Jackson's footsteps. The five year depression that started in Van Buren's presidency kept him from winning reelection.|
|William Henry Harrison elected President.||William Henry Harrison was born February 9, 1773, in Berkeley, Virginia. Harrison served many posts before becoming President including territorial congressional delegate, governor of the Indiana Territory, and U.S Representative and Senator. During his inagural speech, Harrison caught pneumonia and died on his 32nd day in office.|
|John Tyler becomes President of the U.S.||After William Henry Harrison's death, John Tyler (who was Vice President) became the 10th President of the United States. Tyler was born March 29, 1790, in Greenway, Virginia. Tyler served in the Virginia House of Delegates and also in the U.S House of Representatives. John Tyler was a member of the Whig party, but after becoming President he vetoed several of their proposals and was expelled from the Whig party.|
|Treaty of Wanghia was signed.||Treaty of Wanghia This treaty was signed under John Tyler's presidency and established trading rights between the United States and China.|
|James Polk was elected President.||James K. Polk was born November 2, 1795, in Pineville, North Carolina. Polk was the first President to have served as Speaker of the House (1839-1841). He also seved as Governor of Tennessee.
Little was known about Polk when he was elected President, but he did have a successful term (especially with foreign policy).
|Mexican-American War started.||Mexican-American War The Mexican-American War was a conflict between the U.S and Mexico. President James K. Polk hoped to expand U.S territory to the Pacific Coast. The U.S gained present day California, New Mexico, Texas, and other territories as a result of the War.|
|Zachary Taylor elected as 12th U.S President.||Zachary Taylor was born November 24, 1784 in Orange County, Virginia. Prior to becoming President, Taylor had a 40 year career in the United States Army. Previously uninterested in politics, Taylor ran for President under the Whig party and defeated Lewis Cass. Taylor died July 9, 1850, sixteen months into his term as President.|
|Millard Fillmore assumes the Presidency.||After the death of Zachary Taylor, current Vice President Millard Fillmore assumed the role as President of the United States. Millard Fillmore was born January 7, 1800, in Locke, New York. He was the last member of the Whig party to be President. Prior to becoming President, Fillmore was a member of the House Ways and Means Committee and an author of the Tariff of 1842.|
|Compromise of 1850 was passed.||Compromise of 1850While President Zachary Taylor set the stage for the Compromise of 1850, President Millard Fillmore was finally able to get it passed in September of 1850. "The Compromise came to coalesce around a plan dividing Texas at its present-day boundaries, creating territorial governments with "popular sovereignty" (without the Wilmot Proviso) for New Mexico and Utah, admitting California as a free state, abolishing the slave auctions in the District of Columbia, and enacting a new fugitive slave law."|
|Franklin Pierce elected President.||Franklin Pierce was born November 23, 1804, in Hillsboro, New Hampshire. Pierce also served in the House of Representatives and Senate, and also took part in the Mexixan-American War. After several bad decisions made during his Presidency, Pierce was referred to as one of the worst presidents in U.S history.|
|James Buchanan elected 15th President of the U.S.||James Buchanan was born April 13, 1791, in Mercersburg, Pennsylvania. Buchanan had several accomplishments prior to his presidency including a representative of Pennsylvania in the House of Representatives and the Senate, he served as Minister to Russia and Minister to the United Kingdom, and also served as Secretary of State. Buchanan tried to keep peace between the North and the South, but he failed and the Southern states seceded from the Union.|
|Abraham Lincoln elected President of the U.S.||Abraman Lincoln was born February 12, 1809, near Hodgenville, Kentucky. Abraham Lincoln is considered to be the most admired President and had several successes during his term. After the South's secession, Lincoln led the Union into the Civil War in order to save the nation and attempt to end slavery. Abraham Lincoln was assassinated in April of 1865.|
|Emancipation Proclamation was issued.||Emancipation Proclamation During his presidency, Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation which freed 3.1 million of the 4 million slaves in the United States. While this Proclamation freed the slaves, it did not make slavery illegal. Slavery was not made illegal until December 18, 1865, when the Thirteenth Amendment was enacted.|
|Andrew Johnson names 17th President of the U.S.||After the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson took over as President. Johnson was born December 29, 1808, in Raleigh, North Carolina. During the Civil War, Johnson ( a U.S Senator from Tennessee) stayed loyal to the Union and supported Abraham Lincoln's policies. Johnson was President during the Reconstruction era of the United States.|
|Ulysses S. Grant elected President.||Ulysses S. Grant (born Hiram Ulysses Grant) was born April 27, 1822, in Point Pleasant, Ohio. Grant's life prior to becoming President, consisted of many military accomplishments. Grant served during the Mexican-American War and became commander of the Union Army during the Civil War. His efforts led to the end of the Confederate States of America, and made him known as a hero of the Civil War. While his military career was quite successful, his presidency was marred with scandals.|
|Treaty of Washington signed.||Treaty of Washington The Treaty of Washington was an agreement between Great Britain and the United States settled a number of disputes between the two countries. This treaty was one of a very few accomplishments by Ulysses S. Grant.|
|Rutherford B. Hayes elected as 19th President.||Rutherford B. Hayes was born October 4, 1822, in Delaware, Ohio. Hayes also served in the Union Army during the Civil War and later in the U.S. Army. As President, Hayes oversaw the end of Reconstruction and tried to mend the ties of the North and the South. While he was unsuccessful at mending the ties, Hayes did pave the way for civil service reform.|
|James Garfield elected as 20th President of the U.S.||James Garfield was born November 19, 1831, in Orange, Ohio. Garfield was an Ohio State Senator and also a major general in the United States Army during the Civil War. Garfield hoped to reform the spoils system established during the Jackson administration, but he was assassinated before doing so on September 19, 1881.|
|Chester Arthur takes over the Presidency.||After James Garfield's assassination, Chester Arthur took over as President of the United States. Arthur was a Republican and an American politician. Chester Arthur also practiced law in New York City prior to becoming President. Chester's big accomplishment during his presidency was the passage of the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act.|
|Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed.||Pendleton Civil Service Reform ActOne of Chester Arthur's biggest accomplishments, the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act "stipulated that government jobs should be awarded on the basis of merit." The United States Civil Service Commission was created to help enforce this law. The law only applied to federal jobs and only covered a limited number of jobs. After several years of change the Act was extended to cover most federal jobs.|
|Grover Cleveland elected as 22nd President.||Grover Cleveland was born March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey. "Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, free silver, inflation, imperialism and subsidies to business, farmers or veterans." Prior to his presidency, Cleveland was the assistant district attorney of Erie County. This was the first of two, non-consecutive terms that Cleveland served as President.|
|Dawes Act was passed.||Dawes Act
President Grover Cleveland endorsed similation of Native Americans into white society, and thus pushed for the Dawes Act to be passed. This act was suppossed to help lift the Native Americans out of poverty and help with assimilation, but instead it weakened tribal governments and the Native Americans sold their lands and kept the money.
|Benjamin Harrison elected President.||Benjamin Harrison was born August 20, 1833, in North Bend, Ohio. Benjamin Harrison was the grandson of President William Henry Harrison. He was also a Republican and served in the U.S Senate. He was defeated for reelection by Grover Cleveland.|
|Sherman Antitrust Act was passed.||Sherman Antitrust Act
Another accomplishment of Benjamin Harrison was the Sherman Antitrust Act. This act helps protect small businesses by allowing the government to interfere and investigate businesses who break this law. It also helps to fight cartels and monopolies in business.
|McKinley Tariff passed into law.||McKinley Tariff One of Benjamin Harrison's greatest accomplishments was the passage of the McKinley Tariff. This tariff was created to protect domestic industries from foreign competition by raising the duty on imports almost fifty percent.|
|Grover Cleveland reelected as 24th President.||This was Grover Cleveland's second term as President. During this presidency, Cleveland faced an economic depression known as the Panic of 1893. Cleveland repealed Harrison's silver policy and helped bring the nation out of the depression. Cleveland aslo attacked other acts that were passed during Harrison's presidency.|
|Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act passed.||Wilso-Gorman Tariff Act
The Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act repealed the McKinley Tariff and lowered the duty on imports. A two percent income tax was also introduced in this Tariff Act. Grover Cleveland supported the Wilson- Gorman Tariff Act.
|William McKinley elected as 25th President of the U.S.||William McKinley was born January 29, 1843, in Niles, Ohio. McKinley was the last President of the 19th century and the first President of the 20th Century. McKinley was also the last veteran of the American Civil War to be elected as President. William McKinley's presidency brought an end to the Panic of 1893 and helped bring the nation into a time of prosperity.|
|Spanish-American War||Spanish-American War
The defining point of McKinley's presidency was the Spanish-American War. This conflict was btween the United States and Spain. This war was brought about after the sinking of a U.S battleship, the <i>Maine<i>, and pressure from the Democratic Party. The U.S was victorious over Spain and gained several island possessions as a result.
|Treaty of Paris was signed.||Treaty of Paris 1898 In December of 1898, the Treaty of Paris was signed which signaled the end of the Spanish-American War.|
|McKinley was assasinated.||In September of 1901, President William McKinley was assasinated by Leon Czolgosz.|
|Timespan Dates:||Timespan Title:||Timespan Description:|
|U.S. Presidents of the 19th Century and their Accomplishments|